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JDE & Peoplesoft 2 _ Sam Sampathnathan _ Best Practices for Managing Your JD Edwards Data.pdf


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JDE & Peoplesoft 2 _ Sam Sampathnathan _ Best Practices for Managing Your JD Edwards Data.pdf

  1. 1. Best Practices for Managing JD Edwards Data:Preparing for Upgrades, Migrations and more Sambasivam Sampathnathan – World Wide Product Manager IBM Software Group 08/16/2011
  2. 2. Today’s Discussion•  What  drives  upgrades  today?  •  Data  management  strategies  for  your  upgrade  project  •  Archiving  and  Upgrades   –  Concepts  &  Benefits   –  Key  Requirements  •  Managing  test  data  •  Client  Success  Story  •  QuesEons  &  Answers
  3. 3. What Drives Upgrades Today•  Maximize  value  from  exisEng  investments  in  current   economic  condiEons:  Fusion  apps  sEll  under  development  •  Changing  business  processes/requirements  •  ApplicaEon  instance  consolidaEon  •  Technology  –  Out  with  the  old,  in  with  the  new   –  New  features;  industry  compliance   –  Obsolete  hardware,  middleware  &  database  plaSorms  •  Vendor-­‐imposed  upgrade  deadlines  
  4. 4. Common Drivers of Data Growth•  OrganizaEon  growth  •  Reduce  IT  Cost  •  Data  retenEon  compliance  •  Too  much  of  everything   –  Keeping  data  “always  available”  •  Data  mulEplier  effect  
  5. 5. How are Organizations Responding to Data Growth? •  Use database Performance partitioning •  Use database vendor Database Size compression •  Buy more Storage & CPU hardware Hardware Capacity Forrester estimates that, on average, data repositories for large applications grow by 50% annually (structured data). *Source: Forrester Research, Database Archiving Remains An Important Part Of Enterprise DBMS Strategy, Q3 2007
  6. 6. What is Archiving?•  Segregate  historical  enterprise  applicaEon  data  by  age,  status,   event  or  other  criteria  •  Copy  historical  records  to  a  secure  archive  •  Delete  transacEon  details  from  producEon  system  •  Retain  access  to  informaEon  for  query,  reporEng,  customer   service,  audit  and  discovery  requests   Production Archive Reference Data Archive Historical Historical Data Current
  7. 7. What are the Benefits of Archiving?•  Streamline  the  upgrade  project   –  Reduce  downEme  during  conversion  by  50%  or  more   –  Improve  applicaEon  performance  from  old  version  to  new   version  by  reducing  OLTP  workload  •  Maintain  a  superior  ownership  experience  –  ongoing     –  Reduce  backup  and  disaster  recovery  Eme  by  hours   –  Lower  database  maintenance  Eme  for  tasks  like  reorganizaEons,   refreshes,  clones   –  Support  “compliance  readiness”   –  Ensure  consistent  performance  to  Service  Level  objecEves   –  Reduce  cost  of  storage  and  overall  TCO  
  8. 8. Data Archive Strategy: Questions to Consider•  What  data  should  I  be  saving,  for  how  long  and  for  what   reasons?  •  What  data  should  I  be  deleEng?  •  How  am  I  going  to  find  the  data  when  I  need  it?  •  What  do  I  do  with  the  data  when  I  no  longer  need  it?  •  What  is  the  cost/benefit  analysis  to  support  an  archiving   soluEon  acquisiEon?  •  What  is  the  most  appropriate  soluEon  to  meet  my  archiving   needs?  
  9. 9. Archiving Solution: 4 Key Requirements1   ApplicaEon  Intelligent   • JD  Edwards  EnterpriseOne   • Complete  Business  Object  2   Take  the  right  data  out   • Apply  Func>onal  Condi>on  Checks   • Accommodate  Unique  Business   Requirements  3   • Support  &  automate  data  reten>on   Store  it  where  you   policies  as  per  ILM  business  requirements   want   • Mul>ple  formats  –  DBMS,  File  4   Access  archived  data   when  &  how  you  want   • Na>ve  applica>on  access   • Applica>on  independent  access  
  10. 10. 1 Application Intelligent •  Complete  Business  Object   –  Includes  pre-­‐defined  related  J.D.   Edwards  tables   –  TransacEon  data  as  well  as   contextual  and  reference  data   •  Integrity  Checks   •  Custom  columns  are  recognized   automaEcally   •  AddiEonal  custom  tables  can  be   added  visually   •  SelecEon  criteria  or  integrity   checks  may  be  applied  to  any   column:  AutomaEcally  applied   to  all  related  rows.  
