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  1. 1. L/O/G/O Manthan Topic - Future Cities Towards Better Cities A Comprehensive report Team Details – 1.) Stephen Ipe Varghese, 2.) Karthik Akkiraju, 3.) Ashish Bajaj, 4.) Deepak Karwa 5.) Rahul Dcunha
  2. 2. Cause for Concern: A glimpse of the future 250million people, 80% of US populations will live in cities by 2030. Number of cities with >1 million population increase from 42 to 68. Cities cover 16% of land but account for half of GDP and 90% of tax revenues. City expansion with a lack of consultation and transparency. Environmental detonation due non-existence of dumps and the accumulation on the vacant lands. Stressed urban transport. A great challenge or a greater opportunity??
  3. 3. • HOV Lanes • Smart Traffic • Energy Solutions • Water Sufficiency • Waste Management • Housing Solutions • Creation of Special Economic Zones The Blueprint Sustainability Transportation Satellite Cities
  4. 4. Water Resources: Towards Self Sufficiency Rain Water HarvestingRun-off Collection Solar desalinationWaste water treatment Recycle Tapping Water Sensitive Urban Design(WSUD) • integrating water cycle management into urban planning and design. • Manage storm water in the landscape • Protect waterways • Add multiple benefits while minimising development costs • Modern Rainwater Management: Interjection of facilities • Urban Rainwater Harvesting: Use of new technologies and freshwater storage systems • Urban Hydraulic cross-linking: Use water as a design element • Water reuse: Hot spot wastewater treatment • Innovative urban surface design: avoidance or unsealing of impervious surfaces • User Specific Regulations • New Greening Concepts Sustainable Drainage Systems(SuDS) • Generation of ponds, wetlands, swages and basins that mimic natural drainage. • Evapo-transpiration • Permeable paving such as pervious concrete
  5. 5.  Change from collection and transportation by road to an underground pneumatic waste conveying system.  Waste segregation at source must be encouraged by means of legislative measures.  Bring utility electricity delivery into the 21st century using computer based remote control and automation.  Utilize permeable, light colored or landscaped surfaces wherever practical to reduce heat retention.  Tool to Optimize energy consumption of cities by calculating the amount of solar radiation that reaches streets and buildings.  Piezo-electric materials to harness moving traffic energy (at zebra crossings and speed-breakers) to power signals and street LED lights. Novel Disposal Piezo- Electricals Energy and Waste Management Simulation of a shadow model. Researchers from UPM have constructed two complementary “shadow models”— one that shows radiation behaviour and the other that shows exchange of energy. Shadow Model Smart Grid & Lighting
  6. 6. Transportation: Driving Change Heavy Occupancy Vehicle Lanes  A HOV lane is a lane reserved for exclusive use of vehicles with a driver and one or more passengers  Would increase average vehicle occupancy. Smart Traffic Solutions  Intelligent transportation solutions help reduce traffic congestion through more efficient management of transportation networks. Role of auto rickshaw sector:  Low cost mobility to destination.  CNG fleet.  GPS for overcharging and improved calculation. Case of Bangalore:  4.8 million people on more than 6100 buses across 2400 routes.  50% of motorized trips.  Number of registered vehicles increased from 1.18 million to 2.75million (133% increase in 8 years)  Worst Traffic Jams in India Public Bicycle Schemes  Pick up and drop bicycles  Equipped with GPS  For daily wage laborers and hawkers. Car-Pooling  There must be campaigns to promote Car-pooling. It has proven to reduce emissions greatly in countries where car pooling is prevalent
  7. 7.  Relocation of population due to  Better living standards  Work opportunities Housing Solutions Economic Boost “ Large planned, integrated, purpose-built developments nearby larger cities that are designed to curb urban sprawl to the suburb and supplement ‘mother city’ expansion “ Satellite Cities: Easing the Burden  Setting up of new industries contribute to  GDP Growth  Generation of Jobs Guidelines to be adopted while creating Satellite Cities Well planned cities with facilities such as hospitals, schools and office spaces. They must have excellent links with the main city. They can be created under a PPP (Public Private Partnership) model. They must be self-contained, self-sustainable cities that promise to bring recreation, living and consumption space They can be made SEZs (Special Economic Zones) to attract industries. There are many successful models of satellite cities across the world such as Atlantic City (Philadelphia, USA), Abbotsford (Vancouver, Canada), Bucheon (Seoul, South Korea). Indian satellite cities such as Gurgaon (Delhi), Noida (Delhi) and Navi Mumbai (Mumbai) have proven successful.
