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  1. 1. MANTHAN TOPIC: “FUTURE CITIES” (Ensuring world class civic amenities in Urban India) Team Details Team coordinator: Aditya Garg (, Mob: 9999115483) Team Members: Devika Wadhwa (, Sunidhi Dahiya (, Jaspreet, Sanyam Gulati
  2. 2. . There are over 53 cities with population greater than 1 million 2011 2001 ADDIT IONS STATUTORY TOWNS 4041 3799 242 CENSUS TOWNS 3894 1302 URBAN AGGLOMERATI ONS 475 384 91 Increase due to reclassification of towns Over 833 million Indians live in 0.64 million villages but 377 million live in about 8000 urban centers By 2030,it is projected that there will be 6 cities with a population greater than 10 million as compared to only 3 today (2011)
  3. 3. India loses 90 mn days due to waterborne diseases. (Municipality claims to conduct regular tests of water supply but results are generally not made public) RECOMMENDATIONS… Appropriate Pricing RECOVERING at least a part of COST of New Water System(WS)/upgrading & maintaining an existing WS is primary rationale. SUBSIDISING the connections with CONNECTION FEE spread over several years rather than months appears to be better way of directing subsidies to poor. Many low-income households can afford to pay 5 times more for water if increase is accompanied by better service.  Water Vendors •These are common in unserved areas of water in Urban India. •vendors play an intermediary role, either re-selling water from a municipally-supplied standpipe or obtaining water from a groundwater source & transporting it by tanker to slum areas. •Such practices should be expanded & formalised in cities by starting delivery arrangements through local entrepreneurs and contracting out on a later stage. •Govt. should promote greater PSPs to undertake improvement in sustainability of WSP’s. •PSPs should be encouraged in PLANNING, DEVELOPING & MAINTIANING of WSPs. •Contracting out services like mains repair, billing, collection can be done. FINANCIAL REFORM Ahmdabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) became the first Indian Municipality to use mode of capital raising through MUNICIPAL BONDS in 1998. MUNICIPAL BONDS are usually issued without guarantee from SG. As the Indian credit market matures, it seems possible that other municipalities can replicate. Creating 24 x 7 municipal water supply systems O & M water treatment & distribn networks Controlling Unaccounted for Water or Non Revenue Water Providing customer support services for handling of complaints Private Sector Participation  Staffing Requirements •Qualified operating staff should be appointed to work in water Workstations. •The Asian Pacific Regional Avg. is 12 staff per 1000 connections. HYDERABAED & BANGLORE are around this level. •The average quality of workers in UTILITIES is still low. Hence emphasis should be given to this respect.
  4. 4. FOOD SECURITY In respect of access, the key is the quality and quantity of employment, this will involve special assistance to the numerous small and tiny enterprises in the urban economy  it will be desirable to promote consumer cooperatives in urban areas to minimise the very wide gap between wholesale and retail prices The minimum support price announced for a number of crops is being implemented only in the case of wheat and rice. It is necessary to broaden the food basket by including nutritious millets, legumes and tubers. Providing appropriate remunerative prices for these crops will help expand their production IMPLEMENTATION Changes in existing policies to enhance demand • Allocation of funds towards food security systems • Exploring the potentials of urban agriculture Involvement of state govt. along with urban local bodies • There should be a proper administration structure between the SG and ministry of urban development to ensure the proper usage of funds assigned to the matter. Food security systems • other delivery mechanisms such as Community food security systems may also be encouraged in order that the production of nutritious millets and other local foodgrains receive much needed support. ISSUES -lower accessibility of food due to Increase in population -demand is greater than supply ; thus increase in inequality and poor pricing strategies -health problems like malnutrition, nutritional deficiencies -low employment levels RECOMMENDATIONS…
