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  1. 1. Ensuring World Class Civic Amenities In Urban India Team Details Clueless Thinkers (IIM Rohtak) Abhineet Mittal Lovin Mahajan Nisarg Vyas Saurabh Maheshwari Vivek Pandey MANTHAN
  2. 2. Basic Traffic Problems in India 0 200 400 600 800 2001 2021 Estimation of Population rise in Urban cities in India in millions 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1951 2004 Road Network Traffic Relative change in Traffic compared to Road network in India • Vendors on the road, driving on the wrong side • Construction materials left on the road, potholes, violation of traffic rulesCommon problems • Traffic problems cost almost 40 billion rupees annually to the GOI • 10% of world accidents happen in India Financial cost to Government • Accounts for only 22% of urban transport • AT some places ineffectively implemented at a cost of huge capital investment e.g BRTS at Delhi, Pune Public Transport
  3. 3. An Effective and Feasible Multi-modal Transport system required Type of Transport Investme nt per Km in Cr Time taken to complete (Yrs) Air Pollution PPHPD BRTS 30-35 1-2 Causes pollution 1500 – 45000 Mono-rail 120-150 3-4 No 2000- 48000 Metro 300 5-6 No 70000 • A mix of BRTS, metro-rail and mono-rail as public transport should be developed • Dedicated biking pathways, dedicated streets for pedestrians • All the above should be seamlessly integrated in the city’s public transport system • Strong measures to discourage private vehicles e.g green surcharge of Rs 2/- on petrol and green cess of 3 percent on the cost of all private cars sold • Synergy between transport planning and land policy • E.g in Copenhagen-Large offices of over 15000 sqft are located within 600 m of railway station * pphpd = passengers per hour per direction •Infrastructure should be developed for cyclists as well as pedestrians •This will decrease pollution in the city For pedestrians and cyclists •IDF, Municipal bonds by ULB, PPP •Credit enhancement mechanisms How to finance? •Intelligent traffic signal systems should be implemented rather than conventional •If a surcharge is to be levied, then an integrated system like the one implemented by IBM in copenhagen can be modelled Technology
  4. 4. Water and Sanitation State Of Affairs • The population of India has increased by 17.6 % from 2001 to 2011 whereas the per capita availability of water has decreased to 1545 cubic meters in 2011 from 18116 in 2001. • Only 32% of Indians use treated drinking water while 11.6% do not use treated drinking water. • Only 54 % of urban population have access to improved sanitation while in rural areas it is as low as 21 %. • 59 % of Indians don’t have In-House toilets of which 18 % constitutes the urban areas. Increasing demand and usage due to increasing population Corruption and lack of planning in projects and Red Tape in implementation Receding underground water table Increasing dependence on Monsoons Improper disposal of Solid and Liquid wastes Inefficient and improper sewerage systems Causes
  5. 5. Water collection and treatment Distribution and Supply Sewage and Sanitation services Other services Recommendations Collection of Freshwater/ groundwater Freshwater/ groundwater treatment plant Desalination plant Supply to domestic consumer Supply to industrial consumer Waste water collection, treatment, reuse and disposal Irrigation Water purification Bottled water Bore wells 2010 - Total domestic and industrial water demand in India: 250 billion M3/YEAR 2020 – Total domestic and industrial water demand in India: 350 billion M3/YEAR 2030 – Total domestic and Industrial water demand in India: 500 billion M3/YEAR Revenue – 2010 : 27 billion US$ Revenue – 2020 : 38 billion US$ Revenue – 2030 : 54 billion US$ Revenue potential – 27 billion US $ in 20 years Data Source : Census – 2011 and Ernst & Young report - Sep. 2011
  6. 6. • India is the 5th largest proven coal reserve in the world and contributes to around 6% of global coal production • But, there still exists a supply – demand gap which has increased at a CAGR of 38.47% from 2008 – 09 to 2011 – 12 • This has caused a demand supply gap in electricity as coal accounts for more than 50% of the power generation • Same is the case with other fuels • Very small portion of electricity comes from renewable sources • Another issue is inefficient transmission infrastructure resulting in huge transmission losses • Also, power theft is a major issue resulting in power shortage • We need to increase the production of renewable power and decrease dependence on non-renewable fuels Power Shortage in India
  7. 7. Possible Solutions To Stop Power Loss • Installation of smart meters with features like wireless monitoring and introduction of prepaid model of electricity with the help of these smart meters • Implementation of smart grid which comprises of digital/microprocessor metering, two-way communication, efficient control system, and is fully automatic • Plastic coating of electricity wires • Installation of high efficiency power transmission infrastructure To Increase Power Production • Better tax policies and subsidies for solar power and wind power equipments to reduce installation & maintenance cost for these alternative sources of electricity • Set up large solar power plants on the outskirts of cities to meet the electricity needs of a particular city • Mandatory installation of solar cells on rooftops of big commercial buildings • Provision of more funds for R&D of developing better and efficient ways of generating power using renewable sources Estimated Cost Saving by Implementation of Smart Meters in Mumbai • Number of total households in Mumbai = 38,50,000 • Cost of one smart meter ~ Rs. 1500 (As offered by Glen Canyon) • Total Cost of installation = 38,50,000 * 1,500 = Rs. 577.5 Crore • Number of households not paying bills and altering meter readings= 30% households -> 11,55,000 • Losses due to this = Rs. 3.6 Crore per day • So, as we will save this money, we can recover the cost of installing the smart meters, i.e. Rs. 577.5 Crores in approximately 160 days (a little over 5 months) * All figures as per government data