  8. 8. How do we get there? • Monetize land assets to fund urban infrastructure • Maximize the potential of property taxes and user charges • Create a formula-based grant system from State and Central Government • Use debt and Private Sector participation appropriately • Create enabling mechanisms such as SPVs and city development funds to facilitate use of these revenue sources Funding • Devolution of power between to cities that would empower local leaders but would also hold them accountable • Shifting the service delivery structures from archaic and bureaucratic departments to corporatized agencies to enable quick decisions • Development of a coordinate system, integrating individual skills rather than extraordinary competence of a single individual. Governance • Introduction of a “cascaded” planning structure in which large cities have 2o and 40 year plans at the metropolitan level binding on municipal development plans • Optimal allocation od space through land use and Floor Area Ratio planning. Planning • Craft policies for key urban sector, especially affordable housing for low income groups and environmental sustainability • Four critical areas to be considered: Job creation, affordable housing for low income groups, public transportation and climate change mitigation • Combination of higher FAR up to 1 to land, an infrastructure grant to municipal body, and interests subsidies can create a surge in affordable housing stock Sector Policies Where will all resources come from? Who will lead and be accountable? How will cities make and enforce land and space choices? What policies should be formulated for growth in all sectors?
  9. 9. Expected energy savings as a result of implementation of smart grid and alternative energy systems Enable India to meet it’s ecological goals by reducing it’s carbon footprint Efficient usage of land would lead to greater availability of arable land. Urbanization would reduce India’s dependence on agriculture and industry. Assessing Impact Every stage generates wealth for the next Human, social and economic development ‘Multiplier Effect’
  10. 10. Managing Change The Ghost Town Explosion Ugly, inequitable and unsustainable. Lack of potential tenants. Housing bubble burst. Investment of $20 billion city modernization scheme. Absence of long term city plan lead to failure of the flagship program. Absence of participatory planning due to lack of ownership Policies have the desired outcomes. Policies contained in the plan are being carried out. Priorities have changed or have remained the same. Assumptions underpinning the plan continue to be valid. Monitory Indicators
  11. 11. References: • An urban Monitor as support for a participative management of developing cities, A. Repetti, R. Prelaz Droux. Habitat Intenrational 27 (2003) 653-667. • Appropriate Technology and Public Policy: The Urban Waste Management System in Cairo, Kingsley E. Haynes and Sherif • M. El-hakim, American Geographical Society. • India’s urban awakening :Building inclusive cities, sustaining economic growth, Mckinsey Global Institute. • Planning and development, City of Ottawa,( hall/planning-and –development.) • Water Sensitive Urban Design, Sydney Metropolitan CMA. • Sensitivity analysis of two different shadow models implemented into EULAG CFD model: Madrid experiment. R. San Jose, J. L. Pérez, R.M. Gónzalez Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment 15(2): 319-325, 2011. • A new African dream: The benefits of satellite cities for East Africa, SitingaKachipande, Consultancy Africa Intelligence • An Improved Adaptive Background Mixture Model for Real-time Tracking with Shadow Detection, P. Kaew Tra Kul Pong and R.Bowden, Proc. 2nd European Workshop on Advanced Video Based Surveillance Systems. AVBS01, Sept 2001