(Ensuring world class civic amenities in Urban India)
Team coordinator: Aditya Garg (firstname.lastname@example.org, Mob: 9999115483)
Team Members: Devika Wadhwa (email@example.com), Sunidhi Dahiya
(firstname.lastname@example.org), Jaspreet, Sanyam Gulati
There are over
53 cities with
greater than 1
2011 2001 ADDIT
4041 3799 242
475 384 91
Increase due to
Over 833 million
Indians live in 0.64
million villages but
377 million live in
about 8000 urban
By 2030,it is projected
that there will be 6 cities
with a population greater
than 10 million as
compared to only 3 today
India loses 90 mn days due to waterborne diseases.
(Municipality claims to conduct regular tests of water supply but results are
generally not made public)
RECOVERING at least a part of COST of New Water
System(WS)/upgrading & maintaining an existing WS is primary rationale.
SUBSIDISING the connections with CONNECTION FEE spread over
several years rather than months appears to be better way of directing
subsidies to poor.
Many low-income households can afford to pay 5 times more for water if
increase is accompanied by better service.
•These are common in unserved areas of water in Urban India.
•vendors play an intermediary role, either re-selling water from a
municipally-supplied standpipe or obtaining water from a groundwater
source & transporting it by tanker to slum areas.
•Such practices should be expanded & formalised in cities by starting
delivery arrangements through local entrepreneurs and contracting out
on a later stage.
•Govt. should promote
greater PSPs to undertake
sustainability of WSP’s.
•PSPs should be
MAINTIANING of WSPs.
•Contracting out services
like mains repair, billing,
collection can be done.
Ahmdabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) became the first
Indian Municipality to use mode of capital raising through
MUNICIPAL BONDS in 1998.
MUNICIPAL BONDS are usually issued without guarantee
As the Indian credit market matures, it seems possible that other
municipalities can replicate.
Creating 24 x 7 municipal water
O & M water treatment &
Controlling Unaccounted for
Water or Non Revenue Water
Providing customer support
services for handling of
Private Sector Participation
•Qualified operating staff should be appointed to work in water Workstations.
•The Asian Pacific Regional Avg. is 12 staff per 1000 connections.
HYDERABAED & BANGLORE are around this level.
•The average quality of workers in UTILITIES is still low. Hence emphasis
should be given to this respect.
In respect of access, the key is the quality and quantity of employment, this will involve special assistance to the numerous small
and tiny enterprises in the urban economy
it will be desirable to promote consumer cooperatives in urban areas to minimise the very wide gap between wholesale and
The minimum support price announced for a number of crops is being implemented only in the case of wheat and rice. It is
necessary to broaden the food basket by including nutritious millets, legumes and tubers. Providing appropriate remunerative
prices for these crops will help expand their production
Changes in existing policies to enhance
• Allocation of funds towards food security
• Exploring the potentials of urban agriculture
Involvement of state govt. along with
urban local bodies
• There should be a proper
administration structure between the
SG and ministry of urban
development to ensure the proper
usage of funds assigned to the matter.
Food security systems
• other delivery mechanisms such as
Community food security systems may
also be encouraged in order that the
production of nutritious millets and
other local foodgrains receive much
-lower accessibility of food due to Increase
-demand is greater than supply ; thus
increase in inequality and poor pricing
-health problems like malnutrition,
-low employment levels
HOUSING FACILITYConcentration of people in urban areas
No. of people living in slums
Skyrocketing prices of land & real
Induces poor & weaker sections to
occupy marginal lands typified by
HH in congested houses
HH in Homeless condition
HH in Non-Servicable (katcha)
HH in obsolscent house
Affordable housing projects launched by
PDs have been significantly contributed to
25% decline in Urban housing shortage
(UHS) in last 5 yrs. Although UHS
remains substantial, it is clear that active
participation from private developers
could help in tackling this problem.
Let it be made the statutory duty of every employer
to offer a minimum 100 square mtrs of living space
to every employee. Those who fail to do so may be
asked to make a refundable deposit equal to the cost
of that much space in the vicinity of their business.
As a concession to small firms, only those with
large number of employees may be so charged.
employers in the city may be asked to reimburse in
full the commuting costs of their employees from
their homes to the work place. That will make
commuting from satellite towns affordable
AVAILAIBLITY OF LAND
• Govt. shall ensure
land records, use GIS,
• ULBs & UDD should
zones for development
of affordable housing
in city's master plans
Urban housing shortage is
prominent in Economically weaker
sections (EWS), lower income
groups (LIG) and middle income
• Govt should establish
single window projects
• coordination among
multiple authorities for
approving projects of
• Exemptions on taxes &
duties on construction
materials, promote R&D
• Building 38 Mn
affordable homes to
plug the current
backlog & meet the
gap in urban demand.
• Using an MGI
analysis, demand for
could rise from 25 Mn
to 38 Mn by 2030.
