Motivation & mgmt fundamentals

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Motivation & management fundamentals.

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Motivation & mgmt fundamentals

  1. 1. Management FundamentalsManagement Fundamentals Concepts, Applications, Skills DevelopmentConcepts, Applications, Skills Development MotivatingMotivating 12 A
  2. 2. Self-Fulfilling ProphecySelf-Fulfilling Prophecy –Employees will live up to or down to their own expectations.
  3. 3. Performance FormulaPerformance Formula Ability x motivation x resources = PerformancePerformance
  4. 4. Major Motivation TheoriesMajor Motivation Theories Classification of Motivation Theories 1. Content of motivation theories 2. Process motivation theories 3. Reinforcement theory Specific Motivation Theory a. Hierarchy of needs theory b. ERG theory c. Two-factor theory d. Acquired needs theory a. Equity theory b. Goal-setting theory c. Expectancy theory Type of Reinforcement a. Positive b. Avoidance c. Extinction d. Punishment
  5. 5. Self- Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Hierarchy of Needs TheoryHierarchy of Needs Theory
  6. 6. Acquired Needs TheoryAcquired Needs Theory AffiliationAffiliation PowerPower AchievementAchievement
  7. 7. A Comparison ofA Comparison of Four Content Motivation TheoriesFour Content Motivation Theories Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) ERG Theory (Alderfer) Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg) Acquired Needs Theory (McClelland) Achievement & power Achievement &Power Affiliation Not classified Not classified Motivating needs are developed through experience. Motivators Motivators Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance factors will not motivate employees. Growth Growth Relatedness Existence Existence Unmet needs can be at any level simultaneously. Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Needs must be met in a hierarchy order.
  8. 8. Equity TheoryEquity Theory = Others’ input (contributions) Others’ outcomes (rewards) Our inputs (contributions) =Our outcomes (rewards)
  9. 9. Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory • Proposes that employees are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task and the rewards for doing so are worth the effort.
  10. 10. Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory Expectancy XX Valence = MotivationMotivation
  11. 11. Clear objectives Clear objectives Performance tied to rewards Performance tied to rewards 44 ConditionsConditions forfor Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory Rewards have value Rewards have value Employees believe you Employees believe you
  12. 12. Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement Theory • Through the consequences for behavior, employees will be motivated to behave in predetermined ways.
  13. 13. Avoidance Extinction Positive Punishment 44 Types ofTypes of ReinforcementReinforcement
  14. 14. Giving PraiseGiving Praise 1. Tell the employee exactly what was done correctly. Planning Leading Organizing Controlling 2. Tell the employee why the behavior  is important. 3. Stop for a moment of silence. 4. Encourage repeat performance
  15. 15. 1. Need1. Need (Unmet need or want to be satisfied at work) Content Motivation Theories Hierarchy of Needs Theory ERG Theory Two-Factor Theory Acquired Needs Theory 2. Motive2. Motive (Selecting behavior to satisfy need) Process Motivation Theories Equity Theory Goal-Setting Theory Expectancy Theory The Motivation ProcessThe Motivation Process with the Motivation Theorieswith the Motivation Theories
  16. 16. (continued) 3. Behavior (Employee action to satisfy need) 4. Consequence (Manager behavior and/or natural outcome of employee action) Reinforcement Theory 5. Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction (The degree to which the need is met and for how long before dissatisfaction reoccurs, creating an unmet need)

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