Red fleshed applesApfelsorten mit rotem FruchtfleischMele a polpa rossaWalter GuerraLaimburg Research CentreInterpoma 2012...
Origin of red flesh in apples van Nocker et al. (2012). Genetic diversity of red-fleshed apples (Malus). Euphytica 185:281...
Browns Apple              Piotosh                 Pink Pearl                                            Purple          Sh...
Anthocyanins       Pigments responsible for the colouration Large family of flavonoids More than 500 different anthocyanin...
Anthocyanins               Putative health benefits  Strong in vitro antioxidants  May have preventive and therapeutic rol...
Anthocyanins                      Metabolic pathway Chagné et al. (2007) BMC Genomics 8:212 Mapping a candidate gene (MdMY...
Red fleshed apples                           Ornamentals and ProcessingBloody Ploughman           Blush Rosette®      Chri...
Home gardening and processing05.11.2012                                   8                                               ...
Breeding for Red Fleshed Apples                   Fresh consumption Trebuschenko, P.D. (1939). Inheritance of anthocyanin ...
2 distinctive phenotypes in breeding populations• Red to dark red or purple                           • Pale pink to brigh...
Experiences with Red Fleshed Apples at the        Laimburg Research Center  First plantings in spring 2010  More than 20 g...
Blind panel taste             Research Center Laimburg               October 201205.11.2012                              1...
Results blind panel taste                    Samples out of normal cool storage             Intensity scale 1 to 9 (1= abs...
Cool damage at 2 °C storage05.11.2012                                 14                                                14
Red fleshed apples                         The big potential Novelty - Distinctiveness - Enhanced visual quality External ...
Red-fleshed apples                  The big challenge Little (in some cases no) independent public research results availa...
Red-fleshed apples   The contribution of Laimburg Research                   Center Independent variety testing of availab...
Interpoma 2012, Bolzano      Thank you for your attention.      Danke für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit.      Grazie della Vostra at...
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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 17-11-2012 2 - walter guerra

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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 17-11-2012 2 - walter guerra

