Boosting agricultural productivity
TEAM DETAILS: TEAM ARIHANT-B
BITAN BHADRA, BIKASH DASH, SAURAV GHOSH, RONAK MOHANTY, INDRANIL
COLLEGE :KIIT UNIVERSITY
Introducing the village model
PROBLEMS IN INDIAN AGRICULTURE TODAY
Agriculture employs 70% of the country’s work force but only contributes to 13% of the GDP.
Agricultural growth not in sync with population growth.
Farmers of India are the poorest of any country of the world.
Storage capacity less than production capacity.
Very less use of technology.
Use of harmful pesticides takes a toll on people’s health.
Excessive and uncontrolled use of toxic, harmful fertilizers takes away all nutrients of soil and
make them unproductive.
India is way behind many countries in per capita production.
India spends more money in services than the agricultural sector. The primary sector of
economy needs to be developed fast.
The low productivity in India is a result of small size of land holdings (less than 2 hectares)
and is subject to fragmentation due to land ceiling acts, family feuds etc. This gives them
small margins of income.
Scarcity of agricultural products like fertilizers and pesticides.
High rate of soil erosion and soil degradation
Lack of infrastructure like water availability, canals, etc.
60% of cultivated area is rain fed as only 40% of area is under irrigation
According to the World Bank, Indian Branch: Priorities for Agriculture and Rural
Development", India's large agricultural subsidies are hampering productivity-enhancing
investment. Overregulation of agriculture has increased costs, price risks and uncertainty.
Government intervenes in labour, land, and credit markets.
Problems arising due to dependence on climate: results of climate change
Agriculture in India being a huge industry, requires a multi-pronged approach of
1) Land reforms and distribution of land
To do away with problems of small holdings, people in a particular region can be arranged
such that they must cultivate a particular type of crop in co-operation with one another by
forming a co-operative society. Lets call it the village model.
Under this model, farmers of a village will sit down and discuss with experts to decide which
crop to be cultivated, or which crop will be most beneficial.
All farmers of the village work in co-operation in all fields of the village.
Tilling material, fertilizers, pesticides, chemicals and other logistics are brought by the village
co-operative and not by a single individual . The share of each farmer is the proportion of
his/her land with respect to total land under the co-operative.
2) The Co-Operative
The village or regional farmers together form the co-operative.
The co-operative collect money from all members and buy logistics with them. Logistics
belongs to the co-operative.
All fields belonging to the members of the co-operative are assumed as fields of the co-
Farmers work on all the fields sharing their work among themselves.
Total profit of co-operative shared among member farmers in ratio of land possession.
They tell the authorities amount of required fertilizers or pesticides.
The agro- department then arrange for the same.
3) An organization to help farmers
A state controlled or centre controlled AGRO-DEPARTMENT to be set-up in each village or
It will consist of scientists, experts, students of agriculture, or industry personnel.
AGRO-DEPARTMENT tasked to look after the co-operatives and guide them in deciding
which crop to produce, amount of fertilizer and pesticide, brand of the chemicals to be used,
irrigation methods and all other aspects related to agriculture.
The department should have soil testing machines, and other gadgets to help farmers in
AGRO-DEPARTMENT to be linked with all state and central agricultural research institutes
forming a network.
4) Direct private investment of agro-industries
Agro-based industries to play a huge role in the system.
An agro industry e.g. a juice company, can be leased off areas or villages, where they will
engage local farmers to grow their desired crops by apply their own techniques.
They will have to invest for their required irrigation or other arrangements.
They will process the produce in their factories and make desired products.
They will pay the farmers working under them salary each month as per industry standards.
They will pay the government land lease fees and taxes on the land, sell of manufactured
A system of mutual benefit for the village, industry, and government. It is also a system of
The R&D of the industry can use superior techniques of growing crops which is will provide
more know-how to farmers.
The villagers can also be share holders of the company.
The allied industries growing will lead to development of the region.
5) Engage agro-tech industries
Agro-tech industries like tractor manufacturers, etc can be directly bonded to the
farmers via the agro-department.
The Agro-tech industries can teach the farmers how to use the machines.
The Agro-tech industries can lease or sell the machines to the farmers or co-
operatives in installment.
They can help in repairs and service from time to time.
They can teach farmers better irrigation techniques, farming processes, etc.
Farmers get to use modern technologies and industries get to sell their products.
This encourages both agriculture and industry.
6) Irrigation projects
Dependency on rainfall must be minimized in next 10 years.
Changes in climate have adverse effects on produce and soil texture.
we have numerous rivers yet much less dams as compared to US and China.
Numerous dams need to be set-up and canals built to irrigate fertile and barren lands
The government may lease out projects to private companies and in return give
them shares from the produce of the co-operative systems their projects are
benefiting, for some years.
7) Research Institutes
Carry out research on all aspects of agriculture.
Study effects of fertilizers and pesticides on soil.
Study effect of fertilizers and pesticides on humans after consuming foods.
Decide composition of fertilizers and pesticides .
Approve brands of fertilizers to be used and disapprove harmful brands.
Bring experts from different parts of country or abroad as and when required.
Keep up-to date with trends of agriculture science and keep knowledge of farming and practices abroad.
Ask governments for grants for research and development projects.
Advice government on induction of varieties of BT-crops.
The government must drain huge amounts of money in research or development projects.
It can fund its own institutions and encourage research or it can donate money to private companies to
carry out some research or project for the government.
The government can allow institutions direct access to farmers and help them to carry out experiments on
The government should encourage bio-technically modified crop research and time and again conduct
experiments with them. There should be a expert panel in central government in place including best
scientists in the field from the country and abroad who will review the BT-crops and advice the government
whether they can be grown or not.
8) Fertilizer and pesticide companies
Agro-departments to assess the required amount of fertilizers and pesticides in each
Based on the assessed figures, orders are placed to companies for required amounts.
Deals done ensuring time bound delivery of goods.
9) Post production
Increase capacity of store houses and godowns to meet countries’ production rate and always
keep some buffer stock waiting.
Government will eventually buy the produce from farmers at a certain price.
Then they are moved around by traders to the beneficiaries.
The huge amount of food grains received all over the nation, distributed, and surplus can be
exported at higher rates.
Another innovative approach is what is known as “FARMER MALL” already applied in Gujarat.
Here the middlemen or traders are removed and farmers actually sell their produce themselves
in local markets or malls. The farmers sell at higher price than they used to and consumers buy
at lower price than they used to. The government may chip in a negligible percentage of tax in
the process. The huge nationwide regular transactions will actually be a huge source of revenue.
away with by
with the co-
CHALLENGES AND MITIGATION
Some farmers may not want to join the model: in such cases they need to
be made aware of the system’s positive points and try to induct them into
Difference of opinion among farmers on what to grow.
Lack of communication between different research institutes.
Some farmers may not want to join industry. In that case, the industry
may carry on with willing farmers only.
Government need to lay down laws pertaining to working hours,
minimum salary etc to protect farmers from being exploited by the
All farmers may not be able to habituate themselves to the new
technologies suddenly. They need to be given short term trainings for the
Challenges faced by the Agriculture Sector in Developing Countries with special
reference to India, Nidhi Dwivedy
Agricultural Productivity Trends in India: Sustainability Issues Praduman Kumar and
Forbes India: Gujarat's potato farmers tie up with MNCs to script success story!
Potential of Biopesticide in Indian Agriculture vis-a-vis Rural ...www.nistads.res.in
Improving agricultural productivity is crucial - The Economic Times
The Times of India: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-12-
India: Issues and Priorities for Agriculture
World bank files