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  1. 1. Safe Drinking Water and Proper Sanitation Facilities In India Team Details : Dharmendra Mahajani Harshit Mittal Vinay Kumar Rochak Agarwal Shubham Yadav
  2. 2. “Sanitation is more important than Independence” - Mahatma Gandhi “clean water & sanitation is a right to every human” In water there is cleanliness, and in sanitation there is health.
  3. 3. Point at Issue Overall Analysis A report suggests that only 30% of India’s sewage water is treated. The rest of the water makes its way into streams and rivers inducing another major problem-water pollution. According to the country’s tenth 5 year plan, 75% of India’s surface water resources are polluted and 80% of this is due to sewage alone. • No access to Toilets Therefore they defecate in Open Poor sewage system in many cities and highly congested living. The sanitation condition of the country is way more worse than it seems. Even the Urban population is living in pitiable condition, what to talk of the Rural PopulationRural Urban
  4. 4. • Water : we once thought it was an endless natural resource . Now we know better. • Over 1.5 billion people do not have access to clean , safe water. Almost 4 million people die each year from water related diseases. • When communities have the water they need there is less conflict, families are more self-sufficient, and children have better access to education. •1.768,000 deaths a year are caused by lack of sanitation including 395,000 children. •2.375,000 tons of faeces per day are currently being discharged untreated into nature, quite likely into the river from where we get our drinking water. Why…?
  5. 5. Atmospheric collection technologies: Rainwater harvesting, fog collection, air wells, and other atmospheric collection technologies could all collect water that requires little treatment Ceramic Water Filters An inexpensive and effective type of water filter, that rely on the small pore size of ceramic material to filter dirt, debris, and bacteria out of water. Activated carbon filtration can effectively reduce certain organic compounds and chlorine in drinking water. It can also reduce the quantity of lead, dissolved radon, and harmless taste- and odor-causing compounds. Activated Carbon Filtering Ecological Sanitation Cycle Super Sand : It is a cost-effective ways to purify water for rural villages and developing areas. The performance is also comparable to some commercially available activated carbon.
  6. 6. Saving Water in Trains Concerns: About 5.11 billion Litres of freshwater is used in trains every year. This wastage can be reduced by implementing a feasible idea. The Way Out: Water Tank is divided into two partitions of volume 1/4th and 3/4th of the entire tank. The former is used for washing purposes while the later is used for flushing. The water utilised in washing purposes is transferred to the partition used for flushing. In this way we can save approx. 1 billion Litres per year.
  7. 7. Solutions A feasible solution can be ECOSAN toilets An ecological sanitation (ecosan) viewpoint sees human waste and wastewater as an opportunity. When properly designed and operated, ecosan systems provide a hygienically safe, economical, and closed-loop system to convert human wastes into nutrients to be returned to the soil, and water to be returned to the land. Alternatively, solid wastes are converted into a biofuel. The primary application for ecosan systems has been in rural areas where connection to a sanitary sewer system is not possible, or where water supplies are very limited 1.To reduce the health risks related to sanitation, contaminated water and waste. 2.Affordable water free toilet system. 3.No obnoxious odors and minimum monthly operating costs. 4.Nutrients or energy contained within wastes can be used as fertilizers. 5.No sewage pipe network and sewage treatment plants required.
  8. 8. Hand Sanitizers Steps to be taken – • Bulk production of sanitizers by the government can help providing sanitization facilities to all at a much lower cost. • Local community health center can provide these sanitizers with medicines. A hand sanitizer or hand antiseptic is a supplement or alternative to hand washing with soap and water. 42%-47% reduction in diarrhea can occur when hand washing with soap and water is introduced into a community. Thus, hand washing promotion and interventions are estimated to have the potential to prevent one million deaths from diarrheal diseases.
  9. 9. SOLAR WATER DISINFECTION HOUSEHOLD APPLICATION: • Colorless, transparent PET water or soda pop bottles are chosen for use. • Fill contaminated water into the bottles. Fill three- quarter of bottle & shake it (with the cap on) to improve oxygen saturation , then fill completely and recap. • Filled bottles are then exposed to the sun. Bottles will heat faster and to higher temperatures if they are placed on a sloped sun-facing corrugated metal roof as compared to thatched roofs. • The treated water can be consumed directly from the bottle or poured into clean drinking cups. The risk of re- contamination is minimized if the water is stored in the bottles as refilling and storage in other containers increases the risk of contamination. Exposure to sunlight deactivates diarrhea-causing organisms. 1.Heat. Solar thermal water disinfection. -uses heat from the sun to heat water to 70C-100C for a short period of time. Solar heat collectors can have lenses in front of them, or reflectors. 2.UV. Solar ultraviolet water disinfection. -disinfects water using only sunlight and plastic PET bottles. It's a free and effective method for decentralized water treatment. Its already applied in many countries.
  10. 10. Spring Box The idea behind the spring box is to isolate spring water from surface contaminants such as rainwater or surface runoff. The advantages of this technology are several-fold: 1. Groundwater is a relatively safe water source for use without treatment. 2. Springs are the most inexpensive source of groundwater, and spring protection structures can be constructed using local skills and materials. 3. Further, this technology incurs few or no operating costs, and requires very little maintenance, if the water is obtained at its source. Adopt-A-Drain Part of the sanitation challenge is the waste that accumulates in the city's drains. Everything from plastic bottles to flying toilets can be found in these. What if each compound adopted the drain directly in front of their home and was paid to keep it clean and free of debris. Participating homes would be paid by the city, and the drains could be painted to signal clearly where each compounds responsibility starts and ends.
  11. 11. It includes: 1.Creating demand for better sanitation in communities through programmes which raise awareness about why sanitation is important. 2.Providing consumers with information about a range of sanitation options. 3.Building and upgrading existing toilets. 4.Promoting health awareness and safe hygiene practice. 5.Monitoring and evaluation to assess the impact of programmes and suggest changes where necessary. Implementation: Effective sanitation promotion involves teamwork and co-operation within a municipality. • One method of strengthening sanitation promotion programme is to link it with other health promotion projects. In this way, staff gain skills and expertise more quickly and available resources can be shared. Sanitation Promotion --an effective approach to improving sanitation
  12. 12. Sources • International Ecosan Symposium • "EcoSanRes Global Map of ecosan activities". Retrieved 2013-06-29. • United Nations:World Water Assessment Program • World Health Organization (WHO). Geneva, Switzerland. Joyce Morrissey Donohue, Charles O. Abernathy, Peter Lassovszky, George Hallberg • "water and sanitation for all - International site". WaterAid. 2011-11-30. Retrieved 2011-12-05. • WHO - Water Sanitation and Health: drinking water quality • UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation:JMP tables, retrieved on June 28, 2012 • IRC:India: Unrealistic approach hampers rural sanitation programme • World Bank:Delhi Water Supply & Sewerage Project, Project Information Document Concept Stage • • eco san toilets •