  11. 11. 2 Archive the Right Set of Data Extract Production Database Archive Solution 1 - 2 Years Current Data •  Access Definitions •  Complete Business Object •  Business Rules •  Validations
  12. 12. 2 Archiving a Complete Business Object •  Represents application data record – payment, invoice, customer –  Referentially-intact subset of data across related tables and applications; includes metadata •  Provides “historical reference snapshot” of business activity •  Federated object support across enterprise data stores
  13. 13. 2 Complete Business Object - Example F0010 Company Master F0008 F0101 F0006 F0011 Business Unit Batch Control Fiscal Data Pattern Address Book Master (closed jobs) F0012 F0018 F0911 F0911T AAI’s Tax Table General Ledger GL Tag F0025 F4008 F0902 Ledger Type Master Tax Area Account Balances F0901 F0909 Account Master Chart of Accounts Records in table removed from database during archive process •  Represents application data record – payment, invoice, customer Table captured as reference table during archive process –  Referentially-intact subset of data across related tables and applications; includes metadata All Records included •  Provides “historical reference snapshot” of business activity •  Federated object support across enterprise data stores
  14. 14. 2 Business Rules & Validations Example•  Both  invoice  closed  date  and  receipt  GL  Date  must  fall  within   the  specified  period  •  The  invoice  and  receipt  are  posted  and  all  corresponding  G/L   entries  are  posted  •  All  the  invoices  must  be  paid  and  the  payment  status  must   be  equal  to  ‘P’  •  The  domesEc  and  foreign  open  amounts  both  must  be  equal   to  zero  •  Recurrent  invoices  (doc.  type  RR)  are  only  archived  if  the   number  of  installments  is  blank  
  15. 15. 3 Store It Where you Want Compressed Active/Historical Online 2 - 4 Years Archives XML Extract Production Archive Database Database On/Near-Line Archive 4 - 6 Years Archive Solution Non DBMS1 - 2 Years Retention Platform Current Data •  Access Definitions ATA File Server •  Complete Business SATA / FATA disk Object •  Business Rules 6+ Years Off-Line Archive Off-line Retention Platform •  Validations CD,Tape,Optical, WORM HP StorageWorks™, IBM TSM NetApp NearStore® SnapLock™, IBM Information Archive/TSM EMC Centera™.
  16. 16. 3 Support ILM Business Requirement FuncEonal  Usage  /  Access  Requirements  Over  Time   ExcepEon-­‐based,   Infrequent,   ApplicaEon-­‐ Frequent,   Ad-­‐Hoc,   Independent   ApplicaEon-­‐ Query-­‐based   Access   Complete  DeleEon     Based   Access      (Self-­‐  (24-­‐hour  IT   (Dictates  storage   Business  Object   Access   Help)   response)   planning)   Journals  (GL)   Current  –  2Y   Years  3  –  5   Years  6  -­‐  10   Year  11   Invoices  (AP)   Current  –  2Y   Years  3  –  5   Years  6  -­‐  10   Year  11   TransacEons  (AR)   Current  –  2Y   Years  3  –  5   Years  6  -­‐  10   Year  11   Purch.  Orders  (PO)   Current  Year   Year  2   Years  3  -­‐  10   Year  11   Sales  Order  (SO)   Current  –  2Y   Years  3  –  5   Years  6  -­‐  10   Year  11   Fixed  Assets  (FA)   Current  Year   Year  2   Years  3  -­‐  10   Year  11  
  17. 17. 4 Access Archived Data Active/Historical Online Compressed 2 - 4 Years Archives XML U N Extract I Native Application Archive Access VProduction Database E Database Restore R On/Near-Line Archive S 4 - 6 Years1-2 Archive Solution Non DBMS A IBM MashupsYears Retention Platform LCurrent Data •  Access Definitions ATA File Server •  Complete Business EMC Centera™, DR550, Etc. A Object C •  Business Rules C 6+ Years Off-Line Archive Off-line Retention Platform •  Validations CD,Tape,Optical, WORM E Additional Options HP StorageWorks™, IBM TSM S ODBC / JDBC NetApp NearStore® SnapLock™, S XML IBM Total Storage® solutions SQL (including the DR550) EMC Centera™. Excel / Access
  18. 18. 4 Access Archived Data Thru Reporting Tools Reporting Solution Options • Report Writers: •  Cognos •  Business Objects •  Discoverer • Mashup Center Archive • Access • Any SQL-based tool set • Browser • Java Application •  Open & independent •  No training of end users or audit staff •  Leverage existing tools and skills •  OLTP not required
  19. 19. Where Does Archiving Fit?1.  Archive  before  an  Upgrade   –  Reduces  amount  of  data  to  convert  during  producEon  cutover   –  Reduces  downEme  during  upgrade  2.  Archive  in  Parallel  with  an  Upgrade   –  Combines  common  technical  and  funcEonal  tasks  to  save   overall  elapsed  Eme     •  Technical  Tasks:    Validate  individual  steps  (such  as  moving  query   tables  forward),  validaEng  new  technical  environment,   performance  tesEng   •  FuncEonal/Business  Tasks:  Reconciling  “before”  &  “aner”  results,   regression  tesEng  on  key  business  processes  (such  as  payroll   processing  or  financial  close)  