  8. 8. SLUMS • Roughly 1.37 crore Indian households are living in urban slums with Mumbai having the highest proportion of slum-dwelling households (41.3% of its population). 70% get water from taps, which is untreated and insufficient 32% have no drainage system. 60% of urban slums remain waterlogged during monsoon. 54% slums in India do not have toilets. E.g. in Dharavi slum in Mumbai, there is only one toilet per 1440 residents. Only one third of urban slums in India have pucca houses. . Underground sewerage was 17% in urban slums. Open defecation leads to spread of faecal-oral disease and parasitic infestation. Major Problems faced by slum dwellers in India -> • Rajiv Awas Yojna started by government to remove slums and provide housing to urban slum dewellers but ineffective due to pervasive corruption. • Slum Redevelopment Authority formed but it has not come out with any substantial results. 2 possible solutions: •Either Construct alternative tenements for people living in slums • Or Upgrade the existing slums and provide basic amenities like sanitation, toilets, drainage, electricity etc.
  9. 9. • 225 sq feet rented houses to be provided to slum dwellers. • These tenements to be provided free of cost but monthly maintenance and service (electricity and water charges) to be paid by dwellers. • One building of 10 hectare to cater for around 300 households • 10 hectare = 100000m2 • No. of households that can be accommodated on one floor= 100000/225= 444.4 (can be taken around 415 after accounting for some area reqd. for toilets, stairs etc.) • Assuming an 10 floor building, no. of households that can be accommodated in one 10 hectare building= 10*415 = 4150 • Assuming 10 lakhs slum households, no. of such 10 hectare buildings required = 1000000/4150= 240 • Public-Private Participation E.g.- Involving private players like HDIL etc in Redevelopment • Government to provide land and private companies will provide housing. • Convert horizontal slums into vertical rented settlements. Vertical city will save land as well as revenues. • Slum dwellers can themselves be employed by the government to build permanent settlements . • Basic facilities like toilets, drainage, sanitation, electricity, water to be provided in the new vertical tenements. • Planning’ should be for the future and thus should able to keep pace with the increasing slum dwellers • Planning for enough new land designations for the doubling in size of developing-country cities every ten years, with sufficient land for low-income residents, both existing and newcomers, be they migrants or new family members SLUMS REDEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL
  10. 10. Basic Garbage Problem • Most Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) spend nearly 60%-70% of their total overall budgetary allocation on collection, another 20%-30% on transportation, and often less than 10% on the treatment and final disposal of MSW • Per capita garbage disposal has increased to 0.376 kg./day, i.e., around 40 mn. ton garbage is produced in India annually • No uniform model till now – some cities prefer centralized plants while others prefer decentralized Recommendations • The garbage collection and treatment plants should follow de-centralized approach • Segregation to be done at source itself • Penalty to be imposed after some number of warnings for segregation • Each new building should have a provision of direct waste disposal from their home • For this, there can be 2 pipes running throughout the building connecting all the flats • One pipe will be for biodegradable waste and other for non-biodegradable • The collection point for both the pipes will be a storage which is divided for two different types of waste • The garbage collection for that building to be done from that store by door-to-door service • For the present houses and buildings, different colored garbage bins to be kept by the government at every 50 fts, catering to about 10 houses • The different colored bins will cater to different types of garbage • The collection can be done either door to door or through those bins kept in common (as per the locality) • As the number of e-waste is increasing at a big pace, it needs to be handled before it gets unmanageable • The recycling plants will be producing the electricity which will be bought by the Government • In new cities, the electricity generated can be used for running metro, so plants need to be set-up near metro lines to reduce the transmission cost and waste
  11. 11. Time Required To Break Even The Cost 5 months Total Revenue From Sales Of Recycled Products 7,583/- Approx. Per Day Running Cost Of Plant 1,000/- Net Profit From Plant 6,583/- Capital Required To Set-up One Plant 10,00,000/- Profit Calculation From One Plant In Karnataka (100 Kg Waste Recycle Capacity) Privatization Of Recycling Plants Collection Of Garbage: Collection • Garbage Collection to be done either Door-To-Door Basis • Depending on location, collection can also be done from bins placed by Government Cost • The cost of the collection to be incurred by the government • The cost will include the collection of segregated waste and transportation till nearest recycling plant Implementation • The process needs to be under the supervision of local municipal corporation • The auction for the recycling plants needs to be handled by State Government and should be granted for a term of 5 years
  12. 12. Thank You