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  1. 1. Citizens for Accountable Governance Manthan Topic CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ENHANCING QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION Team Details Institute: Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode Team: 5CoEd 1. Gomathy Aiyer gomathya17@iimk.ac.in 2. Lekshmi Vaidyeswar vlekshmi17@iimk.ac.in 3. Lijo John lijoj06fpm@iimk.ac.in 4. Paul Jinto Jose pauljj16@iimk.ac.in 5. Sreevas Sahasranamam sreevass06fpm@iimk.ac.in Stepping Stones: Enhancing the quality of primary education 1
  2. 2. Citizens for Accountable Governance Source: CLSA Asia Pacific Markets, Indian Department of Education, Media reports, NGO studies • Proximity issues • Teacher absenteeism and shortage • Children: trade-off between cost of education vs added labour to support family • Infrastructure constraints India: Primary education context • In 2012 only 30% of Grade 3 children could read a Grade 1 text book • Only 50% of Grade 3 kids could recognize digits up to 100 when they should already be learning two digit subtraction • 99% of teacher aspirants failed in Teacher Eligibility Test(TET) • Only 1 in 4 teachers are present at any given time in government school Barriers 2
  3. 3. Citizens for Accountable Governance Para skilling Higher shifts/day Low cost operation Gyanshala: McDonaldization of education Customised organisational structure Low cost of operations – 30% of private school costs 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Same or better quality of education 80 79 59 13 46 14 65 17 0% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 91 51 87 34 44 30 77 94 MathematicsLanguage Gyan Shala Private School 3
  4. 4. Citizens for Accountable Governance • Objective & Function: Improvement of primary education with local community support /Adoption of School • Client : State Departments of Elementary Education/Local Bodies running Elementary Schools • Service Providers: Corporate Sector/VOs/Banks/Elected Representatives/Retired Teachers/Public Sector/ Universities & Colleges/Any person from civil society • Monitoring: is done by the Department of Elementary Education/Local Bodies, although no financial implication is there • Objective & Function: Provision of cooked meals facilitating education through Nutrition • Client: Local School • Service Providers: VOs (Nandi Foundation, Hyderabad; ISCON, Bangalore) • Monitoring: is done by the State Governments/Department of Elementary Education • Objective & Function: i) Interesting and joyful learning through contents with Multimedia effect ii) Creation of e-libraries and making information accessible to children studying in remote/rural areas • Client: Local school/State Government • Service Providers: Private and Public Computer Firms. • Monitoring: is done by the Department of Elementary Education/Local Bodies, although without financial implication PPP in education Services delivered by the private sector (non profit/for-profit organizations), responsibility for providing the service rests with the government Existing successful PPP systems in India Programme of Mobilizing Local Support to Primary School (PLUS) Remarks/Benefits Computer Aided Learning at Elementary Level under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Remarks/Benefits Rs.15 lakh per district per year could be provided for this purpose based on the District Elementary Education Plans of the States. PPP in Mid-Day Meal Scheme Very limited coverage, at presentRemarks/Benefits • Mobilization of financial and human resources from the local community/civil society • States have been requested to have at least 1% of the country’s Government/Semi- Government primary schools covered under PLUS every year, reaching up to 10 % of total primary schools by 2010. 4
  5. 5. Citizens for Accountable Governance • Transform and stimulate the thinking of economically disadvantaged children • 75 Mobile Science Vans which take science education to the village doorstep • e-learning project for SSA Assam in 500 schools on BOOT (Build, Own, Operate, Transfer) basis. • Provides for an integrated package of hardware, customized software and training of teachers. • E-learning material has been developed in three different local languages of Assam to meet the requirement of different mediums of instructions in the State. Other good models that form the basis of our conceptual model • Homogeneity in syllabus – no difference between state boards and central • No ranking of student performance • Aspects like public hygiene, dress codes, etiquette etc. are also considered as part of grade • Success is measured as a sum of academics, behaviour and extracurricular activities on a scale of 0-10 • Cash transfer straight to bank account of the targeted people • Only if students have minimum attendance, family is entitled for the benefits -- Social assistance centres track the benefits movement and checks whether the benefits are utilized in the right manner -- Local teachers themselves act as agents to identify poor students in the locality and encourage them to attend school 5 Edukomp Agastya foundation Netherlands primary education system Enforcement – Bolsa familia scheme (Direct Cash Transfer system of Brazil)
  6. 6. Citizens for Accountable Governance Analysis from Secondary Research  Considering an average 75% utilization rate among the top 23 listed computer-software companies in terms of net income, the employees on bench totals to about 2.22 lakhs in India  Similarly with 75% utilization rate for top 33 medium to small listed computer-software companies in terms of net income, the employees on bench totals to about 31,500 in India  If 25% of 2.53 lakh employees on bench are utilized for CSR activity with basic training, we have about 63,500 strong workforce spread across India to overcome the shortage of teacher scarcity  The employees can be deployed for about 45-60 days which is the typical churn duration in top IT firms in India  Top 4 listed computer training companies have about Rs.8.57 crores in their CSR fund based on the Mar ‘13 financial result of these companies and based on the new CSR rule (2% of net income) of Indian companies act  50% of the this CSR fund totaling about Rs.4.2 crores can be utilized for e-learning and multimedia support and also collaborate to train the software company employees Using the bench employees of IT industry for primary education Top 55 listed Computer software companies in Indian employ in excess of about 10 lakhs employees Top 10 Computer-Software companies in India Top 4 Computer-Training companies in India 6
