Safe Drinking Water and Proper
Sanitation Facilities In India
Team Details :
“Sanitation is more important than Independence”
is a right to
In water there
Point at Issue
A report suggests that only 30% of India’s sewage water is treated.
The rest of the water makes its way into streams and rivers inducing
another major problem-water pollution. According to the country’s
tenth 5 year plan, 75% of India’s surface water resources are
polluted and 80% of this is due to sewage alone.
No access to Toilets
Therefore they defecate in
Poor sewage system in
many cities and highly
The sanitation condition of the country
is way more worse than it seems. Even
the Urban population is living in
pitiable condition, what to talk of the
Rural PopulationRural Urban
• Water : we once thought it was an endless natural resource .
Now we know better.
• Over 1.5 billion people do not have access to clean , safe water.
Almost 4 million people die each year from water related diseases.
When communities have the water they need there is less conflict, families are more
self-sufficient, and children have better access to education.
•1.768,000 deaths a year are caused by lack of sanitation including 395,000 children.
•2.375,000 tons of faeces per day are currently being discharged untreated into nature,
quite likely into the river from where we get our drinking water.
Atmospheric collection technologies:
Rainwater harvesting, fog collection,
air wells, and other atmospheric
collection technologies could all
collect water that requires little
Ceramic Water Filters
An inexpensive and effective type of water
filter, that rely on the small pore size
of ceramic material to filter dirt, debris, and
bacteria out of water.
Activated carbon filtration can effectively
reduce certain organic compounds and
chlorine in drinking water. It can also reduce
the quantity of lead, dissolved radon, and
harmless taste- and odor-causing compounds.
Activated Carbon Filtering
Ecological Sanitation Cycle
Super Sand :
It is a cost-effective ways to purify water for rural villages and
developing areas. The performance is also comparable to some
commercially available activated carbon.
Saving Water in Trains
About 5.11 billion Litres of
freshwater is used in trains every
year. This wastage can be reduced
by implementing a feasible idea.
The Way Out:
Water Tank is divided into two
partitions of volume 1/4th and 3/4th
of the entire tank. The former is used
for washing purposes while the later
is used for flushing. The water
utilised in washing purposes is
transferred to the partition used for
flushing. In this way we can save
approx. 1 billion Litres per year.
A feasible solution can be ECOSAN toilets
An ecological sanitation (ecosan) viewpoint sees human waste and wastewater
as an opportunity. When properly designed and operated, ecosan systems
provide a hygienically safe, economical, and closed-loop system to convert
human wastes into nutrients to be returned to the soil, and water to be returned to
the land. Alternatively, solid wastes are converted into a biofuel. The primary
application for ecosan systems has been in rural areas where connection to a
sanitary sewer system is not possible, or where water supplies are very limited
1.To reduce the health risks related to
sanitation, contaminated water and waste.
2.Affordable water free toilet system.
3.No obnoxious odors and minimum
monthly operating costs.
4.Nutrients or energy contained within
wastes can be used as fertilizers.
5.No sewage pipe network and sewage
treatment plants required.
Steps to be taken –
• Bulk production of sanitizers by the government can help providing
sanitization facilities to all at a much lower cost.
• Local community health center can provide these sanitizers with
A hand sanitizer or hand antiseptic is a supplement
or alternative to hand washing with soap and water.
42%-47% reduction in diarrhea can occur when hand washing with
soap and water is introduced into a community. Thus, hand washing
promotion and interventions are estimated to have the potential to
prevent one million deaths from diarrheal diseases.
SOLAR WATER DISINFECTION
• Colorless, transparent PET water or soda pop bottles are
chosen for use.
• Fill contaminated water into the bottles. Fill three-
quarter of bottle & shake it (with the cap on) to improve
oxygen saturation , then fill completely and recap.
• Filled bottles are then exposed to the sun. Bottles will
heat faster and to higher temperatures if they are
placed on a sloped sun-facing corrugated metal roof as
compared to thatched roofs.
• The treated water can be consumed directly from the
bottle or poured into clean drinking cups. The risk of re-
contamination is minimized if the water is stored in the
bottles as refilling and storage in other containers
increases the risk of contamination.
Exposure to sunlight deactivates diarrhea-causing organisms.
1.Heat. Solar thermal water disinfection.
-uses heat from the sun to heat water to 70C-100C for a short period of time. Solar heat
collectors can have lenses in front of them, or reflectors.
2.UV. Solar ultraviolet water disinfection.
-disinfects water using only sunlight and plastic PET bottles. It's a free and effective method
for decentralized water treatment. Its already applied in many countries.
The idea behind the spring box is to isolate spring water from surface contaminants
such as rainwater or surface runoff.
The advantages of this technology are several-fold:
1. Groundwater is a relatively safe water source for use without treatment.
2. Springs are the most inexpensive source of groundwater, and spring protection
structures can be constructed using local skills and materials.
3. Further, this technology incurs few or no operating costs, and requires very little
maintenance, if the water is obtained at its source.
Part of the sanitation challenge is the waste that accumulates in the city's drains. Everything from plastic bottles
to flying toilets can be found in these. What if each compound adopted the drain directly in front of their home
and was paid to keep it clean and free of debris. Participating homes would be paid by the city, and the drains
could be painted to signal clearly where each compounds responsibility starts and ends.
1.Creating demand for better sanitation in communities through programmes which raise awareness
about why sanitation is important.
2.Providing consumers with information about a range of sanitation options.
3.Building and upgrading existing toilets.
4.Promoting health awareness and safe hygiene practice.
5.Monitoring and evaluation to assess the impact of programmes and suggest changes where necessary.
Effective sanitation promotion involves teamwork and co-operation within a municipality.
• One method of strengthening sanitation promotion programme is to link it with other health
promotion projects. In this way, staff gain skills and expertise more quickly and available resources
can be shared.
--an effective approach to improving sanitation
• International Ecosan Symposium
• "EcoSanRes Global Map of ecosan activities". Ecosanres.org. Retrieved 2013-06-29.
• United Nations:World Water Assessment Program
• World Health Organization (WHO). Geneva, Switzerland. Joyce Morrissey Donohue, Charles O. Abernathy, Peter
Lassovszky, George Hallberg
• "water and sanitation for all - International site". WaterAid. 2011-11-30. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
• WHO - Water Sanitation and Health: drinking water quality
• UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation:JMP tables, retrieved on June 28, 2012
• IRC:India: Unrealistic approach hampers rural sanitation programme
• World Bank:Delhi Water Supply & Sewerage Project, Project Information Document Concept Stage
• eco san toilets