  20. 20. 1. Archive Before Upgrade Older Version Upgrade Project Upgraded Version Application Archive Data Current Data Current Data Application Archives Application Archives Universal Access to Application Data Application ODBC / JDBC XML Report Writer
  21. 21. 2. Archive & Upgrade Projects in Parallel Older Version Upgraded Version Upgrade Project Archive Application Data Archive Planning Current Data Application Application Archives Universal Access to Application Data Application ODBC / JDBC XML Report Writer
  22. 22. Data Multiplier Effect Dev Test Back-up 1 TB UA Disaster 1 TB 1 TB Recovery ERP/CRM 1 TB ApplicationDev Back-up Dev Test Back- Test up UA UA Master Data Data Disaster Disaster Warehouses Recovery Recovery The Actual Data Burden = Size of all production database + all replicated clones According to Forrester, on average, data repositories for large applications grows by 50% annually (structured data)!
  23. 23. Creation of Test Environment: Current Practices#1 - Clone Production #2 – Write SQL Clone Production Request for Copy Write SQL •  Complex Extract •  Subject to Change Wait After Changes Production Production After Extract Database Database Copy Copy Changes •  RI Accuracy? Expensive, •  Right Data? Dedicated Staff, Manual examination: Ongoing Right data? Responsibility What Changed? Correct results? Share test database Unintended Result? with everyone else Someone else modify?
  24. 24. Effective Test Data ManagementProduction or Production Clone Relational subset Extract Load / Mask Insert / Update 2TB Compare 25 GB 25 GB Development• Create targeted, right-sized test environments Unit Test• Substitute sensitive data with fictionalized yet contextually accurate data• Easily refresh, reset and maintain test environments 50 GB 100 GB• Compare data to pinpoint and resolve application defects faster Training Integration• Accelerate release schedules Test
  25. 25. Testing Best Practices - OracleTip #27—Test with a Representative Subset of Production Data“When performing the development upgrade, it is important toleverage a representative subset of production data insteadof an exact copy; this is because the development environmentusually has less capacity in both memory and hard drive spacethan the test and production environments. Limiting the size ofthe conversion files during the development upgrade will betterensure that the processes will complete in a timely manner.”
  26. 26. Data in Test & Development Environments•  62%  of  companies  surveyed  use  actual  customer   data  instead  of  disguised  data  to  test  applicaEons   during  the  development  process   –  50%  of  respondents  have  no  way  of  knowing  if  the  data   used  in  tesEng  had  been  compromised.  •  52%  of  respondents  outsourced  applicaEon  tesEng   –  49%  shared  live  data  Source: The Ponemon Institute. The Insecurity of Test Data: The Unseen Crisis
  27. 27. Mask Data in Non-Production Environments•  Also  known  as:  data  de-­‐idenEficaEon,  depersonalizaEon,   desensiEzaEon,  obfuscaEon,  data  scrubbing  •  Technology  that  helps  conceal  real  data  •  Scrambles  data  to  create  new,  legible  data    •  Retains  the  datas  properEes,  such  as  its  width,  type  and  format  •  Common  data  masking  algorithms  include  random,  substring,   concatenaEon,  date  aging  •  Used  in  non-­‐producEon  environments  as  a  Best  PracEce  to   protect  sensiEve  data  
  28. 28. De-identify Data Without Impacting Dev & Test•  Mask  or  de-­‐idenEfy  sensiEve  data  elements  that  could  be  used  to   idenEfy  an  individual  •  Ensure  masked  data  is  contextually  appropriate  to  the  data  it  replaced,   so  as  not  to  impede  tesEng   •  Data  is  realisEc  but  ficEonal   •  Masked  data  is  within  permissible  range  of  values  •  Support  referenEal  integrity  of  the  masked  data  elements  to  prevent   errors  in  tesEng     Personal identifiable information is masked with realistic but fictional data for testing & development purposes. JASON MICHAELS ROBERT SMITH
  29. 29. Why Retire or Consolidate Applications •  Redundant  systems  acquired  via   mergers  and  acquisiEons   •  Line  of  business  divested   •  Legacy  technologies  not  compaEble   with  current    IT  direcEon   •  Required  technical  skills  or   applicaEon  knowledge  no  longer   available   •  Budget  pressures  –  do  more  with   less!  
