ABOUT PRIMARY HEALTH CARE.
Why is Health Care
• A: Health care is
Why is Water Essential
to Health Maintenance?
• A: Water is essential to
your healthextremely important
because without health
care it is not possible to
remain healthy because
we all need regular
check ups from out
70% of your body is
comprised of water. If
your body gets
dehydrated, your body's
cells will start to die.
PRIMARY HEALTH CARE.
What is Tertiary Health
• A: Tertiary health care is
any type of specialized
How Much is Health
• A: The cost of health
care can be as little asany type of specialized
care. Some examples
include specialist cancer
care, neurosurgery, and
care can be as little as
just eating well, to
many of thousands of
dollars for a hospital
stay. You will generally
pay from $70.00 to
What are the different types of health insurance?
Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and Exclusive Provider Organizations (EPOs)
HMOs and EPOs may limit coverage to providers inside their networks. A network is a list of
doctors, hospitals, and other health care providers that provide medical care to members of a
specific health plan. If you use a doctor or facility that isn't in the HMO’s network, you may
have to pay the full cost of the services provided.
HMO members usually have a primary care doctor and must get referrals to see specialists.
This is generally not true for EPOs.
Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs) and Point-of-Service plans (POS)Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs) and Point-of-Service plans (POS)
These insurance plans give you a choice of getting care within or outside of a provider
network. With PPO or POS plans, you may use out-of-network providers and facilities, but
you’ll have to pay more than if you use in-network ones. If you have a PPO plan, you can visit
any doctor without a referral.
If you have a POS plan, you can visit any in-network provider without a referral, but you’ll
need one to visit a provider out-of-network.
Universalizing access to quality primary healthcare…
India is the world’s largest exporter of generic medicines but spends less than 0.1%
in publicly funded medicines. Overall, Indian healthcare expenditure forms 3.87% of
GDP compared to 7.2% of rest of the BRICS countries. India ranks 150 out of 214
countries in terms of infant mortality rates (per 1000 births). 60% of all health care
expenditure is out of pocket. This imposes a significant burden on marginalized
sections. According to the United Nations, 75% of India’s health care infrastructure
caters to only 27% of the population. In 2012, India had a shortfall of 9,148 primary
health centers. The government operates the National Rural Health Mission tohealth centers. The government operates the National Rural Health Mission to
strengthen and improve public health delivery across India. The 12th Five year plan
calls for Universal Health Coverage but this target is unlikely to be reached. India
needs to assign more priority to health concerns to improve its ranking on the HDI.
Human rights provide justification
for the Health in All Policies Approach
From June 10-14, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Finland’s Ministry of Social
Affairs and Health will host the Eighth Global Conference on Health Promotion in Helsinki,
Finland.1 The Global Conference will highlight Health in All Policies (HiAP), an approach
that evolved over the past quarter century and arose out of a focus on primary health care
in the 1978 Alma Alta Declaration. The approach emphasizes intersectoral action on
underlying determinants of health in the 1986 Ottawa Charter.2,3 In reviewing national
experiences with the HiAP approach and establishing guidance for implementation at allexperiences with the HiAP approach and establishing guidance for implementation at all
levels of governance, this conference presents an opportunity to advance HiAP through
the application of human rights, applying human rights to justify the mainstreaming of
health in the development, and implementation of public policy. Viewing HiAP as
instrumental to a rights-based approach to health, it is necessary for the Global
Conference to consider the beneficial application of “health-related rights” to the HiAP
Primary health care, often abbreviated as "PHC", has been defined as "essential health
care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and
technology, made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community. It is
through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford
to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-
determination". In other words, PHC is an approach to health beyond the traditional
health care system that focuses on health equity-producing social policy. PHC includes all
areas that play a role in health, such as access to health services, environment andareas that play a role in health, such as access to health services, environment and
This ideal model of health care was adopted in the declaration of the International
Conference on Primary Health Care held in Alma Ata, Kazakhstan in 1978 (known as the
"Alma Ata Declaration"), and became a core concept of the World Health Organization's
goal of Health for all. The Alma-Ata Conference mobilized a "Primary Health Care
movement" of professionals and institutions, governments and civil society organizations,
researchers and grassroots organizations that undertook to tackle the "politically, socially
and economically unacceptable" health inequalities in all countries. There were many
factors that inspired PHC; a prominent example is the Barefoot doctors of China.
