Sowing Prosperity: Boosting agricultural productivity
A initiation by youth
Maulana Azad national Institute of Technology
Team co-ordinator- Pratik ranjan verma
Team members- Sagar tiwari, Adesh agrawal, Veeresh
verma, Lovenish agarwal
MAJOR CHALLENGES FACED
India has a huge population of over one billion and it is increasing at a
very fast rate. According to 2001 census figures the over all density of
population is 324 persons per sq. km. This is likely to increase further
in future. This has created great demand for land. Every bit of land has
been brought under the plough. Even the hill slopes have been cut into
terraces for cultivation.
SMALL LAND HOLDINGSThe pressure of increasing population and the practice of dividing land
equally among the heirs has caused excessive sub divisions of farm
holdings. Consequently, the holdings are small and fragmented. The
small size of holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads
to social tension, violence and disc
INADEQUATE IRRIGATION FACILITY
By and large the irrigation facilities available in India are far from
adequate. So for half of the total area under food crops has been
brought under irrigation and the remaining half is left to the mercy of
monsoon rains which are erratic in time and space.
LACK OF MODERN
Developed nation looks for modern facilities in agriculture like hybrid seeds, drip irrigation, sprinklers, bio-
fertilizers and rain water harvesting.
However in lack of such facilities, India lags behind although it has high potential
LAWS AVAILABLE ARE HIGHLY INSUFFICIENT AND NONCONDUCIVE FOR A FARMERS WELL
BEING. WE MUST MAKE A MOVE TO CHANGE THIS MOVE. LIST OF WHICH HAS BEEN
DISSCUSSED LATER IN THIS PRESENTATION
Indian soils have been used for growing crops for thousands of years which have resulted in the
depletion of soil fertility. With deforestation the sources of maintaining natural fertility of soil has
been drying out. Lack of material resources and ignorance of scientific knowledge have further
depleted the soils of the natural fertility. Earlier only animal waste was enough to maintain soil
FUTURE AND ROLE OF INDIAN YOUTH IN AGRICULTURAL FIELD
WWOOFing in India
WWOOFing (Willing Workers on Organic Farms), is a worldwide concept that's been steadily gaining
popularity in India. The number of hosts has grown from just a few in 2000, to over 100. They include tea
estates, coffee estates, and vegan agricultural communities. It's a great way to learn as well as experience
life in the Indian countryside. Food and accommodation are provided
To improve Agricultural technology
Nanotechnology and genetic engineering have opened a hitherto magical world of hybrid
crops and other produce. The animal husbandry techniques being practiced mirror the
huge potential in agro farming
Being a Genomics
The genetically modified (GM) vegetation has increased the insect resistance and abundant
nutritional advantages in the plants, vegetables and fruits
The health concerns have witnessed a soaring popularity and demand for organic
vegetables and fruits. There have been advancements in use of the right kind of
environment friendly, synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and growth hormones. Food
processing without ionizing radiation and the use of food additives is the call of the day.
Importance of Youth in the field of Agriculture
Methods through which we can involve youth
Here are more than one billion people
between the ages of 15-24 years. Quite a
large number of them are not able to
utilize their full potential because of
hunger, poverty, poor health, lack of
education, etc. Since they lack the skills
needed to gain employment, the rural
youth starts migrating in search of better
Modern technology and techniques
pave a way that would fulfill all the
dreams of those looking for interesting
and challenging sources of employment
If they are given support and the
opportunity, youth have the potential
to play a significant role in rural
development. This would not only
make their own life richer and more
fulfilling, but also would have a
positive impact on the economic
health of the nation
Integrate into Curricula –Agriculture is virtually absent from the curriculum, at all the levels of education. This needs to be addressed.
The current mode of education is geared towards educating white-collar workers, most of whom are not even aware from where their
food grains come!
Arousing Interest - Agriculture is often incorporated only as an optional component and taught with minimal enthusiasm; its broad-
based inclusion with the appropriate resources is the need of the hour to motivate youth to have a favorable view of the employment
opportunities in the agricultural sector.
Tapping into Interests – Creation of ongoing initiatives to support youth in agricultural based enterprises, and existence of opportunities
to showcase their success will attract more young people. Today’s youth is savvier with better communication technologies such as the
Internet, computers, mobile phones, and global positioning systems. This can be used to their advantage in getting information about
their interests in agriculture.
Policy: To create an enabling environment for youth to enter into the agricultural sector, a supportive policy environment focused on
youth is required. Access to land and finance is a barrier for many, which is essential for farming and agricultural
entrepreneurship. Youth specific policies as well as providing a space for youth to engage in policy discussions are required. Youth
inclusion in the development of policy on an organizational level is also important and can be facilitated through youth representation
and/or advisors on boards, steering and/or executive committees.
SOLUTIONS FOR ABOVE DISCUSSED
Small Land Holdings create a vast problem
Many experts feel pessimistic and paint a dismal future of Indian agriculture. We are not among them. We feel that Indian farming
can flourish despite small holdings, and can also grow faster than 4%, if we can get a few things right. First, those who feel that
small holdings are inefficient and cannot survive global competition need to look at China. China's holding size is almost half of ours
(0.65 ha in 2010), but it produces more than double the farm output of India from a lower GCA. Its productivity in most crops is
almost double than India's.
In India ,Punjab has the largest holding size and Kerala the smallest amongst large states. The conventional perception is that
Punjab is No. 1 in farm productivity. That is true for rice and wheat, but not overall. It is Kerala, with the smallest holding size,
which has highest value of farm output per ha. That is because Kerala produces high-value spices, rubber and other cash crops. So,
small may not be a major constraint.