  30. 30. Retire Unused Legacy Applications•  Consolidate  mulEple  applicaEons  into  a  single  instance  and   reEre  unused  applicaEons   –  Move  from  home  grown  to  packaged  system   –  Consolidate  similar  systems  due  to  mergers  and  acquisiEons  •  Consolidate  an  independent  business  process  with  others   –  Move  automaEon  capabiliEes  into  a  single  system  and  reEre   independent  applicaEon  •  Move  applicaEon  from  an  old  to  new  architecture     –  Not  all  data  is  relevant  for  the  move,  but  it  must  be  retained  •  Shut  down  legacy  system  without  a  replacement  In  almost  ALL  cases,  access  to  legacy  data  MUST  be  retained   while  the  applica<on  and  database  are  eliminated  
  31. 31. Retire the Application, Not the DataArchiving allows you to move the data needed whilemaintaining access to the original data in its business-object form without the original application. Benefits   –  Reduce  IT  infrastructure  costs  (hardware,   sonware,  labor  costs)   –  Reduce  infrastructure  complexity  (eliminate   confusion)   –  Reclaim  assets    
  32. 32. About IBM Optim•  Proven  leader  in  Integrated  Data  Management   (IDM):   –  Manage  and  Control  Data  Growth   –  Data  RetenEon,  Compliance  &  Discovery   –  Speed  ApplicaEon  Delivery  &  Quality  with  Test  Data   Management   –  Speed  ApplicaEon  Upgrades  &  MigraEons   –  ApplicaEon  ReErement   –  Improve  Storage  Management  –  ILM   –  Improve  ApplicaEon    Performance  and  SLAs  •  Solving  complex  data  management  issues  since   1989  •  Global  company:  2500  clients;  50%  of  Fortune  500  •  Recognized  by  Gartner,  IDC,  META  as  EDM   industry  leader  with  46%  market  share.  
  33. 33. IBM Optim™ Solutions •  Op>m  Data  Growth  Solu>on   (Archiving)   –  Improve  performance   –  Control  data  growth,  save  storage   –  Support  retenEon  compliance   –  Enable  applicaEon  reErement   –  Streamline  upgrades   •  Op>m  Test  Data  Management   Solu>on   –  Create  targeted,  right  sized  test   environments     –  Improve  applicaEon  quality   –  Speed  iteraEve  tesEng  processes   •  Op>m  Data  Privacy  Solu>on   –  Mask  confidenEal  data   –  Comply  with  privacy  policies  
  34. 34. IBM Optim: Enterprise Architecture Discovery Test Data Management Data Privacy Data Growth Application Retirement Organization environments are diverse, yet interrelated; therefore what you use to manage the data MUST support across your environment
  35. 35. Success Story: Application Upgrade & Cost Challenge Business Benefits §  The upgrade and data conversion was§  Leveraging their Oracle packaged- completed over a 3-day weekend, eliminating application for manufacturing, shipping and the need for downtime during business hours. finance. Since installing in 2003, the system §  Archived data is still accessible to functional has grown tremendously, from 300 GB to users via an archive database, so there was more than 1 TB of information. minimal training needed.§  Calculated it would take 5 to 7 business §  Archived data was stored on “tier 2” storage. days to perform the upgrade and data This provided an estimated annual savings of conversion. That amount of downtime for a $75,000-$80,000 in storage costs. business critical application would be §  Archiving project was completed 3 weeks unacceptable. ahead of schedule, allowing for additional preparation time for the upgrade project itself. “Without IBM Optim software, it would have taken us nearly twice as long to upgrade our ERP Solution application, forcing us to shut down manufacturing. Instead, we completed the •  IBM InfoSphere Optim Data Growth Solution process in one three-day weekend without any business interruption.”
