Barriers in access to education (worldwide)Agenda Learning objectives• Barriers on state level • to learn about• Barriers on school and multidimensional and classroom level interrelated barriers that• Social barriers girls and women, boys and• Cultural and religious men face in accessing barriers education;• Personal barriers• Interconnectivity Sandra Pertek email@example.com
Barriers on state level (governance and political system)Poor normative framework, women are not seen as citizens withindividual rights (India), (Subrahmanian);No enforcement authorities: e.g. lack of compulsory registration ofnames and birth dates of children;Poor gender mainstreaming - insufficient understanding of gender issuesin curriculum and instruction (Aikman, Unterhalter, p. 25);The curriculum based largely on foreign ideologies, “this has been avehicle for subordinating rather than strengthening and transforminglocal indigenous cultural values” (Konai Helu Thaman 1993 cited in Fox,Heward and Bunwaree p. 43).
Barriers on school and classroom level Failure in Teachers protecting girls’ Inappropriate reinforcing gender rights within the curriculum bias practices school Non-gender Poorly trained teachers Lack of female sensitive teaching (not mentioning gender teachers methodology training) Universal teaching styles (women and men learn differently)
Social barriersSocietal norms – expectations thatgirls will become housewives (division Behavioural aspects;of domestic labour);Integration of kinships structures andsocial norms with labour markets Social segregation;variables (North vs. South India); Westernised approach to educationPatrifocal family structure (higher e.g. uniforms clash with culturalstatus of man); norms;Conviction that boys need to provide Inter-sectional power relations (class,for family (male gender gap); race, age etc.).
Cultural barriers Early marriage Lack of Structural constraintsinformation e.g. production or role of gendered models subordination (e.g. images) Practices Preference and beliefs limit freedom and of sons over choices (e.g. daughters reinforced by teachers)
Interplay between culture and religion– Across religions there is a Case study based on Islamic principles ‘need to hide older girls from • "Read! In the Name of your Lord Who has created (all that exists). He has created man exposure to boys and men from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most restricts their access to Generous. Who has taught (the writing) by the secondary schools…’ (Sibbons pen. He has taught man that which he knew in Heward, p. 192); this not" [Quran, 96: 1-5] happens across religions; • The Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) said:– Lack of inclusion of religious “Acquire knowledge even if it be in China” principles and values. (Kanz al-Ummal, Hadith 8697). “The seeking of knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (men and women)” (by Bukhari). Often people do not have means to Why in Muslim countries access to study their religion that could education is so limited? encourage them to education.
Personal barriers family attitudes expectations VS. claims content of low self- cultural and curriculum concept social norms low self- esteem Internalised process girls perceive themselves as subordinate poor agency failure to succeed
Interconnectivity between barriers in accessing education
Bibliography• Whatmore Sarah, Little Jo (1989), Gender and Geography, Contemporary Issues in Geography and Education, London,• Heward, C. and S. Bunwaree (eds) (1999) Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment. Zed Books, London,• Maton Kenneth Making a Difference: The Social Ecology of Social Transformation American Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 28, Number 1 – SpringerLink,• Subrahmanian, R. (2002). “Engendering education: prospects for a rights based approach to female education deprivation in India” in Razavi and Molyneux (eds) Gender Justice, Human Rights, Economics. Oxford University Press, Oxford,• The Noble Qur’an *www.quran.com+, (accessed 01.02.2012).