To lessen the housing shortage,
development of housing needs shall
be accelerated & new technology
shall be used. With RAY being
instrument of Govt. to make
country slum free, timing of
STRUCTURE technology is ideal.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND
transportation and disposal of this huge quantity of solid waste is
posing serious problems to the municipality.
Finding dumping grounds for this waste has become difficult.
Dumping this sort of waste has created serious problems of
pollution, ill-health and stink to inhabitants even a kilometer away
drainage lines are completely clogged and the sewage overflowing
on the roads
DRAINAGE Household with
households with no
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Creation Of Landfill Sites
Seperate unused and barren
grounds should be dug up and
used as landfill sites and
Landfill sites should apportion
an area for the disposal of
hazardous waste from hospitals.
New Revenue Sources
It can be generated through
involvement of private
companies for disposal
activities and a low cost
deposit amount can be
collected from people so that
drainage systems can be
seperately installed in each
Rehabilitation of sewerage
systems must be taken up in all
the cities where the
sewerage system exists and
should be developed with efficient
pipeline system connecting to
places away from cities so that it
can also reduce the causing of
Proper and efficient people
should be appointed and
records should be
maintained about sewage
and solid waste
management systems so
that benchmarks can be set
to attain the perfect
statistics for the matter
India already has a peak vehicular
density of 170 vehicles per lane
kms leading to avg. peak morning
commute in excess of 1.5-2 hrs.
Ensure constrn of following in million +
cities, & begin the process in medium/small
sized cities before popln becomes too large
for capacity of public transportation system.
BUS RAPID TRANSIT
RAIL BASED MASS TRANSIT
Double the stock of urban buses to
provide effective Bus Transit System.
Technology to use Benefits
Light rail systems Less capital costs & pollution levels,
Needs limited urban space if
Sky bus System is non-polluting,
Needs limited urban space
High capacity bus
Capital costs lower than rail based
systems, Low O&M costs,
Higher capacity, simple tech.
PARA-TRANSIT is an alternative mode
of flexible passenger transp. that does
not follow fixed routes. It can be
adopted to fulfill the needs that neither
Public nor Personal Transp. fulfills. It
will cater the occasional trips with
excessive baggage. It tends to be a
substitute for Public Transp. The
services may vary considerably on the
degree of flexibility they provide their
NON MOTORISED TRANSPORT:
share of bicycle trips in delhi declined
from 17% to 7% by 1994. so, Govt. should
explore the possibility of PUBLIC BICYCLE
PROGRAMMS where people can rent a
bicycle. Construction of separate ways for
cyclist to ensure safety concerns.
If India were to reverse
today's trend of declining
share of Public Transp. &
target share of public transp.
Millio + citiesMedium Sized citiesothers
Inc. in share
of Public Trnsp.
HEALTHANDEDUCATION Kerala is the best performer in terms of life expectancy at
birth for both males (71.5 years) and females (76.9 years)
whereas Assam is the worst performer for both males (61
years) and females (63.2 years) during 2006-10.
Infant mortality rate (IMR) in 2011 is the lowest in Kerala
(12) and highest in Madhya Pradesh (59) against the national
average of 44.
Birth rate is lowest in Kerala (15.2) and highest in Uttar
Pradesh (27.8) against the national average of 21.8.
Death rate is lowest in West Bengal (6.2) and highest in
Odisha (8.5) against the national average of 7.1.
Madhya Pradesh has the highest gross enrolment ratio
(GER) (6-13 years) in 2010-12 while Assam has the lowest.
Pupil-teacher ratios in primary and middle/basic schools
are the lowest in Himachal Pradesh and high in states like
Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
iv) lack of
IMPACT OF COMMUNITY WIDE INTERVENTION TO IMPROVE THE DELIVERY
OF PREVENTIVE SERVICE THROUGH ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF HEALTH CARE
SYSTEM LEVEL APPROACH AND ACCESING THE POLICIES AND DESIGNING NEW
STRATEGIES FOR ENSURING HEALTH FACILITIES TO POOR
PROVIDING VOLUNTARY PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION,UNIVERSALLY AVAILABLE
TO CHILDREN OF LOW-INCOME GROUPS BY STATE GOVERNMENT
IMPROVING TEACHER QUALITY AND FOCUS ON RECRUITMENT AND
RETENTION BY CREATING MULTIPLE PATHWAYS INTO TEACHING
To manage the Urbanisation, we can use the following approaches..
Cities are vital for
funding bulk of
tax revenue for
spending $ Billion
Rural tax rev.