G0ALS AND PRINCIPLES.
reducing exclusion and social disparities in health (universal coverage reforms);
organizing health services around people's needs and expectations (service delivery reforms);
integrating health into all sectors (public policy reforms);
pursuing collaborative models of policy dialogue (leadership reforms); and
increasing stakeholder participation.
Behind these elements lies a series of basic principles identified in the Alma Ata Declaration that
should be formulated in national policies in order to launch and sustain PHC as part of a
comprehensive health system and in coordination with other sectors:comprehensive health system and in coordination with other sectors:
Equitable distribution of health care – according to this principle, primary care and other
services to meet the main health problems in a community must be provided equally to all
individuals irrespective of their gender, age, caste, color, urban/rural location and social class.
Community participation – in order to make the fullest use of local, national and other available
resources. Community participation was considered sustainable due to its grass roots nature
and emphasis on self-sufficiency, as opposed to targeted (or vertical) approaches dependent on
international development assistance.
Health workforce development – comprehensive health care relies on adequate number and
distribution of trained physicians, nurses, allied health professions, community health workers
and others working as a health team and supported at the local and referral levels.
The Four Goals of Medical Treatment:
Managing Your Own Expectations
You and your doctor will want to determine one or more treatment goals -- whether you
want to avoid acquiring a disease or condition, are suffering symptoms, have caught a cold
or the flu, have developed diabetes or cancer, or even injured yourself in an accident or fall.
All of these require treatments.
Treatments fall under four categories, based on their potential outcomes:
Disease Management (including pain management)
No matter which goal you choose, you'll want to consider the pros and cons of each
treatment approach. What follows are descriptions for each of the treatment goals..
Competency: Patient Care
This domain reflects the expectation that students will demonstrate skills in obtaining and
interpreting relevant information from patients, laboratory data, and other sources to deliver
optimal patient centered care; the ability to organize and interpret clinical information to
make clinical decisions effectively and efficiently; sustained excellence in patient
management and treatment, including procedural skills. UMMS students are expected to:
Publicly funded health carePublicly funded health care
Publicly funded health care is a form of health care financing designed to meet the cost of all or
most health care needs from a publicly managed fund. Usually this is under some form of
democratic accountability, the right of access to which are set down in rules applying to the
whole population contributing to the fund or receiving benefits from it. The fund may be a not-
for-profit trust which pays out for health care according to common rules established by the
members or by some other democratic form. In some countries the fund is controlled directly bymembers or by some other democratic form. In some countries the fund is controlled directly by
the government or by an agency of the government for the benefit of the entire population. This
distinguishes it from other forms of private medical insurance, the rights of access to which are
subject to contractual obligations between an insurer (or his sponsor) and an insurance
company which seeks to make a profit by managing the flow of funds between funders and
providers of health care services.
When taxation is the primary means of financing health care, and sometimes with compulsory
insurance, all eligible people receive the same level of cover regardless of their financial
circumstances or risk factors.
What are the different types of health
Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and Exclusive
Provider Organizations (EPOs)
Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs) and Point-
of-Service plans (POS)
High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP)
Catastrophic Health Insurance Plan
Claude Blanchet, Erin Trolley. "PUBLIC- AND PRIVATE-SECTOR INVOLVEMENT IN HEALTH-
CARE SYSTEMS: A COMPARISON OF OECD COUNTRIES." May 1997. Retrieved September
^ http://scc.lexum.umontreal.ca/en/2005/2005scc35/2005scc35.html Canadian Supreme
Court after expert testimony found that all OECD countries, and four of the ten Canadian
provinces, allow private medical insurance alongside the state system
^ Elizabeth Doctor and Howard Oxley (2003). Health-Care Systems: Lessons from the
Reform Experience. OECD.Reform Experience. OECD.
