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Marc format


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Marc format

  1. 1. Machine Readable Cataloging
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>What is MARC? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MARC is the acronym for MA chine R eadable C ataloging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is a machine-readable cataloging record? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Machine-readable&quot; means that one particular type of machine, a computer, can read, interpret and manipulate the data in the cataloging record. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>MARC is an industry-wide standard for the “representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine readable form” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Importance of MARC <ul><li>Because it is the standard for coding bibliographic data for machine processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard MARC records are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive than other options </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Importance of MARC <ul><li>Standard MARC records enable libraries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to employ automated systems to manage operations more efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to share bibliographic resources, reduce duplication of work, and thus lower costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard MARC record ensure that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bibliographic (and related data) is compatible from one automated system to another </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. A Standard is a Standard… MARC21 - United States and Canada UKMARC - United Kingdom interMARC - France NORMARC - Norway SAMARC - South Africa <ul><li>OCLC MARC, RLIN MARC… </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why one standard? <ul><li>To foster communication of information and data interchange. </li></ul><ul><li>The MARC standard also allows libraries to replace one system with another with the assurance that their data will still be compatible. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Development of MARC21 <ul><li>The original LC MARC format, developed by the Library of Congress in 1960, evolved into USMARC </li></ul><ul><li>February 1997, The USMARC and CANMARC (developed by the National Library of Canada in 1973) formats achieved alignment </li></ul><ul><li>October 1998, The LC’s Network Development and MARC Standards Office came up with the name MARC21 – meaning MARC for the 21 st century </li></ul><ul><li>July 2002, the “Agreement for the development and publication of MARC21 format” was signed by representatives of the National Library of Congress, the National Library of Canada and the British Library </li></ul>
  9. 9. MARC-ISO2709 File Structure <ul><li>ISO2709 is a standard format for interchanging MARC data </li></ul>01329cam a2200313 a 4500001000800000005001700008008004100025035002100066906004500087955012500132010001700257020002500274020004400299040001800343042000900361050002400370082001800394100003200412245008700444250001200531260003700543300002900580500004200609520022000651650003300871650001200904740003600916991006300952387362719911106082810.9891101s1990 maua j 000 0 eng 9(DLC) 89048230 a7bcbccorignewd1eocipf19gy-gencatlg apc14 to he00 11-01-89; he06 11-01-89; he00 11-03-89; fa00 11-06-89; fa05 11-22-89; he03 11-28-89; CIP ver. he06 08-08-90 a 89048230 a0316107514 :c$12.95 a0316107506 (pbk.) :c$5.95 ($6.95 Can.) aDLCcDLCdDLC alcac00aGV943.25b.B74 199000a796.334/22201 aBrenner, Richard J.,d1941-10aMake the team.pSoccer :ba heads up guide to super soccer! /cRichard J. Brenner. a1st ed. aBoston :bLittle, Brown,cc1990. a127 p. :bill. ;c19 cm. a&quot;A Sports illustrated for kids book.&quot; aInstructions for improving soccer skills. Discusses dribbling, heading, playmaking, defense, conditioning, mental attitude, how to handle problems with coaches, parents, and other players, and the history of soccer. 0aSoccerxJuvenile literature. 1aSoccer.0 aHeads up guide to super soccer. bc-GenCollhGV943.25i.B74 1990p0002016704AtCopy 1wBOOKS
  10. 10. MARC Record Structure <ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store important information about the MARC record itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each record begins with a leader, which is a 24-character fixed field containing information for the processing of the record </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. MARC Record Structure <ul><li>Directory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An index to the location of variable fields (control and data) within a record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start at position 24 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each corresponds to one MARC field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each entry includes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag : 3 characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field length : 4 characters (including FT) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starting positions : 5 characters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. MARC Record Structure <ul><li>Control fields </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags beginning with two zeroes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store fixed-length data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position of codes determines meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not have indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts into 008 field when exported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>001-008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>001 