Replant Disease-Resistant Rootstocks       Terence Robinson, Gennaro Fazio, Herb Aldwinckle        Dept. of Horticulture, ...
Keys to Successful New Apple Orchards • Plant high-tree densities (optimum ~3,000 trees/ha). • Produce high early yields (...
Strategies to Overcome Apple Replant Disease                                                                            Re...
The Geneva Apple Rootstock Breeding and Development ProgramCornell University Program 1968-2008   Dr. James Cummins and He...
Tolerance of Geneva® Stocks to Replant Disease                     (Empire Experiment, NY 1991)            Relative Tree  ...
Growth of Un-grafted Stocks in a Pasteurized and a Replant Soil                                  0.8                      ...
Rootstock Liner Growth in Pots                             St. Laurent et al., 2010
Geneva Replant Disease Evaluation of 38 Genotypes                                            Kviklys et al
% I ncrease in Growth due to Pasteurization                                    100                                        ...
Field Performance of G.4210 and G.202 in New Zealand                                    60   % I ncrease due to Virgin Soi...
% I ncrease in TCA due to Fumigation                                                 10                                   ...
Gala Production Response to Fumigation in North America                                  120                              ...
What is the definition of a Resistant Rootstock?• Traditionally resistance has been defined as similar growth in pasteuriz...
Growth of Gala in a Replant Soil          Washington State                               Data from Auvil et al. 2010
% I ncrease in Growth due to                                                    Fumigation                                ...
Yield of Gala in a Replant Soil         Washington State                                  Data from Auvil et al. 2010
Early Yield Improvement of Gala due to Fumigation in a Replant Soil                                                      W...
Growth of Gala in a Replant Soil          Washington State                               Data from Auvil et al. 2010
% I ncrease in Growth due to                                                  Fumigation                                  ...
Yield of Gala in a Replant Soil                                         Washington State              Mean Cumulative Yiel...
Yield of Gala in a Replant Soil                        Washington State       Mean Cumulative Yield of Highest and Lowest ...
Yield of Gala in a Replant Soil        Washington State                                  Data From Auvil et al. 2012
% I ncrease in Yield due to                                                   Fumigation                                  ...
Growth of Fuji in a Replant Soil          Washington State                               Data From Auvil et al. 2010
Growth of Fuji in a Replant Soil          Washington State                               Data From Auvil et al. 2010
Summary of Replant Resistance StudiesStudy              G.11   G.41   G.214   G.935   G.210   G.30   M.9   M.26Robinson 19...
G.11•   Tree size similar to M.9 T337.•   Productivity is similar to M.9.•   Large fruit size•   Tolerant to Replant Disea...
G.41• M.9 vigor• Highly yield efficient• Highly productive• Very precocious• Resistant to replant disease• Very cold hardy...
G.214   Vigor similar to M.9 Pajam2   Highly yield efficient   Highly productive   Good precocity   Tolerant to repla...
G.935• Vigor intermediate between M.9  Pajam 2 and M.26• Very cold hardy• Resistant to Replant Disease• Resistant to Fire ...
G.202• It is similar in size to M.26• Precocious, productive• It is resistant to woolly apple  aphid, fire blight, and cro...
G.210• Vigor between M.7 and MM.106• Precocious, productive                G.210• Yield efficiency similar or better  than...
Released Geneva® Apple Rootstocks Arranged by Tree Size                                                           Seedling...
Summary• Several Geneva® rootstocks appear to have tolerance/resistance to  apple replant disease.   –   G.41   –   G.214 ...
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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 16-11-2012 7 - terence robinson

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Su http://agronotizie.imagelinenetwork.com/aziende/fiera-bolzano-interpoma/5375 tutte le notizie su Interpoma - Fiera Bolzano, a cura di Agronotizie, rivista on line per l'agricoltura di http://www.imagelinenetwork.com

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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 16-11-2012 7 - terence robinson

  1. 1. Replant Disease-Resistant Rootstocks Terence Robinson, Gennaro Fazio, Herb Aldwinckle Dept. of Horticulture, Cornell University Geneva, New York, 14456 USDA-ARS, Plant Genetics Resources Unit, Geneva, NY 14456
  2. 2. Keys to Successful New Apple Orchards • Plant high-tree densities (optimum ~3,000 trees/ha). • Produce high early yields (150 t/ha over the first 5 years). • Grow the trees rapidly to fill the allotted space in the first 3 years. • Produce high mature yields (>60 t/ha) of high quality fruit.• Poor tree growth due to replant disease inthe first 3 years jeopardizes the economicsuccess of the new orchard.
