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2 nd international seminar on quality and affordable education

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2 nd international seminar on quality and affordable education

  1. 1. 2 ndInternational SeminaronQualityandAffordableEducation(ISQAE2013) Model ApplicationOf LearningCooperative LearningType Jigsaw ForIncrease LearningOutcomesSocial StudiesEndangSri Rahayu* Prodi ManajemenPendidikanangkatan2011 *Correspondingauthor: ending_sri_rahayu@yahoo.comAbstractThisstudyaimstoobtainempirical dataonthe application of cooperative learningmodel type jigsaw learningtoimprove learningoutcomesandskillsinother aspects.The methodusedinthisresearchisa classroomactionresearchmethodisperformedin three cycles,eachcycle consistingof fourphases:1) planning,2) action3). Observation4) reflection. The sample was39 studentsof classVIIIin the subjectof IPS( Social Studies) ,in SMPN 3 (Junior highschool ) Central Jakarta,conductedbythree cyclesusedtomeasure cognitive assessmenttest results,whilethe otherisusedtomeasure aspectsnontestassessment.The termsof the planto prepare teacherlearning,quiz,studentworksheets,observationsheet.Resultscollaborators response data,the activityof students,inCycle I64.81; Cycle II83.33; cycle III83.33. Resultsof students'affectivevalue;Cycle I68.47; Cycle II72.36; cycle III75. Improvedstudentlearning outcomescan be seen fromthe increasedaverage value,of the cycle Iis 71.28 cycle II is 73.84, and the cycle III is78.20. Asfor the group discussions,cycle Iof cooperationvalue 78.71, Cycle II78.84; cycle III78.84; Furthermore,cycle Ito the value of the contentof the discussionis77.05; Cycle II 71.92; cycle III76.28. Value statements,the average cycle I;73.84; Cycle II 75; cycle III74.35. At each cycle was carriedoutas a formof reflectionandtriangulationof dataverificationoneachcycle. Basedon the results,itcan be concludedthatwiththe implementationof learningmodel Cooperative learningjigsawtype,wasable toimprove learningoutcomesof studentsinthe subject of IPS(Social Studies)cognitive andaffective.Keywords:classroomactionresearch,cooperative learningtype JigsawINTRODUCTION Educationisaconsciouseffortandaimstodevelophuman qualitiesasanactivitythatis aware of the purpose.National educationgoalsunderthe Actof the Republicof IndonesiaNo.20 Year 2003 on National EducationSystemstatedthat:"The national educationservestodevelopskillsandcharacterdevelopmentandadignifiedcivilizationinthe contextof the intellectual life of the nation,aimedatdevelopingthe potential of studentsto become a manof faithand fearof God Almighty,moralsnoble,healthy,knowledgeable,skilled, creative,independent,andbecome citizensof ademocraticandaccountable ".(National Education RI UU No.20/2003). The educational objectivesimpliedthe existenceof valuesformationIndonesia fullyhuman,asbeingintegral,productive,creativeandhave ascientificattitude andinsightful leadershipasaresponsiblecitizen.Social SciencesStudiesisanintegrationof the variousbranches of the social sciencessuchassociology,history,geography,economics,politics,law andculture. Social Sciencesformulatedonthe basisof realityandsocial phenomenathatembodythe interdisciplinaryapproachof the aspectsandbranchesof the social sciences(sociology,history, geography,economics,politics,lawandculture).IPSorsocial studiesthatare part of the school curriculumcontentof the material derivedfrombranchesof the social sciences:sociology,history, geography,economics,politics,anthropology,philosophy andsocial psychology.(National Standardizationof education/BSNP,2007).The learningobjectivesof Social Sciencesistodevelop the potential of learnerstobe sensitive tosocial problemsthatoccurin the community,havinga positive mentalattitude towardsanyrepairsinequality,andskillfullysolveeveryproblemthat occurs dailyeitheruponitself orthe publicoverride.These objectivescanbe achievedwhenlearning programs(IPS) inschoolsiswell organized(BSNP).LearningIPS( Social Studies)inthe SMPinclude the integrationof the science of history,geography,sociologyandeconomics,fromthe observations and the resultsof previousstudiesfoundthatthe methodof teachingadoptedbyteacherstendto be varied,the teacherdidnotuse the rightmethod,sothat the studyresultsdidnotachieve the