  5. 5. HOUSING FACILITYConcentration of people in urban areas No. of people living in slums Skyrocketing prices of land & real estates Induces poor & weaker sections to occupy marginal lands typified by CONGESTION. 14.99 0.53 0.99 2.27 HH in congested houses HH in Homeless condition HH in Non-Servicable (katcha) HH in obsolscent house In Millions 10.55 7.41 0.82EWS LIG MIG & others In Millions RECOMMENDATIONS… Affordable housing projects launched by PDs have been significantly contributed to 25% decline in Urban housing shortage (UHS) in last 5 yrs. Although UHS remains substantial, it is clear that active participation from private developers could help in tackling this problem. PRIVATE DEVELOPERS Let it be made the statutory duty of every employer to offer a minimum 100 square mtrs of living space to every employee. Those who fail to do so may be asked to make a refundable deposit equal to the cost of that much space in the vicinity of their business. As a concession to small firms, only those with large number of employees may be so charged. employers in the city may be asked to reimburse in full the commuting costs of their employees from their homes to the work place. That will make commuting from satellite towns affordable EMPLOYER SUPPORT AVAILAIBLITY OF LAND • Govt. shall ensure computerisation of land records, use GIS, efficient dispute redressal mechanisms. • ULBs & UDD should idientifiy dedicated zones for development of affordable housing in city's master plans Urban housing shortage is prominent in Economically weaker sections (EWS), lower income groups (LIG) and middle income groups (MIG) REDUCE RED-TAPISM • Govt should establish single window projects • coordination among multiple authorities for approving projects of Developers. • Exemptions on taxes & duties on construction materials, promote R&D AFFORDABLE HOUSING • Building 38 Mn affordable homes to plug the current backlog & meet the gap in urban demand. • Using an MGI analysis, demand for affordable housing could rise from 25 Mn to 38 Mn by 2030. To lessen the housing shortage, development of housing needs shall be accelerated & new technology shall be used. With RAY being instrument of Govt. to make country slum free, timing of INTERNANTIONAL STEEL STRUCTURE technology is ideal. ISS
  6. 6. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AND DRAINAGE transportation and disposal of this huge quantity of solid waste is posing serious problems to the municipality. Finding dumping grounds for this waste has become difficult. Dumping this sort of waste has created serious problems of pollution, ill-health and stink to inhabitants even a kilometer away drainage lines are completely clogged and the sewage overflowing on the roads 18% 49% 33% DRAINAGE Household with drainage system households with no drainage households with open drainage 0 5 10 15 TONS/DAY(1000s) SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Creation Of Landfill Sites Seperate unused and barren grounds should be dug up and used as landfill sites and Landfill sites should apportion an area for the disposal of hazardous waste from hospitals. New Revenue Sources It can be generated through involvement of private companies for disposal activities and a low cost deposit amount can be collected from people so that drainage systems can be seperately installed in each household. Sewage System Rehabilitation of sewerage systems must be taken up in all the cities where the sewerage system exists and should be developed with efficient pipeline system connecting to places away from cities so that it can also reduce the causing of diseases. Administration System Proper and efficient people should be appointed and records should be maintained about sewage and solid waste management systems so that benchmarks can be set to attain the perfect statistics for the matter stated RECOMMENDATIONS
  7. 7. TRANSPORTATION 72% 13% 2% 13% 2-WHEELERS CARS BUSES OTHERS VEHICULAR COMPOSITION India already has a peak vehicular density of 170 vehicles per lane kms leading to avg. peak morning commute in excess of 1.5-2 hrs. RECOMMENDATIONS… Ensure constrn of following in million + cities, & begin the process in medium/small sized cities before popln becomes too large for capacity of public transportation system. BUS RAPID TRANSIT RAIL BASED MASS TRANSIT Double the stock of urban buses to provide effective Bus Transit System. Technology to use Benefits Light rail systems Less capital costs & pollution levels, Needs limited urban space if elevated/underground Sky bus System is non-polluting, Needs limited urban space High capacity bus systems on dedicated lanes Capital costs lower than rail based systems, Low O&M costs, Higher capacity, simple tech. PARA-TRANSIT is an alternative mode of flexible passenger transp. that does not follow fixed routes. It can be adopted to fulfill the needs that neither Public nor Personal Transp. fulfills. It will cater the occasional trips with excessive baggage. It tends to be a substitute for Public Transp. The services may vary considerably on the degree of flexibility they provide their customers. NON MOTORISED TRANSPORT: share of bicycle trips in delhi declined from 17% to 7% by 1994. so, Govt. should explore the possibility of PUBLIC BICYCLE PROGRAMMS where people can rent a bicycle. Construction of separate ways for cyclist to ensure safety concerns. IMPACT If India were to reverse today's trend of declining share of Public Transp. & target share of public transp. then 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Millio + citiesMedium Sized citiesothers Inc. in share of Public Trnsp.