City could identify
parcels of land
acquire & develop
then AUCTION them
CG & SG can play
an important role
in short &
Who will be
WATER SUPPLY TRANSPORTATION HOUSING OTHERS
MAYOR IN COUNCIL
•Create MP & DP
•T/F planning functions
institutes like IITs
•Prepare detailed MPs
of atleast 20
•Develop new MPs
based on those of SG
•Integrate the contents
•Ensure availability of
basic needs of food,
shelter and clothing
CG SG MC
The urban issues cannot be addressed in isolation . Making cities sustainable
requires integrated plans for both areas which are sending immigrants and those
which are receiving them. There is a need to create a balanced and linked
development of rural areas, small cities, medium-sized cities, large cities and mega
cities. through creation of infrastructure in an economical way to reduce the influx
of population and make large cities decongested along with the coordination and
efforts of the Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Rural Development and
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare which can control the increasing
population as well as make these cities a magnet to attract the migrants.
Push and pull strategy can be implemented as push policy can focus on population
control measures like low fertility rate measures, awareness about health issues and
family planning while push strategy can concentrate on administration among the
levels of ministries allotted for urban, rural and health department.
General and specialised training methods can be adopted. General type can
concentrate on providing experience to the low skilled officers by letting them know
about global policies for urbanisation so that they can have broad mind while
specialised type can focus on infrastructure and overall urban development that
needs large investment decisions to top level officers so that resources are not
wasted and urban policies can be integrated in proper manner that can actually
give better results.
Satellite towns are best option as it leads to lower land prices offering poor people
a chance for housing. Satellite towns can take off through development and easy
access to superior quality infrastructure and decreases cost of commuting to access
tele-effective services in parent city. This can be done through efforts of SG by
reducing costs so as to attract large companies to take up projects in these towns so
that high fund investment problem can be solved. . The twin city concept of
Mumbai and new Mumbai & NCR around Delhi in India may be experiments to
develop satellite towns in the neighborhoods in order to reduce pressure on civic
amenities and other infrastructure of large/mega cities. Our satellite town should
offer, a min. of 200 square mtrs of residential space per dwelling + 200 square mtrs
for non-residential uses. With this, even the poor can hope to have 70-100 square
mtrs — enough to live with dignity.
India’s urban population from 290 Mn (2001) to an
estimated 340 Mn (2008) & it is evaluated that it could
further soar to 590 Mn by 2030. It took nearly 40 yrs for
India’s urban population to rise by 230 million. “It could
take only half the time to add the next 250 Mn!!”
At today’s urban scale, India is struggling because the infrastructure
of cities is decidedly tattered & access to basic amenities in Urban
areas continue to be poor. We believe that today’s laissez-faire
attitude to managing cities will no longer do as India’s current
approach to current development is insufficient for the mammoth
task ahead. To mitigate the undoubted strains that will develop as
cities expand & to maximise the basic civic amenities. that well
managed can offer, India urgently need fresh, proactive approach.
Through this presentation we have tried to produce a
set of recommendations the vast majority of which
Urban India could implement.
BY 2031, IT IS PROJECTED THAT THERE
WILL BE 6 CITIES WITH A POPULATION “>
10 MN”. A KEY QUESTION IS, HOW MANY
INDIANS WOULD LIVE IN HOW MANY
MEDIUM & SMALL TOWNS- THE BRIDGE
B/W TRANSFORMING RURAL & URBAN
Estimating the impact is not straight forward but we
believe in carrying out reforms described, which have the potential
in achieving “DOUBLE DIGIT growth” .
These will play an enormous role in social transformation &
economic mobility & exacerbate inequalities & create new
opportunities. Cities could become means of poverty
reduction through financial reforms, community
participation & goods flow b/w urban-rural India & can
exacerbate the miseries of poverty by concentrating the
poor in smaller, more polluted, more market dependent &
less safe areas.
In short, Urbanisation is a
transition to be reckoned with..!!..
• Census of India 2011: Provisional Population
Totals Urban Agglomerations and Cities
• McKinsey Global Institute. (2010). India’s Urban
Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining
• McKinsey Global Institute. (2010). India’s Urban
Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining
•Urbanization in India: Facts, Issues and
Recommendations by Prem P. Talwar (report)
• Report of The Technician Group on Urban
Housing Shortage (TG-12) 2012-17, National
Buildings Organization, Ministry of Housing &
Urban Poverty Alleviation.
• Housing, Household Amenities and Assets - Key
Results from Census 2011 , Office of Registrar
General of India, Ministry of Home Affairs.
• Websites of National Housing Bank &
National Buildings Organization.
• Report on “Government Initiatives and
Programme for Affordable Housing”,
presented in National Workshop on Pro-Poor
Housing Finance October 29, 2008, New
Delhi conducted by Ministry of Housing &
Urban Poverty Alleviation.
Mishra, R. P., 1998. Urbanization in India:
Challenges and Opportunities, Regency
Publications, New Delhi.
• Urban India 2011 by Indian Institute for
• Economic survey 2012 t0 2013, oxford
university press, copyrights government of
India, controller of publication.
• Report by National Urban Transportation