  36. 36. Other ExamplesObjective: Objective: Objective: Objective:Minimize business Need to reduce Need to reduce the Minimize businessdisruption during JD projected system database size of enterprise disruption during JDEdwards upgrade and downtime for JD system, and manage the Edwards upgrade andimprove system Edwards upgrade from 8 ongoing data growth for control 25% annual dataperformance to support days to 3 days to avoid financial and supply chain growth & correspondingbusiness operations business disruption information storage costsSolution: Solution: Solution: Solution:Optim Data Growth Optim Data Growth Optim Data Growth Optim Data GrowthSolution for JD Edwards Solution for JD Edwards Solution for JD Edwards Solution for JD EdwardsEnterpriseOne EnterpriseOne EnterpriseOne EnterpriseOneReduced the volume of Completed upgrade and Reduced the database size Attained a 50% reduction inaudit trail & workflow data conversion over a 3- & implemented data growth their needed futureactivity by 63%, day weekend, eliminating strategy, creating a 50% purchases of data storage,shortening data downtime during business reduction in system streamlined the dataconversion window and hours; stored archive data maintenance and 300% migration process duringimproving system on “tier 2” storage, saving improvement in query times the upgrade project, andperformance. $80K annually in storage reduced the time needed costs for ongoing maintenance
  37. 37. Featured List of Optim JD Edwards Customers
  38. 38. Enterprise Customers
  39. 39. What’s the Take-Away?•  Define  your  InformaEon  Lifecycle  Management  (ILM)   requirements   –  What  needs  to  be  archived   –  How  long  you  need  to  hold  on  to  them  •  “We’re  an  IT  shop  delivering  business  value”  •  Today’s  IT  strategies  should  provide  an  immediate  payback   AND  set  the  stage  for  future  innovaEon   –  Understand  your  data   –  Manage  data  growth  via  archiving   –  Use  subsets  for  test  data  creaEon   –  Mask  data  in  non-­‐producEon  environments   –  ReEre/consolidate  legacy/unused  applicaEons  
  40. 40. In Closing…..•  You  are  most  welcome  to  join  me  at  the  IBM  Booth  aner  this   session  to  discuss  this  presentaEon  or  your  specific  quesEons   or  requirements  •  We’d  appreciate  if  you  can  complete  the  evaluaEon  form  on   your  seat    and  deposit  in  the  box  at  the  IBM  Booth    ….  you’ll   also  have  a  chance  to  win  one  of    3  iPads!              •  All  IBM  Summit  presentaEon  sessions  are  noted  in  the  flyer   on  your  seat  to  help  plan  your  parEcipaEon  …  we’d  love  to   see  you  at  some  more  of  our  sessions!  •  Break  Free  at  our  next  IBM  event  …  see  the  invitaEon   envelope  on  your  seat  for  details.  
  41. 41. Thank  You  
  42. 42. Disclaimers  IBM  customers  are  responsible  for  ensuring  their  own  compliance  with  legal  requirements.  It  is  the  customers  sole  responsibility  to  obtain  advice  of  competent  legal  counsel  as  to  the  iden>fica>on  and  interpreta>on  of  any  relevant  laws  and  regulatory  requirements  that  may  affect  the  customers  business  and  any  ac>ons  the  customer  may  need  to  take  to  comply  with  such  laws.      IBM  does  not  provide  legal  advice  or  represent  or  warrant  that  its  services  or  products  will  ensure  that  the  customer  is  in  compliance  with  any  law.  The  informa>on  contained  in  this  documenta>on  is  provided  for  informa>onal  purposes  only.  While  efforts  were  made  to  verify  the  completeness  and  accuracy  of  the  informa>on  provided,  it  is  provided  “as  is”  without  warranty  of  any  kind,  express  or  implied.  IBM  shall  not  be  responsible  for  any  damages  arising  out  of  the  use  of,  or  otherwise  related  to,  this  documenta>on  or  any  other  documenta>on.  Nothing  contained  in  this  documenta>on  is  intended  to,  nor  shall  have  the  effect  of,  crea>ng  any  warran>es  or  representa>ons  from  IBM  (or  its  suppliers  or  licensors),  or  altering  the  terms  and  condi>ons  of  the  applicable  license  agreement  governing  the  use  of  IBM  so`ware.  