  1. 1. Red fleshed applesApfelsorten mit rotem FruchtfleischMele a polpa rossaWalter GuerraLaimburg Research CentreInterpoma 2012, Bolzano05.11.2012 1 1
  2. 2. Origin of red flesh in apples van Nocker et al. (2012). Genetic diversity of red-fleshed apples (Malus). Euphytica 185:281–293 Phenotypical and genetic investigation on four big Malus germplasm collections -United States Department of Agriculture Malus Germplasm Collection at the Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Geneva, NY, USA -National Fruit Collection in Brogdale, Kent, UK -Canadian Clonal Genebank in Harrow, Ontario, CAN Michigan State University Malus collection in East Lansing, MI, USA Almost all red fleshed accessions traced back to Niedwetzkiana, a presumed natural form of M. sieversii native to central Asia05.11.2012 2 22
  3. 3. Browns Apple Piotosh Pink Pearl Purple Shelley Sissipuk Prince Niedwetzkiana05.11.2012 van Nocker et al. (2012). Genetic diversity of red-fleshed apples (Malus). 3 Euphytica 185:281–293 3
  4. 4. Anthocyanins Pigments responsible for the colouration Large family of flavonoids More than 500 different anthocyanins reported Most common ones in apple cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, cyanidin-7-O-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-xyloside, cyanidin- 3-O-glucose Accumulating in the cell vacuoles Red fleshed crab apples as possible source of natural anthocyanins? Content can exceed 1 mg/g fresh weight in red fleshed crab apples (Mulabagal et al., 2007)05.11.2012 4 44
  5. 5. Anthocyanins Putative health benefits Strong in vitro antioxidants May have preventive and therapeutic roles in a number of human diseases Research reports suggest that anthocyanins are -nontoxic, nonmutagenic -possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and antidiabetic properties In vivo studies not yet sufficient to produce health claims05.11.2012 5 55
  6. 6. Anthocyanins Metabolic pathway Chagné et al. (2007) BMC Genomics 8:212 Mapping a candidate gene (MdMYB10) for red flesh and foliage colour in apple. MdMYB10 identified as a transcription factor which promotes the synthesis of various enzymes relevant in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins Biotechnological approach Transformation of Royal Gala at PFR New Zealand (Espley, 2007)05.11.2012 6 66
  7. 7. Red fleshed apples Ornamentals and ProcessingBloody Ploughman Blush Rosette® Christmas Pink® Devonshire Quarrenden Dirleton RedApple Red-fleshed apples are not new to theDries Grenadine gardeningHuonville Crab Hidden Rose and Pink Parfait® Pink Pearmain® processing industry! Pomfital® Purple Passion Red Devil Red Merylinn Roter Alatau ApfelRoter Herbstkalwill Roter Mond Rubaiyat® Rubens Lilliputapfel Thornberry® Vitalstar® 05.11.2012 Pictures taken from advertisements of gardening centers and nurseries on the web 7 77
  8. 8. Home gardening and processing05.11.2012 8 88
  9. 9. Breeding for Red Fleshed Apples Fresh consumption Trebuschenko, P.D. (1939). Inheritance of anthocyanin coloration in apple-tree (a contribution to the problem of breeding red-fruited and red-fleshed varieties of apples). C.R. (Dokl.) Acad. Sci. URSS XXIII(9): 939-943 Early breeding activity in Michurin and California Recent breeding activities with the concrete target of fresh product started in the 90ies Nowadays many breeder are following this trend Few red-fleshed apples with European PVR application Weirouge, LUBA0605, LUBA0905, LUBA2605, Baya Marisa® Bay 348405.11.2012 9 99
  10. 10. 2 distinctive phenotypes in breeding populations• Red to dark red or purple • Pale pink to bright red• Red pigment in 70-100% of • Red pigment in 1-80% of fruit cortex and core cortex and not in the core• In fruit from flowering • Often expressed late in the through maturity season• Developing leaves are red, • Always associated with mature leaves may appear green colour of new leaves green 05.11.2012 Volz et al. (2009). Breeding for Red Flesh Colour in Apple: Progress and 10 Challenges. Acta Hort. 814 1010
  11. 11. Experiences with Red Fleshed Apples at the Laimburg Research Center First plantings in spring 2010 More than 20 genotypes from several breeders in testing on different microclimatic sites in the South Tyrolean apple production area Preliminary agronomic results not shown It is too early and/or we are not allowed to show them yet 05.11.2012 11 1111
  12. 12. Blind panel taste Research Center Laimburg October 201205.11.2012 12 1212
  13. 13. Results blind panel taste Samples out of normal cool storage Intensity scale 1 to 9 (1= absent; 9= very intense) 9 8 7 6 Intensity 5 4 3 2 1 Crispness Firmness Juiciness Sweetness Acidity Flavour Astringency Red fleshed genotypes05.11.2012 13 1313
  14. 14. Cool damage at 2 °C storage05.11.2012 14 14
  15. 15. Red fleshed apples The big potential Novelty - Distinctiveness - Enhanced visual quality External appearance very consistent They colour in every climate! Intensification of the breeding activity around the world Increasing know how around the genetics and metabolomics of the biosynthesis of anthocyanins Health preserver/promoter – functional/nutraceutical food Several clinical studies on putative health benefits of anthocyanins planned05.11.2012 15 1515
  16. 16. Red-fleshed apples The big challenge Little (in some cases no) independent public research results available Improvement needed in terms of fruit size, agronomic performance, texture attributes and/or storability Consistency of flesh colouring around different climates? Consumer acceptance Negative image imprint of red-fleshed apples if the first genotypes on the market will disappoint the consumer05.11.2012 16 1616
  17. 17. Red-fleshed apples The contribution of Laimburg Research Center Independent variety testing of available genotypes Interdisciplinary approach pomology-physiology-plant pathology-post harvest-molecular biology-biochemistry European EFRE project POMOSANO Own red-flesh breeding started very recently General aim Conquer further “stomach share“ in our consumers for apples which compete with other fruits and snacks05.11.2012 17 1717
  18. 18. Interpoma 2012, Bolzano Thank you for your attention. Danke für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit. Grazie della Vostra attenzione. Land- und Forstwirtschaftliches Versuchszentrum | Centro di Sperimentazione Agraria e Forestale Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry | Laimburg 6 – Pfatten (Vadena) | 39040 Auer (Ora) | Südtirol (Alto Adige) | Italy T +39 0471 969 500 | F +39 0471 969 599 | laimburg@provinz.bz.it (laimburg@provincia.bz.it) | www.laimburg.it05.11.2012 18 18

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