  2. 2. resultsoptimal,penilaiaanonlyfromcognitive aspects,otheraspectsshouldalsoaffective and psychomotor.Generallyindicatelearners/studentslackthe abilitytoformulate theirownideas,not usedto compete inthe expressionwithanotherfriend.Achievementof learningoutcomesin general isinfluencedbyintelligence,personality,achievementmotivation,familyenvironment, school environment.One of the factorsthathave affectedthe studyresultsisthatthe learning strategiesusedbyateacherin teaching.AccordingtoA.MalikFajar, as quotedbyMujammil Qomar, sayingthat the methodismore importantthanthe material,butthe teacherismore importantthan the material.Therefore,alearningstrategyis'anaspectthat determinesthe successorfailure of learningactivities139 2 nd International SeminaronQualityandAffordable Education(ISQAE2013) (ImamGozali,2010: 255). In the teaching-learningprocessinschoolsteachersare the mainfactors that playa role in teachingandlearningtoachieve the level of successof studentlearninginthe classroom.Role of the teacherinteachingandlearninginschoolsisveryimportantinachievingthe learningobjectives.Cooperativelearningimpliesattitudesandbehaviorsasa collectiveworkor assistinamongstthe regularstructure of cooperationingroupsof two or more people,whichis stronglyinfluencedbythe successof the workinvolvedineachof the group itself.Cooperative learningismore thanjustlearningthe workinggroup,asstudiedinthismodel there shouldbe encouragementandstructure of cooperative tasksthatallow terjadintainteractionsand relationshipsthatare effective interdependence amonggroupmembers(Slavin,1983:85). Are includedinthisstructure there are five (5) basicelements,namely:positive interdependence, individualresponsibility,personal interaction,collaborationskills,andgroupprocessing(Johnson& Johnson,1993) andto achieve optimal resultsthese five elementsmustbe applied.Advantage gainedinteachingcooperative learningispositive interdependence,the recognitionof individual differencesinresponse,the studentsinvolvedinthe planningof classroommanagement,classroom atmosphere isrelaxedandfun,the warmand friendlyrelationsbetweenthe teachersandlearners have manyopportunitiestoexpressthe experience of pleasantemotions.Cooperativelearningis supportedbyconstructive theoryandsocial learningtheory,toachieve the learningobjectives shouldbe alignedwithclassroommanagementmethodsof learning,andtoachieve the expected resultsinthisteachinginclude:heterogeneousgrouping,the spiritof togetherness,classroom setting.Constructivetheory clearlystatesthatstudentsmustactivelyconstructknowledge.Learning issomethingstudentsdo,notsomethingthatisdone tothe student(AndersonandAmbruster, 1982, Piaget).Ingeneral,learningtheorykontruktive(constuctive Theoriesof Learning) statesthat learners/studentsthemselvesmustpersonallyfindandapplycomplex information,checkingnew informationcomparedtothe oldrulesandfix itif it doesnotfitthe rulesagain(MuhammadNur and PrimaWikandari (2000:38). In the learningprocessthe teacher'srole asfacilitatorisimportant, because educationisessentiallyapersonal interactionbetweenstudentsandbetweenthe instructor/ teacherandthe student(JohnsonandJohnson,Smith,1991),the teacherservesas a facilitatorteachingtodevelopstudents'competenciesandcapabilities(Maslow ,1962, Roger,1982). Many ideasbasedonthe constructivisttheoryof Vygotsky(KarpovandBrandsford,1995:66), which