  43. 43. Trademarks  and  disclaimers  Intel,  Intel  logo,  Intel  Inside,  Intel  Inside  logo,  Intel  Centrino,  Intel  Centrino  logo,  Celeron,  Intel  Xeon,  Intel  SpeedStep,  Itanium,  and  Pen>um  are  trademarks  or  registered    trademarks  of  Intel  Corpora>on  or  its  subsidiaries  in  the  United  States  and  other  countries./    Linux  is  a  registered  trademark  of  Linus  Torvalds  in  the  United  States,  other  countries,  or  both.  Microso`,  Windows,  Windows  NT,  and  the  Windows  logo  are  trademarks  of  Microso`  Corpora>on  in  the  United  States,  other  countries,  or  both.    IT  Infrastructure  Library  is  a  registered  trademark  of  the  Central  Computer  and  Telecommunica>ons  Agency  which  is  now  part  of  the  Office  of  Government  Commerce.    ITIL  is  a  registered  trademark,  and  a  registered  community  trademark  of  the  Office  of  Government  Commerce,  and  is  registered  in  the  U.S.  Patent  and  Trademark  Office.    UNIX  is  a  registered  trademark  of  The  Open  Group  in  the  United  States  and  other  countries.    Java  and  all  Java-­‐based  trademarks  are  trademarks  of  Sun  Microsystems,  Inc.  in  the  United  States,  other  countries,  or  both.    Other  company,  product,  or  service  names  may  be  trademarks  or  service  marks  of  others.        Informa>on  is  provided  "AS  IS"  without  warranty  of  any  kind.  The  customer  examples  described  are  presented  as  illustra>ons  of  how  those  customers  have  used  IBM  products  and  the  results  they  may  have  achieved.    Actual  environmental  costs  and  performance  characteris>cs  may  vary  by  customer.  Informa>on  concerning  non-­‐IBM  products  was  obtained  from  a  supplier  of  these  products,  published  announcement  material,  or  other  publicly  available  sources  and  does  not  cons>tute  an  endorsement  of  such  products  by  IBM.    Sources  for  non-­‐IBM  list  prices  and  performance  numbers  are  taken  from  publicly  available  informa>on,  including  vendor  announcements  and  vendor  worldwide  homepages.    IBM  has  not  tested  these  products  and  cannot  confirm  the  accuracy  of  performance,  capability,  or  any  other  claims  related  to  non-­‐IBM  products.    Ques>ons  on  the  capability  of  non-­‐IBM  products  should  be  addressed  to  the  supplier  of  those  products.  All  statements  regarding  IBM  future  direc>on  and  intent  are  subject  to  change  or  withdrawal  without  no>ce,  and  represent  goals  and  objec>ves  only.      Some  informa>on  addresses  an>cipated  future  capabili>es.    Such  informa>on  is  not  intended  as  a  defini>ve  statement  of  a  commitment  to  specific  levels  of  performance,  func>on  or  delivery  schedules  with  respect  to  any  future  products.    Such  commitments  are  only  made  in  IBM  product  announcements.    The  informa>on  is  presented  here  to  communicate  IBMs  current  investment  and  development  ac>vi>es  as  a  good  faith  effort  to  help  with  our  customers  future  planning.    Performance  is  based  on  measurements  and  projec>ons  using  standard  IBM  benchmarks  in  a  controlled  environment.    The  actual  throughput  or  performance  that  any  user  will  experience  will  vary  depending  upon  considera>ons  such  as  the  amount  of  mul>programming  in  the  users  job  stream,  the  I/O  configura>on,  the  storage  configura>on,  and  the  workload  processed.    Therefore,  no  assurance  can  be  given  that  an  individual  user  will  achieve  throughput  or  performance  improvements  equivalent  to  the  ra>os  stated  here.  Prices  are  suggested  U.S.  list  prices  and  are  subject  to  change  without  no>ce.    Star>ng  price  may  not  include  a  hard  drive,  opera>ng  system  or  other  features.    Contact  your  IBM  representa>ve  or  Business  Partner  for  the  most  current  pricing  in  your  geography.  Photographs  shown  may  be  engineering  prototypes.    Changes  may  be  incorporated  in  produc>on  models.    ©  IBM  Corpora>on  1994-­‐2008.    All  rights  reserved.  References  in  this  document  to  IBM  products  or  services  do  not  imply  that  IBM  intends  to  make  them  available  in  every  country.  Trademarks  of  Interna>onal  Business  Machines  Corpora>on  in  the  United  States,  other  countries,  or  both  can  be  found  on  the  World  Wide  Web  at  hip://