  3. 3. Strategies to Overcome Apple Replant Disease Relative Fumigation Effect on Trunk Cross Sectional Area Growth (2004-2007)• Soil fumigation -Expensive 50.00% 40.00% -Environmental concerns Percent Growth Increment 30.00% -Short duration of effect 20.00% 2004 2005• Soil amendments 10.00% 2006 2007 0.00% -Limited effectiveness -10.00% -Expensive -20.00% WAPATO CHELAN• Replacing soil Location -Expensive -Labor intensive• Genetic tolerance or resistance ofrootstock -Effective for life of orchard -Inexpensive
  4. 4. The Geneva Apple Rootstock Breeding and Development ProgramCornell University Program 1968-2008 Dr. James Cummins and Herb AldwinckleJoint Program with USDA and Cornell University (1998-present) Dr. Gennaro Fazio, Herb Aldwinckle and Terence RobinsonGoal: Produce a series of dwarfing rootstocks which are resistant toimportant rootstock diseases and insects. • Resistance to fire blight • Resistance to Phytopthora root rot • Resistance to woolly apple aphid • Cold tolerant • Resistance to apple replant disease.
  5. 5. Tolerance of Geneva® Stocks to Replant Disease (Empire Experiment, NY 1991) Relative Tree Relative Growth Vigor (Virgin Site) at Replant Site ReplantRootstock (% of M.7) (% of Virgin site) ToleranceM.7 100 +1 TolerantM.26 72 -30 Highly SusceptibleG.210 66 +8 TolerantG.30 60 +5 TolerantG.935 51 -3 Mod TolerantG.202 43 +21 TolerantM.9 39 -8 Mod. SusceptibleG.41 36 -4 Mod. TolerantB.9 26 +3 Tolerant
  6. 6. Growth of Un-grafted Stocks in a Pasteurized and a Replant Soil 0.8 0.7 0.6 Relative Biomass I ndex 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 G.11 G.4013 G.7707 G.65 G.8189 G.30 G.210 -0.1 Data redrawn from Isutsa and Merwin 2000
  7. 7. Rootstock Liner Growth in Pots St. Laurent et al., 2010
  8. 8. Geneva Replant Disease Evaluation of 38 Genotypes Kviklys et al
  9. 9. % I ncrease in Growth due to Pasteurization 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 80 CG CG.4814 CG.6025 CG.5257 .97 7 G. 3 8 0 CG G.11 .68 G.279 CG 02 CG .4011 CG.2406 .65 8 CG G. 4 9 .41 1 CG 72 .60 2 CG G. 6 4 .68 5 G.274 G.814 CG 90 .85 G.934 6 B.19 B.1 0 1 G. 1 8 G 6 CG .935 CG.6143 CG.6001 CG.5179 M. .5 26E 012 CG MLA .30 B.407 CG 90 CG.6040 .77 07 M. B.9 9 Rootstock Tolerance to Replant Disease in Potted TreesKviklys et al CG T337 .40 02
  10. 10. Field Performance of G.4210 and G.202 in New Zealand 60 % I ncrease due to Virgin Soil TCA 50 Yield 40 30 20 10 0 G.4210 M .26 G.202 M M .106 -10 -20 (White et al., 2002)
  11. 11. % I ncrease in TCA due to Fumigation 10 20 30 0 G .1 6 G .4 1 G .4 21 0 B. 9 G .3 M 0 .9 T3 37 G .2 10 G .9 35 G M .11 .9 Pa ja m 2 M .7 M .2 6 Field Tolerance to Replant Disease at 8 Locations in North AmericaRobinson et al.
  12. 12. Gala Production Response to Fumigation in North America 120 TCA Cum. Yield % I ncrease due to Fumigation Efficiency 100 80 60 40 20 0 6 1 0 9 0 10 35 .11 2 6 37 .7 m .1 .4 21 .3 .2 B. M .2 .9 T3 G G G G ja M .4 G G Pa .9 G M .9 M
  13. 13. What is the definition of a Resistant Rootstock?• Traditionally resistance has been defined as similar growth in pasteurized soil andreplant soil.• However, field trials show that even resistant rootstocks respond to fumigationwith improved yield compared to un-fumigated controls.• Even if a rootstock can grow well in replant disease soil there appears to be a costin yield likely due to the need to invest more carbohydrate resources into rootgrowth and less into fruit growth
  14. 14. Growth of Gala in a Replant Soil Washington State Data from Auvil et al. 2010
  15. 15. % I ncrease in Growth due to Fumigation 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 G. 93 5 G. 41 G. 16 B. 9 G. 21 M 4 .9P aj 2 Washington State M .26 Su pp 2 G. 11 Su Growth of Gala in a Replant Soil pp 3 Su pp M .9N 1 ic2 9Data from Auvil et al. 2010
  16. 16. Yield of Gala in a Replant Soil Washington State Data from Auvil et al. 2010
  17. 17. Early Yield Improvement of Gala due to Fumigation in a Replant Soil Washington State WAPATO 2006-2007 Cumulative Yield Per Tree (Kg)% I ncrease in Yield due to 60 50 Fumigation 40 30 20 10 0 35 14 1 j2 9 6 p1 29 6 .11 p3 p2 .4 .1 .2 d. Pa .9 .2 Su ic Su Su G Bu M G G N G G .9 .9 M M Rootstock Data from Fazio
  18. 18. Growth of Gala in a Replant Soil Washington State Data from Auvil et al. 2010