  8. 8. HEALTHANDEDUCATION Kerala is the best performer in terms of life expectancy at birth for both males (71.5 years) and females (76.9 years) whereas Assam is the worst performer for both males (61 years) and females (63.2 years) during 2006-10.  Infant mortality rate (IMR) in 2011 is the lowest in Kerala (12) and highest in Madhya Pradesh (59) against the national average of 44. Birth rate is lowest in Kerala (15.2) and highest in Uttar Pradesh (27.8) against the national average of 21.8. Death rate is lowest in West Bengal (6.2) and highest in Odisha (8.5) against the national average of 7.1. Madhya Pradesh has the highest gross enrolment ratio (GER) (6-13 years) in 2010-12 while Assam has the lowest. Pupil-teacher ratios in primary and middle/basic schools are the lowest in Himachal Pradesh and high in states like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. ( (i)inadequate and inferior infrastructure (ii) poor public service delivery (iii)lack of institutions and establishmen ts iv) lack of access especially for the poor KEY ISSUES IMPACT OF COMMUNITY WIDE INTERVENTION TO IMPROVE THE DELIVERY OF PREVENTIVE SERVICE THROUGH ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF HEALTH CARE SYSTEM LEVEL APPROACH AND ACCESING THE POLICIES AND DESIGNING NEW STRATEGIES FOR ENSURING HEALTH FACILITIES TO POOR PROVIDING VOLUNTARY PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION,UNIVERSALLY AVAILABLE TO CHILDREN OF LOW-INCOME GROUPS BY STATE GOVERNMENT IMPROVING TEACHER QUALITY AND FOCUS ON RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION BY CREATING MULTIPLE PATHWAYS INTO TEACHING RECOMMENDATIONS
  9. 9. To manage the Urbanisation, we can use the following approaches.. Where will resources come from? Cities are vital for funding bulk of tax revenue for development spending $ Billion Rural tax rev. Urban tax rev. Raise by leveraging Private Sector & tapping Debt Markets City could identify parcels of land acquire & develop infrastructure & then AUCTION them off Increase PROPERTY TAX collection through better assessment & improve USER CHARGE collections. CG & SG can play an important role in short & medium term funding. Who will be accountable? MAYOR WATER SUPPLY TRANSPORTATION HOUSING OTHERS MAYOR IN COUNCIL MUNICIPAL COMMISSIONER BOARD How will cities enforce? •Create MP & DP •T/F planning functions to municipality •Provide grants •Launching planning institutes like IITs •Prepare detailed MPs of atleast 20 metropolitans •Encourage community participation •Attract investment •Develop new MPs based on those of SG •Integrate the contents of plans •Ensure availability of basic needs of food, shelter and clothing CG SG MC
  10. 10. MACRO-LEVEL SOLUTIONS.. The urban issues cannot be addressed in isolation . Making cities sustainable requires integrated plans for both areas which are sending immigrants and those which are receiving them. There is a need to create a balanced and linked development of rural areas, small cities, medium-sized cities, large cities and mega cities. through creation of infrastructure in an economical way to reduce the influx of population and make large cities decongested along with the coordination and efforts of the Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Rural Development and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare which can control the increasing population as well as make these cities a magnet to attract the migrants. Push and pull strategy can be implemented as push policy can focus on population control measures like low fertility rate measures, awareness about health issues and family planning while push strategy can concentrate on administration among the levels of ministries allotted for urban, rural and health department. General and specialised training methods can be adopted. General type can concentrate on providing experience to the low skilled officers by letting them know about global policies for urbanisation so that they can have broad mind while specialised type can focus on infrastructure and overall urban development that needs large investment decisions to top level officers so that resources are not wasted and urban policies can