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Antibiotics

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Antibiotics there classification, use , misuse, resistance , cross resistance, definition
M.Hammad Tariq
Student
Isra University Islamabad Pakistan

Published in: Healthcare
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Antibiotics

  1. 1. M.Hammad Tariq
  2. 2.  What is antibiotic  Classification  Use  Misuse  Resistance & Cross-resistance  Possible side effects  Characteristics of ideal antibiotic
  3. 3.  An antibiotic is a naturally occurring, semi synthetic or synthetic type of agent that destroys or inhibits growth of micro- organisms.
  4. 4.  Antibiotics are classified several ways On the basis of mechanism of action On the basis of spectrum of activity On the basis of mode of action
  5. 5.  On the basis of mechanism of action antibiotics are classified as followings i. Protein synthesis inhibitor ii. Cell wall synthesis inhibitor iii. DNA synthesis inhibitor iv. RNA synthesis inhibitor v. Folic acid inhibitor vi. Mycolic acid synthesis inhibitor
  6. 6.  On the basis of spectrum of activity antibiotics are classified as  Broad spectrum Antibiotics ◦ The term broad-spectrum antibiotic refers to an antibiotic that acts against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria Tetracycline Chloramphenicol Amoxicillin Cephalosporin Erythromycin
  7. 7.  Short spectrum Antibiotics  The term short-spectrum antibiotic refers to an antibiotic that acts against a narrow range of disease-causing bacteria Penicillin-G Cloxacillin Vancomycin Bacitracin Fluxacillin
  8. 8.  On the basis of mode of action antibiotics are classified as followings Bacteriostatic A bacteriostatic agent is a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise Bactericidal A bactericidal agent is a biological or chemical agent that kills the bacteria
  9. 9.  Pneumonia  Sepsis  Meningitis  Gall infection  Skin infection  Mucus membrane infection  Diphtheria  Gynecologic infection  ENT infection  Fungus Infection  Quinsy  Scarlet Fever  Siberian Ulcer
  10. 10.  Resistance ◦ If the concentration of drug requires to inhibit or kill the microorganism is great or less then the normal use then the microorganism is considered to be resistant to that drug  Cross-resistance ◦ Cross-resistance to a particular antibiotic that often results in resistance to other antibiotic, usually from a similar chemical class, to which the bacteria may no have been exposed. ◦ For-example ◦ Clindamycin and lincomycin
  11. 11.  Although there is a long list of side effects but some of them are listed below. ◦ Diarrhea ◦ Bloating ◦ Indigestion ◦ Abdominal pain ◦ Loss of appetite ◦ Being sick ◦ Feeling sick ◦ Itchy skin rash ◦ Coughing ◦ Life threatening allergic reaction
  12. 12.  Ideal antibiotic should have following characteristics ◦ Selective toxic to the microbe but nontoxic to host cell ◦ Microbial rather than micobistaic ◦ Relatively soluble , function even when highly diluted in body fluid ◦ Remain potent long enough to act and is not broken down or excreted prematurity ◦ Doesn’t lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance ◦ Does not disrupt the host health by causing allergies or predisposing the host to other infection ◦ Reasonably priced
  13. 13.  https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine /25612  www.webmd.com/  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloramphenic ol  http://www.orthobullets.com/basic- science/9059/antibiotic-classification-and- mechanism  http://www.slideshare.net/phmosarrof/prese ntation-on-antibiotics

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