  7. 7. Citizens for Accountable Governance  Hardware support can be gained by collaborating with Top 4 computer hardware companies in India with a total of about Rs.8.52 crores in CSR fund between them (Mar ‘13)  Top 23 listed computer-software companies have about Rs.667 crores in their CSR fund(Mar ‘13 financial result), with top 6 companies contributing about 90% of the fund based on their net income  25% of this CSR fund totaling about Rs.167 crores can be shown towards CSR activity of salaries, infrastructure and support activities of realizing the successful deployment of bench employees on field towards the teaching activity  Similarly for the top 33 medium to small listed computer- software companies have about Rs.28.5 crores in their CSR fund(Mar ‘13 financial result)  25% of this CSR fund totaling about Rs.7 crores can be shown towards CSR activity of salaries and other support of bench employees deployed for teaching  So among the Top 55 listed Computer software companies a total of about Rs.167+Rs.7 = Rs. 174 crores can be generated for funding the education model proposed by our team 2% of Net Income (in Rs. Cr.) Top 6 Computer-Software companies in India Top 6 Computer-Software companies in India 7 Top 4 Computer-Hardware companies in India
  8. 8. Citizens for Accountable Governance Rating system and use of educational vouchers • Teacher to student ratio • Basic reading skills of students • Basic computational skills of students • Student-classroom ratio • Rating teachers’ performance • Drinking water facility and good infrastructure • Drop-out rates Rating to be done by a private assessment and accreditation body (similar to rating done in higher education by Quacquarelli Symonds or Times Higher Education) 5 point scale of rating depending on the value of voucher (say Rs. 100) reimbursed amount will vary • Outstanding (5) rating – Rs. 300 • Above average (4) – Rs. 200 • Average (3) – Rs. 100 • Below average (2) – Rs. 75 • Poor (1) – Rs. 50 • People below poverty line will be provided with vouchers that they can use for getting enrolled for primary schools • Depending on the rating of the school provided by the private assessment and accreditation body, the schools will get reimbursed from the government • Totally dematerialised system of money transfer which plugs corruption 8 Parameters for rating of school 5 point scale of rating
  9. 9. Citizens for Accountable Governance Enhancing quality of primary education Pedagogy – Agastya foundation Finance and deliver – CSR+PPP Operation – Gyanshala model Bolsa Familia model from Brazil CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ENHANCING QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION • Use of bench employees of IT companies, salary through CSR fund • Use of e-learning and multimedia support set on the model of Netherlands primary education system • Existing infrastructure space of government schools and other government space to be used • Easy scalable model with little additional budgetary pressure on government • Policy change needed at the government level to enforce and bring homogeneity in curriculum • Policy change needed to consider salary of bench employees, who are deployed for teaching be considered as utilization of CSR fund 9 Enforcement Challenges Syllabus To overcome teacher scarcity
  10. 10. Citizens for Accountable Governance References • http://thesparkgroup.wordpress.com/2007/03/10/gyan-shala-%E2%80%93-the-mcdonalds-of-education-in-india/ • http://www.centralsquarefoundation.org/pdf/1_NISA_Conf_Scaling%20Innvovation_Gyanshala.pdf • Monitor group (2009), Introduction to Gyanshala • Karamchandani, A., Kubzansky, M. and Fradano P. (2009), Emerging markets, Emerging models, Monitor Group • GoI, Planning Commission, 2004, Report of the PPP Sub-Group on Social Sector Public Private Partnership • William Bissell (2009), Making India work, Penguin books limited • Narayana Murthy (2009), A better India: A better world, Penguin books limited • National knowledge commission report • Elementary education in India: Progress towards Universal elementary education • http://www.moneycontrol.com/stocks/top-companies-in-india/net-profit-bse/computers-software.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Indian_IT_companies • http://www.livemint.com/Companies/tOGwGAPjhQs1QautjL4GEI/New-company-law-to-change-CSR-landscape.html • http://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/what-you-need-to-know-about-the-new-company-law-and-csr-113080900462_1.html • http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-07-10/software-services/32617328_1_bench-employees-hr-consultancy-ad-astra • http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-07-20/news/32764704_1_bench-internal-projects-utilisation-rate • http://in.reuters.com/article/2013/03/25/india-it-sector-infosys-tcs-tech-staffin-idINDEE92O00720130325 Appendix-1 10
  11. 11. Citizens for Accountable Governance Appendix-2 11 Top 23 listed computer software companies in India
  12. 12. Citizens for Accountable Governance Appendix-2 12 Top 33 listed Medium and Small size computer software companies in India
  13. 13. Citizens for Accountable Governance Appendix-2 13 Top 4 listed computer software training companies in India Top 4 listed computer hardware companies in India