isusedto supportthe teachingmethodsthatemphasize cooperativelearning,angemphasison principles,amongothers:thatstudentslearnsocial interactionwithman,womanandpeersmore capable,thatstudentslearnconcepts,conceptsare bestwhenitisintheirnearestdevelopment zone.Anotherconceptthatreducedemphasisonboth,the social nature of learningandthe nearest zone iscognitive development(Gardner,1991: 30). Furtheremphasisonmediatedlearningor supportstepby stepto learntosolve problems(Kozulin&Presseisen,1995; 30) as an important issue inthe constructionof modernthought.Basicprinciplesof cooperativeteachinginclude:
  3. 3. formulationof learningobjectivesshouldbe clear,thoroughacceptance bystudentsaboutlearning goals,dependenciesare positive,open-endedinteraction,individualresponsibility,the groupis heterogeneous,interactiondnattitude positivesocial behavior,follow-up,satisfactioninlearning. (Sthal,1994:68). There are several typesinCooperative Learning,JigsawType /Teamof Expertshas beendevelopedandtestedbyArosonElliotetal fromthe Universityof Texasandwasadoptedby SlavinatJohnsHopkinsUniversity.Specificallythisstudyconductedtoimprovelearningoutcomes and otheraspectsof teachingand to obtainempirical evidence aboutthe effectof the applicationof learningmethodscooperatif withJigsawtype onteachingIPSisorientedtothe achievementof learningobjectivesIPSinparticularandthe national educationgoalsingeneral,sothatthisresearch can be usedasthe basisforthe application of learningmodelsIPSforteachers.METHODOLOGY The researchmethodusedwasactionresearchmodel of Hopkinspicturedinthe cycle (I,II,andIII) include ineachcycle of planning,action,observation,andreflection.The purpose of thisclassis actionresearchto improve learningoutcomes(IPS)throughthe applicationof learningcooperative learningjigsawtype.The timingof the March of s / d inMay 2011, inclassVIII-2SMPN 3 South Jakarta.Subjectswere studentsof classVIII-2are 39 students. The beginningconditionsstudied subject,general teachingIPSisnotoptimal,the interactionof teachersandstudentsare lessactive and the average value of dailytestsislow (63.66). ClassroomActionResearchinstrumentsinclude: 1) LearningoutcomesIPS(aboutthroughthe grille,instrumentvalidation,the resultsof the mean), 2) ObservationsheetQuestionnaire .Triangulationisdone atthe endof eachcycle to verify.Data collectiontechniques,since the pre-study,baseline,andendof the studyinclude :(1) Quantitative data (value of studentlearningoutcomes)thatcanbe analyzeddescriptively.Inthiscase the researchersusedadescriptive statistical analysis.Forexample,lookforaverage value,the percentage of successinlearning,and others.(2) Qualitative dataisdatathat containsinformation on the formof the sentence thatgivesanideaof the level of expressionof the students' understandingof asubject(cognitive),viewsorattitudesof the studentstowardsthe new learning method(affective),studentsfollow the lessonactivity,attention,140 2 ndInternational Seminaron QualityandAffordable Education(ISQAE2013) enthusiasminlearning,self-confidence,motivation and the like,andanalyzedqualitatively.Analysisdatamethodinthisresearchisdescriptive method that describe /explainthe researchprocessfrombeginningtoend.The datais calculatedbythe followingsteps:(1) Calculatingthe value of dailytestsbefore actionistakenandthe value of the test cycle I, IIand III,(2) Calculate the average value orpercentage of studentlearningoutcomespriorto actionon the cycle I, II,and III,to investigate the improvementof learningoutcomes.RESULTOF RESEARCH Basedon the resultsof thisactionresearchisdone intothree cycles,assistedbyMrs. Lusy Dianawati collaborators,testresultsatcycle Ishowedanaverage value of 71.28, Cycle II of 73.84,cycle III 78.20. While the resultsof the response datacollaboratorsstudentactivitycycle I 64.81, Cycle