-Failure to use PPE
-Use wrong tools
properly and as
-Use PPE when
-Use right tools
Occupational Health & SafetyOccupational Health & Safety
2-Job Hazard Analysis (JHA(
3-Safety And Health Auditing
4-Safety Inspection & Checklists
•Risk assessment is the process of
identifying and evaluating a hazard to
determine the level of action required to
reduce a risk to an acceptable level.
•It is nothing more than a careful examination
of what in the workplace could cause harm to
people, so that we can weigh-up whether the
department has taken enough precautions or
are required to take additional precautions,
to prevent harm occurring.
What is a Hazard?
-A Hazard is anything
that has the
potential to cause
up a ladder.
-Using a crane, forklift
What is a Risk?
-The Risk is the likelihood that the hazard will
cause harm and the severity of the
*If you are cleaning the oven with corrosive
cleaner without using gloves or apron there is a
great risk of being harmed.
*If you wear all protective clothing and gloves
and adhere to all safety precautions the risk is
*If you change the chemical to a safer type and
adhere to all precautions the risk will be even
Risk Assessment In Practice
Five Steps to Risk Assessment:
1-Look for the hazards
2-Decide who might be harmed and
3-Evaluate the risks and decide whether
the existing precautions are adequate
or whether more should be done.
4-Record your findings.
5-Review your assessment and revise it
-Walk around the workplace and look afresh
at what could reasonably be expected to
-Previous Accident Reports
-Knowledge of Employees
-Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS(
-Manufacturers Instruction Books
-Ask, “What If….?”
The following are examples of plant,
equipment or activities that are
usually associated with a hazard:
-Work at heights, and access to/from it
(roofwork, ladders, scaffolds(.
-Work below ground level and in confined
spaces (tanks, ducts, trenches(
-Manual handling of loads.
-Work with electricity (portable tools,
-Hazardous chemical substances.
-Display screen equipment.
-Ionizing, non - ionizing and laser radiation
-Pressure vessels / vacuum works
-Flammable liquid and gases
-Machinery and plant (machinery requiring
-Portable power tools.
-Vehicles (forklift, cranes(
-Disposal of special wastes.
List of Hazards
maintained floors or
-Fume (from welding(
-Dust (from grinding(
-Ejection of material
(from plastic molding(
2-Who Might Be Harmed and How
-Generally it will be staff occupying the
-Attention must be paid to:
Very Likely: Could happen Frequently
Likely: Could happen occasionally
Unlikely: Could happen, but only rarely.
Likelihood: The chance of an event
(which may cause injury or harm to
person( actually occurring.
Highly Unlikely: Could happen but
probably never will.
When evaluating the likelihood of an
accident, a factor that will modify the
likelihood category, is exposure.
Is a measure of how often or how long a
person is actually exposed to a hazard,
some examples are:
Very Rare: Once per year or less.
Rare: A few time per year.
Unusual: Once per month.
Occasional: Once per week
Consequence is a measure of the expected
severity should an accident occur.
2-Major Injuries: Normally irreversible injury or
damage to health requiring extended time off
3-Minor Injuries: Typically a reversible injury
or damage to health needing several days
away from work to recover.
4-Negligible Injuries: Would require first aid
and may need the reminder of the work
period or shift off before being able to return
Basic Risk Assessment
Likely Unlikely Highly
Fatality High High High Medium
High High Medium Medium
High Medium Medium Low
Medium Medium Low Low
-When a risk assessment has identified a
hazard as having unacceptable risks we
have to put in place control measures to
eliminate the risk or reduce the risk to an
HIERARCHY OF CONTROL
6-Provide Personal Safety Devices