Control number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>003 Control number identifier </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>005 Date and time of latest transaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>008 Fixed-length data element </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. MARC Record Structure <ul><li>Variable fields (Data fields) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with “tag” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store variable-length data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 indicator positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subfields ($a, $b, $c, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Understanding a MARC Record <ul><li>Leader 01041cam 2200265 a 4500 </li></ul><ul><li>Control No. 001 ###89048230 /AC/r91 </li></ul><ul><li>Control No. ID 003 DLC </li></ul><ul><li>DTLT 005 19911106082810.9 </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Data 008 891101s1990 maua j 001 0 eng </li></ul><ul><li>LCCN 010 ## $a ###89048230 /AC/r91 </li></ul><ul><li>ISBN 020 ## $a 0316107514 : </li></ul><ul><li>$c $12.95 </li></ul><ul><li>ISBN 020 ## $a 0316107506 (pbk.) : </li></ul><ul><li>$c $5.95 ($6.95 Can.) </li></ul><ul><li>Title 245 10 $a Make the team. </li></ul><ul><li>$p Soccer : </li></ul><ul><li>$b a heads up guide to super soccer! / </li></ul><ul><li>$c Richard J. Brenner. </li></ul>TAG INDICATOR SUBFIELD
  15. 15. MARC Tag Overview <ul><li>0XX Control information, numbers, code </li></ul><ul><li>1XX Main entry </li></ul><ul><li>2XX Titles, edition, imprint, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>3XX Physical description, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>4XX Series statements </li></ul><ul><li>5XX Notes </li></ul><ul><li>6XX Subject headings </li></ul><ul><li>7XX Other added entries and linking entries </li></ul><ul><li>8XX Series added entries </li></ul><ul><li>9XX Locally defined </li></ul>
  16. 16. MARC Tag Commonalities <ul><li>X00 Personal name heading </li></ul><ul><li>X10 Corporate name heading </li></ul><ul><li>X11 Meeting (conference) name heading </li></ul><ul><li>X30 Uniform title heading </li></ul><ul><li>where X = 1, 6, 7, or 8 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Local Data Fields <ul><li>049 Local holdings </li></ul><ul><li>09X Local call number fields </li></ul><ul><li>59X Local notes </li></ul><ul><li>69X Local subject headings </li></ul><ul><li>9XX Local information and processing fields </li></ul><ul><li>Exception: 490 series statement </li></ul>MARC tags containing “9” are local data fields
  18. 18. Commonly used MARC Fields <ul><li>020 ISBN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$a ISBN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$c terms of availability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>050 Library of Congress call number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$a classification number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$b item number </li></ul></ul><ul><li>082 Dewey Decimal Classification call number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$a classification number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$b item number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$2 edition number </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Commonly used MARC Fields <ul><li>100 Personal name - main entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st indicator 0 = forename, 1 = surname </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$a personal name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$d date associated with name (year of birth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$e relator term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$q fuller form of name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$u affiliation </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Commonly used MARC Fields <ul><li>245 Title Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st indicator 0 no title added entry, 1 title added entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd indicator – number of non-filing characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$a title proper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$b remainder of title, subtitle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$c remainder of title page/statement of responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$f inclusive date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$h medium </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Commonly used MARC Fields <ul><li>250 Edition Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$a edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$b remainder of edition statement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>260 Publication information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$a place of publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$b name of publisher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$c date of publication </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Commonly used MARC Fields <ul><li>300 Physical description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$a number of pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$b usually illustration information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$c dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$e accompanying materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>440 Series statement/added entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd indicator = no. of non-filing characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$a