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Aspects of connected speech1

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Aspects of connected speech by Imaneh amini

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Aspects of connected speech1

  1. 1. Aspects of connected speech Professor: Dr. Salehi Presented by: Imaneh Amini
  2. 2. Some noticeable event occurring at regular intervals Heartbeat Flashing light Music It is claimed that English speech is rhythmical Some noticeable event occurring at regular intervals Heartbeat Flashing light Music It is claimed that English speech is rhythmical
  3. 3.  English speech is sometimes referred to as Stress-timed  Stressed syllables tend to occur at relatively regular intervals  This happens whether they are separated by unstressed syllables or not 1 2 3 4 5 walk down the path to the end of the ca nalˈ ˈ ˈ ˈ ˈ  English speech is sometimes referred to as Stress-timed  Stressed syllables tend to occur at relatively regular intervals  This happens whether they are separated by unstressed syllables or not 1 2 3 4 5 walk down the path to the end of the ca nalˈ ˈ ˈ ˈ ˈ
  4. 4.  The time from each stressed syllable to the next will tend to be the same, irrespective of the number of intervening unstressed syllables  Some languages have a rhythm similar to English(Russian, Arabic)  Others have a different rhythm(French, Yoruba)  These are known as syllable-timed  All syllables tend to occur at regular time intervals  The time from each stressed syllable to the next will tend to be the same, irrespective of the number of intervening unstressed syllables  Some languages have a rhythm similar to English(Russian, Arabic)  Others have a different rhythm(French, Yoruba)  These are known as syllable-timed  All syllables tend to occur at regular time intervals
  5. 5.  A unit of rhythm  Begins with a stressed syllable  Includes all following syllables up to (but not including) the next stressed syllable 1 2 3 4 5 │ walk │ down the │ path to the │ end of the ca │ nalˈ ˈ ˈ ˈ ˈ  A unit of rhythm  Begins with a stressed syllable  Includes all following syllables up to (but not including) the next stressed syllable 1 2 3 4 5 │ walk │ down the │ path to the │ end of the ca │ nalˈ ˈ ˈ ˈ ˈ
  6. 6.  Some feet are stronger than others  Strong-weak patterns are produced in larger pieces of speech  Some feet are stronger than others  Strong-weak patterns are produced in larger pieces of speech
  7. 7.  Analysing speech this way enables us to show the relationship between strong and weak elements  Also the different levels of stress  The length of any syllable can be measured depending on the number of “s” symbols occurring above it  This allows us to build up a metrical grid  Analysing speech this way enables us to show the relationship between strong and weak elements  Also the different levels of stress  The length of any syllable can be measured depending on the number of “s” symbols occurring above it  This allows us to build up a metrical grid
  8. 8. s s s s s s s s Twen ty pla ces fur ther back This may be correct for slow, careful speech In normal speech, speakers may feel twen is stronger than pla But English speech does tend towards a rhythmic alternation of strong and weak syllables s s s s s s s s Twen ty pla ces fur ther back This may be correct for slow, careful speech In normal speech, speakers may feel twen is stronger than pla But English speech does tend towards a rhythmic alternation of strong and weak syllables