be integrated in proper manner that can actually give better results. Satellite towns are best option as it leads to lower land prices offering poor people a chance for housing. Satellite towns can take off through development and easy access to superior quality infrastructure and decreases cost of commuting to access tele-effective services in parent city. This can be done through efforts of SG by reducing costs so as to attract large companies to take up projects in these towns so that high fund investment problem can be solved. . The twin city concept of Mumbai and new Mumbai & NCR around Delhi in India may be experiments to develop satellite towns in the neighborhoods in order to reduce pressure on civic amenities and other infrastructure of large/mega cities. Our satellite town should offer, a min. of 200 square mtrs of residential space per dwelling + 200 square mtrs for non-residential uses. With this, even the poor can hope to have 70-100 square mtrs — enough to live with dignity.
  11. 11. CRITICAL EVALUATION India’s urban population from 290 Mn (2001) to an estimated 340 Mn (2008) & it is evaluated that it could further soar to 590 Mn by 2030. It took nearly 40 yrs for India’s urban population to rise by 230 million. “It could take only half the time to add the next 250 Mn!!” At today’s urban scale, India is struggling because the infrastructure of cities is decidedly tattered & access to basic amenities in Urban areas continue to be poor. We believe that today’s laissez-faire attitude to managing cities will no longer do as India’s current approach to current development is insufficient for the mammoth task ahead. To mitigate the undoubted strains that will develop as cities expand & to maximise the basic civic amenities. that well managed can offer, India urgently need fresh, proactive approach. Through this presentation we have tried to produce a set of recommendations the vast majority of which Urban India could implement. BY 2031, IT IS PROJECTED THAT THERE WILL BE 6 CITIES WITH A POPULATION “> 10 MN”. A KEY QUESTION IS, HOW MANY INDIANS WOULD LIVE IN HOW MANY MEDIUM & SMALL TOWNS- THE BRIDGE B/W TRANSFORMING RURAL & URBAN INDIA ?? Estimating the impact is not straight forward but we believe in carrying out reforms described, which have the potential in achieving “DOUBLE DIGIT growth” . These will play an enormous role in social transformation & economic mobility & exacerbate inequalities & create new opportunities. Cities could become means of poverty reduction through financial reforms, community participation & goods flow b/w urban-rural India & can exacerbate the miseries of poverty by concentrating the poor in smaller, more polluted, more market dependent & less safe areas. In short, Urbanisation is a transition to be reckoned with..!!..
  12. 12. A P P E N D I X References References • Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Totals Urban Agglomerations and Cities • McKinsey Global Institute. (2010). India’s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth. • McKinsey Global Institute. (2010). India’s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth. •Urbanization in India: Facts, Issues and Recommendations by Prem P. Talwar (report) • Report of The Technician Group on Urban Housing Shortage (TG-12) 2012-17, National Buildings Organization, Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation. • Housing, Household Amenities and Assets - Key Results from Census 2011 , Office of Registrar General of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. • Websites of National Housing Bank & National Buildings Organization. • Report on “Government Initiatives and Programme for Affordable Housing”, presented in National Workshop on Pro-Poor Housing Finance October 29, 2008, New Delhi conducted by Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation. Mishra, R. P., 1998. Urbanization in India: Challenges and Opportunities, Regency Publications, New Delhi. • Urban India 2011 by Indian Institute for human settlements. • Economic survey 2012 t0 2013, oxford university press, copyrights government of India, controller of publication. • Report by National Urban Transportation Policy.