title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$n number of part/section of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$p name of part/section of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$v volume number </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Commonly used MARC Fields <ul><li>500 General note </li></ul><ul><li>504 Bibliography note </li></ul><ul><li>505 Formatted contents note </li></ul><ul><li>520 Summary, abstract, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>650 Subject - Topical term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$a Topical term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$v Form subdivision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$x General subdivision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$y Chronological subdivision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$z Geographic subdivision </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Commonly used MARC Fields <ul><li>110 Corporate body - main entry </li></ul><ul><li>111 Meeting name - main entry </li></ul><ul><li>600 Subject - personal name </li></ul><ul><li>651 Subject - geographic name </li></ul><ul><li>700 Personal name - added entry </li></ul><ul><li>710 Corporate body - added entry </li></ul><ul><li>711 Meeting name - added entry </li></ul>
  25. 25. MARC Record is a Machine Readable Cataloging record Leader 01041cam 2200265 a 4500 Control No. 001 ###89048230 /AC/r91 Control No. ID 003 DLC DTLT 005 19911106082810.9 Fixed Data 008 891101s1990 maua j 001 0 eng LCCN 010 ## $a ###89048230 /AC/r91 ISBN 020 ## $a 0316107514 : $c $12.95 ISBN 020 ## $a 0316107506 (pbk.) : $c $5.95 ($6.95 Can.) Cat. Source 040 ## $a DLC $c DLC $d DLC
  26. 26. <ul><li>LC Call No. 050 00 $a GV943.25 </li></ul><ul><li>$b .B74 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey No. 082 00 $a 796.334/2 </li></ul><ul><li>$2 20 </li></ul><ul><li>ME:Pers Name 100 1# $a Brenner, Richard J., </li></ul><ul><li>$d 1941- </li></ul><ul><li>Title 245 10 $a Make the team. </li></ul><ul><li>$p Soccer : </li></ul><ul><li>$b a heads up guide to super soccer! / </li></ul><ul><li>$c Richard J. Brenner. </li></ul><ul><li>Variant Title 246 30 $a Heads up guide to super soccer </li></ul><ul><li>Edition 250 ## $a 1st ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Publication 260 ## $a Boston : </li></ul><ul><li>$b Little, Brown, </li></ul><ul><li>$c c1990. </li></ul><ul><li>Phys Desc 300 ## $a 127 p. : </li></ul><ul><li>$b ill. ; </li></ul><ul><li>$c 19 cm. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Note: General 500 ## $a &quot;A Sports illustrated for kids book.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Summary 520 ## $a Instructions for improving soccer skills. Discusses dribbling, heading, </li></ul><ul><li> playmaking, defense, conditioning, </li></ul><ul><li> mental attitude, how to handle </li></ul><ul><li>problems with coaches, parents, </li></ul><ul><li>and other players, and the history </li></ul><ul><li>of soccer. </li></ul><ul><li>Subj: Topical 650 #0 $a Soccer </li></ul><ul><li> $v Juvenile literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Subj: Topical 650 #1 $a Soccer. </li></ul><ul><li>This MARC format can be interpreted to... </li></ul>
  28. 28. …this simple Card Catalog output
  29. 29. Common Cataloging Errors <ul><li>Incorrect indicator values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the wrong indicator values can cause a system to mis-index a term, particularly in the title and subject areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typographical errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Misspelled word, especially at the beginning of an indexed tag results if failed searches. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not doing proper punctuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are signposts for your system. They are useful for future database manipulation and conversion </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Common Cataloging Errors <ul><li>Not knowing how a particular automation system handles data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While automation systems may all use the MARC record, they each handle it differently. You need to know what tags are indexed and what searches retrieve that information. This leads us to our next common error: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adjusting cataloging so that it “works” in your automation system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The temptation to modify cataloging information so that it is accessed “logically” by the system is a dangerous path. While it may “work” today, but if the software is modified or if you migrate to another system, your records may not work properly or may be inaccessible, forcing you to redo the records. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Common Cataloging Errors <ul><li>Failure to accurately code the fixed field area (008) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not coding information properly here results in failed detailed searches, particularly when searching by year of publication, genre, or target audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of non-standard subject headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resist the urge to create local subject headings, particularly if they deviate from the controlled vocabulary you use (Sears, LCSH, etc.) This causes problems with records imported from vendors, from users who access your catalog via the Internet, or from patrons confused by local use that deviates from what they encounter at other libraries. It’s also more work for you. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Common Cataloging Errors <ul><li>Not practicing good authority control </li></ul>
  33. 33. END