  9. 9.  In order to maintain a s/w pattern , stress-shift sometimes occurs  Com pact(adj) but compact diskˈ ˈ ˈ thir teen but thirtennth placeˈ ˈ ˈ  Health row but Healthrow Airportˈ ˈ ˈ  Stresses are altered according to context  It is difficult to say exactly why  In order to maintain a s/w pattern , stress-shift sometimes occurs  Com pact(adj) but compact diskˈ ˈ ˈ thir teen but thirtennth placeˈ ˈ ˈ  Health row but Healthrow Airportˈ ˈ ˈ  Stresses are altered according to context  It is difficult to say exactly why
  10. 10.  We vary how rhythmically we speak  “Rap” is stress timed  Public speaking can be very rhythmical  Hesitant or nervous speech can sound arhythmical (without rhythm)  The rhythm of English speech varies on a continuum  Stress timing  arhythmicality  We vary how rhythmically we speak  “Rap” is stress timed  Public speaking can be very rhythmical  Hesitant or nervous speech can sound arhythmical (without rhythm)  The rhythm of English speech varies on a continuum  Stress timing  arhythmicality
  11. 11. So gay I can barely say it with a 'straight' face looking boy You're witnessing a mass-occur like you're watching a church gathering And take place looking boy Oy vey, that boy's gay That's all they say looking boy You get a thumbs up, pat on the back And a "way to go" from your label every day looking boy Hey, looking boy, what d'you say looking boy? I get a "hell yeah" from Dre looking boy I'mma work for everything I have Never asked nobody for shit Git out my face looking boy Basically boy you're never gonna be capable of keeping up with the same pace looking boy, 'cause I'm beginning to feel like a Rap God, Rap God All my people from the front to the back nod, back nod The way I'm racing around the track, call me Nascar, Nascar Dale Earnhardt of the trailer park, the White Trash God Kneel before General Zod this planet's Krypton, no Asgard, Asgard So gay I can barely say it with a 'straight' face looking boy You're witnessing a mass-occur like you're watching a church gathering And take place looking boy Oy vey, that boy's gay That's all they say looking boy You get a thumbs up, pat on the back And a "way to go" from your label every day looking boy Hey, looking boy, what d'you say looking boy? I get a "hell yeah" from Dre looking boy I'mma work for everything I have Never asked nobody for shit Git out my face looking boy Basically boy you're never gonna be capable of keeping up with the same pace looking boy, 'cause I'm beginning to feel like a Rap God, Rap God All my people from the front to the back nod, back nod The way I'm racing around the track, call me Nascar, Nascar Dale Earnhardt of the trailer park, the White Trash God Kneel before General Zod this planet's Krypton, no Asgard, Asgard
  12. 12.  Studies of natural speech have shown that so called stress-timed languages do not differ considerably from so-called syllable-timed language  It may be a psychological thing We hear a regular rhythm which isn’t actually regular  This may develop due to childhood language E.g.nursery rhymes, chants, etc.  Studies of natural speech have shown that so called stress-timed languages do not differ considerably from so-called syllable-timed language  It may be a psychological thing We hear a regular rhythm which isn’t actually regular  This may develop due to childhood language E.g.nursery rhymes, chants, etc.
  13. 13.  Sounds belonging to one word can change depending on the environment  When a phoneme is realised differently due to context Sounds become more similar  More likely to be found in rapid, casual speech  In English, usually affects consonants at word boundaries  Sounds belonging to one word can change depending on the environment  When a phoneme is realised differently due to context Sounds become more similar  More likely to be found in rapid, casual speech  In English, usually affects consonants at word boundaries