II 83.33, cycle III 83.33. Similarlytothe resultsof cycle Ithe affective value of 68.47; Cycle II72.36, cycle III75.00. Asfor the resultsof the group,includingthe cycle ICooperation78.71. Cycle II78.83 and cycle III78.84. Assessmentwithindicatorsof Contentsdiscussion77.05cycle I, Cycle II71.92, and cycle III76.28 and preparationof reportsvalue 73.84 in the cycle I, Cycle II75.00 and cycle III74.35. Inadditiontoimprovedstudentlearningoutcomescanalsobe seeninthe teachingbehaviorsuchasan increase inactive learners,groupcollaboration,discussionand attitudesof learnersinteaching.DISCUSSIONBasedonthe resultsof dataanalysisindicate that:(1) The applicationof the model typesJigsaw cooperativelearningcanimprove learningoutcomes(IPS) students,althoughthe increaseisnottoohighpercentage (2) The resultsare not highdue to lackof applicationof five basicelementsmaximumonCooperative teachingLewarningnamely:positive
  4. 4. interdependence,individual responsibility,personalinteraction,collaborationskills,andgroup processing(Johnson&Johnson,1993).(3) The abilitytodiscussthe rate has increased,thisindicates that there hasbeena verypositive change inthe studygroup.(4) Studentsare individualswhodid not complete the firstcycle andsecondcycle turnsingroupdiscussionsisable togainvalue overthe minimal grade (KKM).Thisisinaccordance opinion(Maslow,1962, Roger,1982) thatteachersserve as facilitatorsof learningtodevelop the competence andabilityof the studentsindicatedthatthe type of teachingcooperative learningjigsawmodelsable toexplore the potential of learners.(5) The resultsof thisstudyindicate thatbyapplyingthe methodonteaching(IPS) isthe interaction betweenthe studentgoeson,aswell asteachers'interactionswithstudents,learningobjectives achievedsothatneedstobe developedinthe social studieslearning.CONCLUSION Basedonthe resultsobtainedduringthe teachingCooperative Learning Model IPS,the studentSMPitcan be concludedthat(1) learningmodelwasshowntoimprove studentlearningoutcomes.Scores obtainedincludeindividual andgroupresults,meaningthe applicationof thismodeltoimprove learningoutcomesforindividuals andgroups.(2) Withthismodel untappedpotentialstudents,with the adventof the abilitytodiscuss,cooperation,grouppreparedareport,responsibilityandother skillsthatobservedcollaborator.(3) Cooperative learningModel inthe learningIPS, canmake studentslearnindependentlyandresponsiblywiththe groupaswell asindividually.REFERENCE Cohen,E.G.DesigningGroupwork:Strtegiesforthe HeterogeneusClassroom.New York:Teaching College Press,1994 DepartemenPendidikanNasional,Model PembelajaranTerpaduIPS.Jakarta: BSNP,2007. Gardner,H. The UnschooledMind:How ChildrenThinkandHow school ShouldTeach. NewYork : Basicbook,1991. Karpov,YV danBrandsford,JD .Vygotskyandthe Doctrine of Emperical and Theoritical Learning,Educational Psichologist,1995 KozulinA danPresseisen.Bz.Mediated LearningExperienceandPsychologisttools.Educational Psichologist,1995 PeraturanPemerintah RepublikIndonesiaNo.19, StandarNasional Pendidikan,Jakarta:BiroHukumdanOrganisasi SekretariatJenderalPendidikanNasional,2005. Qomar,Mujammil.ManajemenPendidikanIslam; Strategi baruPengelolaanLembagaPendidikanIslam, Jakarta:Erlangga,2007. Sanjaya,Wina. Strategi Pembelajaran.Jakarta:Kencana,2008. Sharan,Y.ExpandingCooperativeLearningTrough Group Investigation.NewYork:TeacherCollege Press,1992. Slavin.Robert.ECooperative Learningin Social Studies:HandbookforTeachers.USA:Kane PublishinghService,Inc,1983. Sudjana,Metode Statistika.Bandung:Tarsito,2002. Undang-undangRepublikIndonesiaNo.20,TentangSistem PendidikanNasional,Jakarta:BiroHukumdanOrganisasi SekretariatJenderal Departemen PendidikanNasional,2003. http://educ.utm.my/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/20.pdf

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