Modern technology and alternatives
Augmenting value by diversifying into high-value products or boosting the productivity of staples can work. Second, farm
technology packages comprising high-yielding seeds, fertilisers and water can be perfectly divisible. There is no reason why small
farms will be less efficient if they have access to these inputs.
The challenge is to get them access to these inputs. This can be taken care of if we have the financial inclusion of small farms and
they are able to get credit from formal institutions at reasonable interest. But there could be a problem when farm labour becomes
too expensive and existing models of farm machinery too large for small holdings, leading to overcapitalisation of small farms,
raising capital costs and making them less competitive. To solve this, either small farm implements need to be developed or custom
hiring of existing farm machinery needs to be developed and/or land lease markets need to be promoted to help evolve viable size
of holdings. Most states have very stringent tenancy laws that need to be overhauled. This needs computerisation of land holding
data, and changes in laws to ensure that an owner will not lose her land if it is leased to tenants, no matter for how long.
Solutions To soil Depletion
The soil must have a biology; a viable ecosystem. Current farming practices have ensured a sterile ecosystem in which micro-
organisms, nutrients, even natural life itself, are absent. The use of chemical fertilizers rids the soil of the good bacteria needed to
poor storage facility
It has been estimated that as much as one third of all food grown, some 1.3 billion tons per year, may
be lost or wasted. The economic value of food losses in affluent countries appears to be in the range 0.5 to 1% of GDP, but in
many developing countries, where food forms 20-40% of GDP, the food loss quakes to 7-15% of GDP. Crop losses are often
associated with the earlier stages of the food chain (i.e. pre-harvest, harvest and postharvest losses), whereas food waste mainly
occurs at the market, retail and consumer ends. FAO has recently started to assess food losses and waste by region and food type.
This work is important because once countries, companies and individuals know both the extent of food waste and location in
the value chain it is easier to identify and take steps to address the problem. The degree of financial loss caused by food waste
needs to be communicated clearly to all stakeholders, including consumers. Because of the complexity of food loss and wastage,
so far there is no data specifying how much food loss and waste can realistically be prevented, and what degree of effort and
expense are required. Many successful interventions would require substantial investments in infrastructure and improved
technology. There is
also no evidence that if the food loss was prevented, those who need more food the most would have access to the rescued food.
Nonetheless, by reducing 30% waste at the point of consumption developed countries could save about 40 million hectares of
cropped land plus huge amounts of water and fertilizers.
The analysis of the demographic data revealed that the population is growing rapidly with fluctuating growth rates in
different decades. The population in the state had quadrupled during the last century. Though it has been noticed that there
are some indications of declining growth rate, the current population of the state is still growing every year by 2.01 percent
per year. In view of the limited natural resources in the state, further increase will have serious consequences on agricultural
Regarding agricultural change, there is a large variation in the general land utilization pattern and availability of cultivated
land in different districts of Karnataka. During the study period, a negative trend was noticed with respect to barren and
uncultivable land, cultivable waste land, permanent pastures and grazing lands, miscellaneous trees not included in net area
sown, fallow land other than current fallow in the state. While area under forest, land put to non-agricultural use, net area
sown and area sown more than once shown an increasing trend during the same period.
there are many government policies for farmers but in most of the cases there is a big problem of interaction between
policies and farmers . The relationships between the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities developed under the
mandate of discriminatory and oppressive policies as previously discussed. Life on the farm, and/or reserve provided many
opportunities in which interactions occurred. Many interactions were well documented, while others were not. As a result of
the restrictive government policies, many of the relationships that developed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people
were negative. However, there were strong friendships forged that were based on trust and a genuine need for assistance.
Effects of Government policies
Indian Agents and Farm Instructors
Throughout Aboriginal communities, there developed a deep distrust of the Canadian government and its agents. The Pass
and Permit systems gave power to Indian agents that was not always used fairly. The agent had the ability to grant or deny
passes and/or permits and at times the issuance of such was not done efficiently. The delay in receiving a pass and/or
permit caused many hardships for Aboriginal people which resulted in resentment. Eventually Aboriginal people gave up on
the process of obtaining a pass. The following passage reflects the patience required in order to obtain a pass or permit;
Working On Settler’s Farms
Government policies resulted in First Nations’ farms being geographically small and with little
more than rudimentary equipment to work the land. Even when Aboriginal farmers acquired
more modern equipment, the use of the equipment was disallowed on the basis of the
Peasant Farming policy. Aboriginal farmers were not permitted to freely leave their reserves to
market their crops because of the Pass and Permit system. The policies inhibited and greatly
discouraged Aboriginal farmers. The impact of the policies was seemingly greater when
considered with the fact that the 1880’s were a time of drought and early frost.
Lending A Helping Hand
Farming at the turn of the century was a difficult industry. Farming was very labour intensive, and not many Aboriginal or non-
Aboriginal farmers could afford the labour saving machinery. The lack of machinery and physical labour combined with the
harshness of the climate meant that all farmers had to help each other out. The next passage is an example of the necessity of
helping out one another and demonstrates the sharing nature and attitude that ensured success and harmony in the early days
Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Women
First Nations women faced more than their share of issues.
The original Indian Act of 1876 discriminated
against Aboriginal women. An Aboriginal woman was not
permitted to vote in any elections, including band elections
and Federal elections (Aboriginal men were prohibited from
voting in Provincial elections). If an Status Indian woman
married a non-Aboriginal man she became enfranchised and
lost all her status and treaty rights.