  14. 14. _ _ _ _C Cᶠ i _ _ _ _ C may change to become more like Cᶠ i in some way This is called regressive assimilation If Ci change to become more like C , it is calledᶠ progressive assimilation Consonants can change in three ways: Place of articulation Manner of articulation Voicing Assimilation of place is the most common _ _ _ _C Cᶠ i _ _ _ _ C may change to become more like Cᶠ i in some way This is called regressive assimilation If Ci change to become more like C , it is calledᶠ progressive assimilation Consonants can change in three ways: Place of articulation Manner of articulation Voicing Assimilation of place is the most common
  15. 15.  Alveolar consonants are highly susceptible to regressive assimilation  That person / ðæt p3:sn / >>>/ðæp p3:sn /ˈ ˈ  Light blue / la t blu:/ >>> /la p blu:/ɪ ɪ  Bright color /bra t k l / >>> / bra t k l /ɪ ˈ ǝ ɪ ˈ ǝɅ Ʌ  Quite good /kwa t g d / >>> / kwa t g d /ɪ Ʊ ɪ Ʊ  Good boy / g d bƱ ͻ / >>>/ g b bɪ Ʊ ͻ /ɪ  Good girl / g d g3:l/ >>> / g g g3:l/Ʊ Ʊ  Does she /d z i / >>>/d i/ʃ ʒ ʃɅ Ʌ  This year /ð s j / >>> /ð j /ɪ ɪǝ ɪʃ ɪǝ  Note that only POA changes, not voicing  Alveolar consonants are highly susceptible to regressive assimilation  That person / ðæt p3:sn / >>>/ðæp p3:sn /ˈ ˈ  Light blue / la t blu:/ >>> /la p blu:/ɪ ɪ  Bright color /bra t k l / >>> / bra t k l /ɪ ˈ ǝ ɪ ˈ ǝɅ Ʌ  Quite good /kwa t g d / >>> / kwa t g d /ɪ Ʊ ɪ Ʊ  Good boy / g d bƱ ͻ / >>>/ g b bɪ Ʊ ͻ /ɪ  Good girl / g d g3:l/ >>> / g g g3:l/Ʊ Ʊ  Does she /d z i / >>>/d i/ʃ ʒ ʃɅ Ʌ  This year /ð s j / >>> /ð j /ɪ ɪǝ ɪʃ ɪǝ  Note that only POA changes, not voicing
  16. 16.  Consonants undergoing assimilation have not disappeard  If ONE alveolar consonant at the end of a word assimilates, they all will  Don’t go/d nt g / >>> /d ᶇk g /ǝƱ ǝƱ Ʊ ǝƱ  Shouldn’t be / dnt bi/ >>> / bmp bi/ˈʃƱ ˈʃƱ  Consonants undergoing assimilation have not disappeard  If ONE alveolar consonant at the end of a word assimilates, they all will  Don’t go/d nt g / >>> /d ᶇk g /ǝƱ ǝƱ Ʊ ǝƱ  Shouldn’t be / dnt bi/ >>> / bmp bi/ˈʃƱ ˈʃƱ
  17. 17.  Not as noticeable  Usually regressive  A final plosive may be realised as a fricative or nasal  Not usual the other way around  That side /ðæt sa d/ >>> /ðæs sa d/ɪ ɪ  Good night /g d na t />>>/g nna t/Ʊ ɪ Ʊ ɪ  With word initial / ð / we sometimes get progressive assimilation  In the / n ð / >>> / nn /ɪ ǝ ɪ ǝ  Get them /get ð m/>>> /get d m/ǝ ǝ  Not as noticeable  Usually regressive  A final plosive may be realised as a fricative or nasal  Not usual the other way around  That side /ðæt sa d/ >>> /ðæs sa d/ɪ ɪ  Good night /g d na t />>>/g nna t/Ʊ ɪ Ʊ ɪ  With word initial / ð / we sometimes get progressive assimilation  In the / n ð / >>> / nn /ɪ ǝ ɪ ǝ  Get them /get ð m/>>> /get d m/ǝ ǝ
  18. 18.  Only regressive  If C is lenis( voiced) and Cᶠ i is fortis ( voiceless)  The lenis consonant has little voicing  Of course / v k :s />>> / f k :s /ǝ ǝͻ ͻ  Is the /g / at the end of /g g / in /g g g3:l/ anƱ Ʊ allophone of / d / ?  Traditionally, phonemes were supposed not to overlap their allophones  This restriction is not seen as so important now  One could say that [g] is an allophone of /d / in this environment  Only regressive  If C is lenis( voiced) and Cᶠ i is fortis ( voiceless)  The lenis consonant has little voicing  Of course / v k :s />>> / f k :s /ǝ ǝͻ ͻ  Is the /g / at the end of /g g / in /g g g3:l/ anƱ Ʊ allophone of / d / ?  Traditionally, phonemes were supposed not to overlap their allophones  This restriction is not seen as so important now  One could say that [g] is an allophone of /d / in this environment