  19. 19. % I ncrease in Growth due to Fumigation -10 10 20 30 40 50 0 G. 93 5 G. 41 M .9P aj 2 G. 16 Su pp 1 Washington State G. 11 B. M 9 .9N ic2 M 9 .9T 33 Growth of Gala in a Replant Soil 7 Su pp 2 M .26Data from Auvil et al. 2010
  20. 20. Yield of Gala in a Replant Soil Washington State Mean Cumulative Yield Per Tree (2006-2007) CHELAN 8 7 6 5Kg 4 FUMIG 3 NoFUM 2 1 0 M 26 G 11 G 16 B d9 S p1 S p2 S p3 2 83 N ic 29 G 935 G 041 7 N ak 33 P jam P a u 56 - - - u u u u b 3 5 a i Data from Fazio
  21. 21. Yield of Gala in a Replant Soil Washington State Mean Cumulative Yield of Highest and Lowest Three Rootstocks 9.6% 8 7 G.935 6 G.935 G.41 60% G.41 66% G.16 5 G.16 Highest ThreeKg 4 Lowest Three 3 B.9 2 B.9 Supp.2 M.26 Supp.1 1 Nic.29 0 NoFUM FUMIG Data from Fazio
  22. 22. Yield of Gala in a Replant Soil Washington State Data From Auvil et al. 2012
  23. 23. % I ncrease in Yield due to Fumigation -10 100 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 CG . CG 2034 .62 10 CG G.16 .3 CG 007 .40 CG 13 . CG 935 CG .214 .48 1 Washington State G. 4 22 2 G. CG 30 . CG 5046 M .51 .9E 79 M CG L A .50 12 Yield Increase of Gala in a Replant Soil G. 41 B. 9Data From Auvil et al. 2012
  24. 24. Growth of Fuji in a Replant Soil Washington State Data From Auvil et al. 2010
  25. 25. Growth of Fuji in a Replant Soil Washington State Data From Auvil et al. 2010
  26. 26. Summary of Replant Resistance StudiesStudy G.11 G.41 G.214 G.935 G.210 G.30 M.9 M.26Robinson 1991 -- T -- T R R S SIsutsas 2000 S -- -- -- R R -- --Laurent 2010 -- S -- R R S S RKviklys 2012 R R R T -- R S SWhite 2000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- RRobinson 2012 T R -- T T R T SAuvil 2010(Wapato) T R T R -- -- -- TAuvil 2010(Chelan) -- R -- R -- -- S SAverage T R R R R R S S
  27. 27. G.11• Tree size similar to M.9 T337.• Productivity is similar to M.9.• Large fruit size• Tolerant to Replant Disease Geneva® 11 M9-T337• Resistant to Fire Blight but not immune.• Resistant to Crown Rot• Not tolerant to replant disease• Susceptible to Wooly Apple Aphid• Good rooting in stoolbed Courtesy of Stefano Musacchi
  28. 28. G.41• M.9 vigor• Highly yield efficient• Highly productive• Very precocious• Resistant to replant disease• Very cold hardy• Does well in warmer climates (Mexico)• Immune to Fire Blight and Crown Rot and Wooly Apple Aphid• Requires tissue culture mother plants for stoolbed G.41 Fuji CIV 2008
  29. 29. G.214 Vigor similar to M.9 Pajam2 Highly yield efficient Highly productive Good precocity Tolerant to replant disease Resistant to Fire Blight, Crown Rot and Wooly Apple Aphid Very good stool bed propagation No commercial production of liners. G.214 Washington
  30. 30. G.935• Vigor intermediate between M.9 Pajam 2 and M.26• Very cold hardy• Resistant to Replant Disease• Resistant to Fire Blight and Crown Rot• Tolerant to Replant Disease Complex• Susceptible to Wooly Apple Aphid• Production in US ~50,000 plants in 2011.
  31. 31. G.202• It is similar in size to M.26• Precocious, productive• It is resistant to woolly apple aphid, fire blight, and crown rot• In New Zealand it has been a top performer• Good choice for weak growing cultivars like Honeycrisp• Tolerant to apple replant disease• Moderate rooting in stoolbed G.202 New Zealand
  32. 32. G.210• Vigor between M.7 and MM.106• Precocious, productive G.210• Yield efficiency similar or better than M.9• Resistant to apple replant disease.• Resistance to woolly apple aphid, fire blight, and crown rot.• Good rooting in stoolbed few spines.• Mostly for Organic Production
  33. 33. Released Geneva® Apple Rootstocks Arranged by Tree Size Seedling Size M.7-MM106 Size M.26 Size M.9 PAJ 2 M.9 T337M.27 Size G.65 G.11 G.41 G.935 G.202 G.30 G.16 G.214 New G.969 G.210 G.890 Releases G.222 G.213
  34. 34. Summary• Several Geneva® rootstocks appear to have tolerance/resistance to apple replant disease. – G.41 – G.214 – G.935 – G.202 – G.210• The resistance may be due to the initial screening for Phytopthora disease which may also have selected for tolerance to other soil microorganisms.• Resistant rootstocks show an improvement in yield due to fumigation.• The variation around the world in soil organisms which cause apple replant disease may result in variable orchard results with the resistant rootstocks.
  35. 35. Questions?

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