^ American Journal of Public Health | December 2009, Vole 99, No.12
^ State-by-state breakout of excess deaths from lack of insurance
^ A 1997 study carried out by Professors David Hammerstein and Steffi Wool handler (New
England Journal of Medicine 336, no. 11 ) "concluded that almost 100,000 people
died in the United States each year because of lack of needed care—three times the
number of people who died of AIDs." The Inhuman State of U.S. Health Care, Monthly
Review, Vicente Navarro, September 2003. Retrieved 2009-09-10
Health problems, solutionsHealth problems, solutions
Malta has ex-cellent health services. Private practice is solid, starting with very dedicated
and able doctors. Public provision is probably second to only a few advanced countries in
terms of quality. And it’s free for all, as the International Monetary Fund keeps observing
critically in its annual reports. The political parties are committed to the free welfare
state. The question is how much longer we will be able to afford it.
The answer lies quite a way down the road and, though one should plan early, there is
clearly no political desire to do so. Meanwhile, the free health service, underpinned byclearly no political desire to do so. Meanwhile, the free health service, underpinned by
massive current and capital expenditure, continues to create problems. They mainly
consist of insufficient beds at Mater Dei general hospital, relative to demand; queues for
day appointments; and waiting time for operations.
Medical Knowledge: Students will demonstrate a strong foundation in the biomedical sciences,
clinical medicine, and the social determinants of health and disease as well as the application of
this knowledge to individuals, community and society.
Patient Care: Students will demonstrate:
skills in obtaining and interpreting relevant information from patients, laboratory data, and
other sources to deliver optimal patient centered care;
the ability to organize and interpret clinical information to make clinical decisions effectively and
sustained excellence in patient management and treatment, including procedural skills.
Compare Health Insurance in India
We all know that medical expenses have always been very high. Even a small treatment or
an appointment with a doctor might consume a lot of money. Health insurance saves
money by covering expenses in case of unexpected calamities. Health insurance comes in
handy to meet emergencies in case of severe ailment or accident. Some plans cover
disability and custodial needs. Health insurance in India is affordable and carries the
assurance and freedom from unplanned financial burdens.
Benefits Of Health Insurance Comparison
We liaise with the leading health insurance companies in India. Buying through us enables
analyzing costs and benefits from the pool of health policies. You can choose a plan
matching your requirements in addition to high quality services. Buying health insurance in
India with us is quick, convenient and cost-effective. Once you compare with us there willIndia with us is quick, convenient and cost-effective. Once you compare with us there will
be no need to fill complex forms. You can choose from a list of best health policies to cover
pre and post hospitalization expenses, expenses for day care procedures, critical illness,
cashless claims and avail tax benefits. A comprehensive health insurance policy covers all
Best Health Insurance Plans:
PUBLIC- AND PRIVATE-SECTOR INVOLVEMENT
IN HEALTH-CARE SYSTEMS:
A COMPARISON OF OECD COUNTRIES(1)
At the end of the Second World War, Canada and several other countries introduced
significant measures to build health-care systems that would meet the public’s changing
needs and demands. During this time, health care became universally accessible in many
countries, and health-care spending accounted for an increasingly large proportion of the
gross domestic product (GDP).(2) As a result, the range of publicly funded health services
grew, hospital infrastructure improved, and the use of new medical technologies
significantly increased the number of diseases that could be successfully treated. This
trend, however, would change. The oil crisis in the 1970s, the recession in the 1980s, andtrend, however, would change. The oil crisis in the 1970s, the recession in the 1980s, and
the desire to balance governments’ budgets in the 1990s necessitated changes in
response to the rising costs of health care.
Changes were introduced to contain costs and enable health-care resources to be used
more efficiently. In general, these changes have meant reduced public coverage,
decreased publicly funded health services,
and increased out-of-pocket payments. Although the rate of growth in private-sector
spending in health care was decreasing in the 1960s and 1970s, it began to exceed public-
sector spending in many countries,
Funding, Risk Pooling and Insurance Coverage
undoing, Risk Pooling and Insurance Coverage