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  1. 1. URBANIZATION Potential Unleashed Team : Aboriginal
  2. 2. URBANIZATION - CONTEXT Compactness High Population Density High Scale of Economy Better Healthcare Better Education Better Connectivity Attractive Market Place Better Standard of Living Employability Cultural & Recreational Avenues More Opportunities Better Services WhatCitiesProvide WhatCitiesAre Fulcrum of Economic Growth Better Employment Opportunities Defined by: Cities will eventually compete with each other to attract talent and investments According to a report by Mckinsey, by 2030, 70% of Indian GDP will come from cities
  3. 3. CHALLENGES Most urban centers in India are Unplanned • Lack of a coherent plan to Monitor and Implement Growth • ‘Concretification’ of the Landscape • Unhygienic Living Condition Cities fail to provide even basic amenities like water and sanitation Law and Order Challenges Dismal Infrastructure Urban Poverty is on rise – More Slums Inadequate Resources – Not enough Financial Strength Understaffed and Unprofessional Urban Administration Rapid Urbanization is a global phenomenon – This transition, if not handled properly, may spell troubles in countries like India. Already Indian cities are facing challenges – some of which are listed below: Majority of Urban Migration in future will likely be to smaller cities and towns which are even more handicapped in handling the situation
  4. 4. IDEAL OFFERINGS BY ANY CITY Governance Timely service delivery Creation and Maintenance of public Infrastructure Ensuring Financial Viability Growth Planning & Monitoring Facilitating Law & Order and Social Harmony Engagement Recreational and Cultural Hot Spots Public Parks and Lakes (Water Bodies) Sport Stadium(s) & Auditoriums Exhibition and Convention Centers Events Enablers Good Education Good Healthcare Robust Public Transport System Employment Opportunities Vibrant Market Place Basic Amenities Sanitation Safety Shelter Connectivity Electricity
  5. 5. BASIC AMENITIES Basic Amenities refers to a set of facilities which should be offered by any urban settlement, irrespective of its size, to its citizens Sanitation Clean Roads 100% Drainage and Solid Waste Management Ensures Health and Hygiene of residents Safety Proper Law & Order Functional Streetlights and Street Vigil at Night Enthuse confidence to carry out one’s activities without fear Shelter Low Cost Housing for Poor Affordable Housing for Other classes Availability of adequate lodging facilities for visitors Ensures that the opportunities exist for all class of people Connectivity A wide network of all weather, motorable road ensuring minimum travel time both intra city and inter city Facilitates movement and economic activities Electricity Availability of round the clock power supply to citizens Promotion of use of alternative source of energy Triggers economic activities and other enablers The approach to provide these facilities may differ from settlement to settlement depending upon the availability of resources and funds – only those cities would have a potential to grow and sustain who provides this first layer of facilities to its citizens
  6. 6. ENABLERS Enablers are those criteria which equip the residents to reap the benefits of Urbanization and aids in the attempt to have a better standard of living Good Education Availability of Good Educational Institutions – both public and private in adequate numbers Enhances Employability & aids in Skill Development Good Healthcare Access to better medical care units equipped to deal with all major illness Ensures access to premium healthcare in the vicinity invoking confidence Robust Public Transport Rapid Mass Transport System crisscrossing the entire city and neighborhood ensuring minimum possible time in transit Enhances productivity and leads to better work life balance Employment Opportunities Aggressive Employment creation policies by: Focusing on comparative advantage & traditional strength Attracting investments through policy initiatives Skill Development & Infrastructure Creation Job Creation and movement up the economic ladder & even social mobility Vibrant Market Place Providing a market place to not only the residents (acting both as a customer and producer) but also to the residents of nearby places creating a regional economy Creates regional economy – pass on the benefits of market not only to residents but also to those of neighbouring areas Obviously Enablers would differ by the class of cities – generally bigger cities will have better enablers However, by focusing on Enablers, an urban settlement can move up the preference ladder
  7. 7. ENGAGEMENTS Engagements are the prime factors which attracts the talents to choose an urban settlement as the place of work and possibly a choice for settlement Recreational and Cultural Hot Spots Availability of adequate recreational places which would allow the residents to relax and unwind Culture would play a wider role in attracting and retaining high end resources and talents Place to unwind after a long week of work with family/ friends Public Parks and Lakes (Water Bodies) Well maintained public parks and water bodies at regular interval (ideally not more than 15 minutes of walking time) Connect with nature Engages health conscious Sport Stadium(s) & Auditoriums A well equipped sports facility which guarantees coaching/ mentoring and membership State of the art Auditoriums to host cultural events Engages Sports and Arts enthusiasts Exhibition and Convention Centers To hold exhibitions, seminars, fairs and talks Intellectual stimulation Events Yearly calendar splashed with periodic high profile events in the urban settlement Regular opportunities to move out of the routine life Cities would become economic hot spot on the basis of the quality of human capital they retain. Human talents would need more than Enablers to prefer a city/ town for settling – they would need intellectual and cultural stimulations. Thus, Engagement would be the key to the economic prosperity and sustenance