  19. 19.  Coalescence may occur when an alveolar consonant is followed by a palatal consonant.  /t/+/j/=/t /, e.g.ʃ  Tuesday /'tju:zde />>>/'t u:zde /ɪ ʃ ɪ  Won't you /w nt ju/>>>/w nt u/ǝƱ ǝƱ ʃ  /d/+/j/=/d / ,e.g.ʒ  Due /dju:/>>>/d u:/ʒ  Would use /w d 'ju:z/>>>/w 'd u:z/Ʊ Ʊ ʒ  Coalescence may occur when an alveolar consonant is followed by a palatal consonant.  /t/+/j/=/t /, e.g.ʃ  Tuesday /'tju:zde />>>/'t u:zde /ɪ ʃ ɪ  Won't you /w nt ju/>>>/w nt u/ǝƱ ǝƱ ʃ  /d/+/j/=/d / ,e.g.ʒ  Due /dju:/>>>/d u:/ʒ  Would use /w d 'ju:z/>>>/w 'd u:z/Ʊ Ʊ ʒ
  20. 20.  Under certain circumstances, sounds disappear  The sound is said to have a zero realisation  Loss of weak vowel after / p t k /  Potato /p te /ˈ ɪǝƱ  Tomato /t m :t /ˈ ɑ ǝƱ  Canary / k ne ri /ˈ ǝ  Weak vowel + /n l r/ becomes syllabic  Tonight /tna t /ɪ  Police /pli:s/  Correct /krekt /  Under certain circumstances, sounds disappear  The sound is said to have a zero realisation  Loss of weak vowel after / p t k /  Potato /p te /ˈ ɪǝƱ  Tomato /t m :t /ˈ ɑ ǝƱ  Canary / k ne ri /ˈ ǝ  Weak vowel + /n l r/ becomes syllabic  Tonight /tna t /ɪ  Police /pli:s/  Correct /krekt /
  21. 21.  Avoidance of complex clusters  Alveolar consonans /t/ and /d/ tend to disappear  Last term /l :st t3:m/>>> /l :s t3:m/ɑ ɑ  Scripts /skr pts / >>> /skr ps/ɪ ɪ  Handbag /hændbæg />>> /hæmnæg /  This usually takes place where an alveolar consonant is C2 , and is the same voicing as the preceding consonant  Avoidance of complex clusters  Alveolar consonans /t/ and /d/ tend to disappear  Last term /l :st t3:m/>>> /l :s t3:m/ɑ ɑ  Scripts /skr pts / >>> /skr ps/ɪ ɪ  Handbag /hændbæg />>> /hæmnæg /  This usually takes place where an alveolar consonant is C2 , and is the same voicing as the preceding consonant
  22. 22. Very complex cluster are highly likely to be modified in rapid speech George the Sixth’s throne Sixth’s throne/s ksθs θr nɪ ǝƱ />>> /s ks θr n/ɪ ǝƱ Very complex cluster are highly likely to be modified in rapid speech George the Sixth’s throne Sixth’s throne/s ksθs θr nɪ ǝƱ />>> /s ks θr n/ɪ ǝƱ
  23. 23.  Two kinds of linking involving /r/ :  Linking /r/, where there is an ‘r’ in the spelling at the end of a word and the next word begins with a vowel  Here and now / h r n na /ɪǝ ǝ Ʊ  Her overcoat /h r v k t/ǝ ˈǝƱ ǝ ǝƱ  Intrusive /r/ ,where there is a non-close vowel at the end of a word (includes front and back-closing diphthongs)+ vowel  China and Japan / t a n r n d pæn/ˈ ʃ ɪ ǝ ǝ ʒǝˈ  Vanila icecream /v n l r a skri:m/ǝˈ ɪ ǝ ˈ ɪ  Two kinds of linking involving /r/ :  Linking /r/, where there is an ‘r’ in the spelling at the end of a word and the next word begins with a vowel  Here and now / h r n na /ɪǝ ǝ Ʊ  Her overcoat /h r v k t/ǝ ˈǝƱ ǝ ǝƱ  Intrusive /r/ ,where there is a non-close vowel at the end of a word (includes front and back-closing diphthongs)+ vowel  China and Japan / t a n r n d pæn/ˈ ʃ ɪ ǝ ǝ ʒǝˈ  Vanila icecream /v n l r a skri:m/ǝˈ ɪ ǝ ˈ ɪ
  24. 24.  The relationship between one sound and the surrounding sounds  Within words this is known as close juncture  Across word boundaries it is known as external open juncture  What is the difference between the /t/ in my turn and might earn?  The relationship between one sound and the surrounding sounds  Within words this is known as close juncture  Across word boundaries it is known as external open juncture  What is the difference between the /t/ in my turn and might earn?
  25. 25.  My turn  The /t/ is aspirated(being word initial)  Might earn  The /t/ is not strongly aspirated (being word final)  The /a / diphthong is shorter in might dueɪ to pre-forts clipping  My turn  The /t/ is aspirated(being word initial)  Might earn  The /t/ is not strongly aspirated (being word final)  The /a / diphthong is shorter in might dueɪ to pre-forts clipping

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