  8. 8. GOVERNANCE Governance or Administration is probably the most important factor for a city for it would decide the course a city would take in the near future Timely service delivery City Administration to provide a plethora of easily accessible services for the welfare and benefit of the residents As the population and expectation would grow, wider range of services and their timely delivery would be sought Creation and Maintenance of public Infrastructure Creating Public Infrastructure like Roads, Parks, street lights, Recreation centers, parking lots etc. and ensuring proper functioning of the same Public Infrastructure is the asset of a city and should not be ignored or the city would start falling behind Ensuring Financial Viability As stated earlier, fund would be very crucial for the functioning of the city and implementation of various projects Funding and ensuring financial feasibility of a project Growth Planning & Monitoring To ensure that the expansion of the city is being done as per the blueprint To ensure proper growth Facilitating Law & Order and Social Harmony Provide an environment free of fear and social discord To ensure that city retains its economic clout Governance can directly be equated with the ‘Vision’ for the city – Administration can ‘turnaround a city’ or ‘turn a city around’ in the matter of few years. It should be handled by well qualified and professional people
  9. 9. FUNDING Almost all the cities of the country are not economically self dependent. In order to scale up the cities to meet the challenges of higher urbanization, funds would play a crucial role. Let us look at a few model of funding city projects Local Admin (Internal Revenue) Land & Asset Monetization Property Taxes User Charges In most of the cases, as of now, would be able to cover day to day activities and small projects Local Admin - State (with State Assistance) A part is contributed by the Local Admin Resources while the rest is tapped from the State resources Most important for smaller towns Public Private Partnership Can be of any form involving Private parties, Local Admin, State Govt. & Central Govt. Again Private investment is generally restricted to larger towns & Cities Public People Partnership Local Admin, Govt. can create infrastructure while the same can be maintained directly by the people or bodies like Residents Welfare Association Viable across all categories of cities and can be very effective Public People Private Partnership Local Admin, Govt. in partnership with Private partners can create infrastructure while the same can be maintained/ administered directly by the people or bodies like Residents Welfare Association Can be very potent where private parties show interest and especially in Engagement factors Funding is critical to the development of any city. In India, the urban bodies have failed to tap on internal resources. While state assistance is necessary for growth, systematic interventions should be made to make urban bodies relatively more self reliant
  10. 10. WAY FORWARD: RISE OF NEW CITIES Major Indian cities are bursting at seams unable to cope pressure of rapid urbanization as they fail to upgrade infrastructure accordingly 1 Upgrade Infrastructure of all these cities 2 Develop second rung cities as attractive investment destination and Employment center 3 Simultaneously develop satellite towns to relieve pressure from existing towns 4 Create multiple Regional Economic Zones (Clusters) with an Urban center catering the needs of areas in vicinity This would entail huge and consistent investment from the government Development of better and rapid transport system would reduce stress as the floating population would increase multiple times thereby reducing the growth of residents Would ensure wider urbanization and inclusive growth
  11. 11. WAY FORWARD: FUNDAMENTALS 1 Water Conservation: Compulsory use of water conservation methods in all buildings to provide for non drinking supplies 2 Alternative Energy: Use of alternative energy sources like Solar etc. especially in street lights 3 Clustering: Clustering of residential, commercial and recreational areas to increase vibrancy 4 Transport: Linking higher density mixed use centers to public transport hubs & networks to reduce travel time 5 Eco Friendly: Approach growth in environmentally sustainable way giving enough consideration to the impact on land use, green cover and water sources
  12. 12. City as an Interconnected System Housing Market Areas Work Areas Labor Markets Business Supplier & Consumers Utility Systems Water Catchment Areas Green Networks Ecological Networks Stock • Intellectual Capacity • Social Capital • Biodiversity • Nutrients Outputs • Commodities • Wastes Inputs • Raw Materials • Energy WAY FORWARD: INTERCONNECTED SYSTEM InterconnectedSystem Source : http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/urban/sustainable-development/characteristics-areas.html