Experiences with                          Apple Replant Disease                               in Germany                  ...
Center of Competence Klein-Altendorf                                                                            Bonn      ...
Experiences with                            Apple Replant Disease                                 in Germany              ...
Specific Apple Replant Disease                                              -Symptoms-         Especially in the first 5 p...
Braeburn on M9                     after three growing periods                     Replant soil                           ...
Trunk diameter in cm2 in                     2010 (planting year 2006) of                           ‘Braeburn‘ trees      ...
Cumulated yield/ tree (2007-2010) of             ‚Braeburn Schneider‘ in t/ ha in replant              and virgin soil on ...
Influence of replant and virgin soil on the content of calcium in the leaves    of Braeburn in % in DM in 2008  2,0       ...
20        %                    Replant                          Virgin             1515                                  b...
Symptoms of SARD                                        - Conclusion -                                                    ...
Experiences with                        Apple Replant Disease                             in Germany                      ...
Causes of                     Replant                    Problems                        Abiotic factors                  ...
Microorganisms in the rhizosphere        Soil                                        Rhizosphere                          ...
Causes of SARD        Soil                          Carbohydrate- and                                               Root  ...
Folie 14l1         ???           lua; 24.09.2012
Attack by fungi and bacteria                 after a change of life-form                                                  ...
Causes of            Specific Apple Replant Disease                                      -Conclusion -                    ...
Experiences with                        Apple Replant Disease                             in Germany                      ...
Shoot length per tree [cm]                                                             Chlorpikrin                        ...
Chemical strategies against                        SARD    Products                                              o us     ...
Soil heat-steaming using heat resistant foil                                      Heat                                  re...
Which microorganisms can be                      ‚killed‘               -Lethal temperatures-                             ...
Soil heat-steaming using heat resistant foil                Reliable strategy against SARD                Non toxic       ...
What to do?                                                               Some                                            ...
Rootstocks                                        M9                                     CG 3041© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompete...
Cumulated yield (2007-2010) of                         ‚Braeburn Schneider‘ in t/ ha                            on differe...
Cumulated yield (2007-2010) of                          ‚Braeburn Schneider‘ in t/ ha                             on diffe...
Quality parameters                                 of plant material of apple-tress                 Amount of similarly de...
Cumulated yield/ ha (2008-2010)                depending tree quality                   - 2900 trees/ha -                 ...
Fertilizer in                planting hole; Braeburn 1998                                         - Yield in 1999 -       ...
Cultivation methods and                       practical strategies                            - Summary-        Soil prepa...
Biological control                                         of                                       SARD    Agrobacterium ...
Bacillus spp.               (B.amyloliquefaciens; B. subtilis)                    ‚The biological fungicide‘           Ori...
Trees dipped in and watered with                 RhizoVital 42-Solution                       (= Bacillus amyloliquefacien...
Trichoderma harzianum           -The ‚Star‘ among the benefical                  microorganisms-          Origin:         ...
Trees watered with                            Trichoderma T50                       (= Trichoderma harazium)© DLR Rheinpfa...
Plantation of ‚Junami‘                                   in 2009© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Ba...
Additives to the soil during                             planting   +                                            +© DLR Rh...
Shoot length per tree [cm]                                      ‘Junami‘                                     August 2009  ...
New strategy:               Treatment with a combination of                    soil stimulation agents                    ...
Replant trial with ‘Royal Braeburn‘             planted in march 2010                     -Varianten-       1 Control     ...
Shoot length per tree [cm]                                    ‘Royal Braeburn‘                                            ...
Cumulated yield per tree and                          average fruit weight                      ‘Royal Braeburn‘; 2011+201...
SARD control management                                              - summary-          Change of position or soil       ...
Thank You for your attention!                                      Gerhard Baab + Joana Henfrey                           ...
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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 16-11-2012 6 - gerhard baab

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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 16-11-2012 6 - gerhard baab

  1. 1. Experiences with Apple Replant Disease in Germany Interpoma November 2012 Gerhard Baab Joana Henfrey DLR Rheinpfalz; Center of Competence Meckenheimer Straße 40 53359 Rheinbach Germany Email: gerhard.baab@dlr.rlp.de jhenfrey@uni-bonn.de© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau Folie 1
  2. 2. Center of Competence Klein-Altendorf Bonn km 20 DLR Rheinpfalz© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Vorname Name Folie 2
  3. 3. Experiences with Apple Replant Disease in Germany - Outline - Symptoms Causes Control Strategies© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 3
  4. 4. Specific Apple Replant Disease -Symptoms- Especially in the first 5 planting years: Suppressed root growth Discolored/ damaged roots Short roots Less lateral or fine roots and root hairs Suppressed tree growth Irregular, stunted growth (Short internodes) Small leaves Poor yield and quality© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Folie 4
  5. 5. Braeburn on M9 after three growing periods Replant soil Virgin soil© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey - - Vorname Name Folie 5
  6. 6. Trunk diameter in cm2 in 2010 (planting year 2006) of ‘Braeburn‘ trees in replant and virgin soil 20 cm² replant Nachbau virgin jungfr. Boden 17,4 18,1 18 16 14,0 13,4 14 12,1 12 10,7 10 9,1 8,7 7,8 8,0 8 7,3 5,6 6 4,3 4,8 4 2 0 M 27 M 20 P 16 M8 B 491 M9 B9© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Vorname Name Folie 6
  7. 7. Cumulated yield/ tree (2007-2010) of ‚Braeburn Schneider‘ in t/ ha in replant and virgin soil on different rootstocks 80 t/ ha replant Nachbau virgin Jungf. Boden 69,2 70 58,7 60,0 60 50,2 52,0 50 42,9 40 37,2 33,7 28,6 29,2 30 24,5 25,4 20,9 18,1 20 10 0 M 27 M 20 P 16 M8 B 491 M9 B9© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 7
  8. 8. Influence of replant and virgin soil on the content of calcium in the leaves of Braeburn in % in DM in 2008 2,0 % i.d. DM 1,63 1,6 1,41 1,2 0,91 0,77 0,8 0,4 0,0 M9 M9 B9 B9 Replant soil Virgin soil Replant soil Virgin soil Nachbau Jungfräulich Nachbau Jungfräulich© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 8
  9. 9. 20 % Replant Virgin 1515 bitter pit10 5 3 3 2 1 1 0 M9 B9 M 27 40 % Replant Virgin 30 lenticel spots 25 25 20 11 10 5 5 4 0© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau M9 B9 M Folie 9 27
  10. 10. Symptoms of SARD - Conclusion - Even under optimum growing conditions: suppressed Growth Yield Quality especially in the first (5) years© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 10
  11. 11. Experiences with Apple Replant Disease in Germany - Overview - Symptoms Causes© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 11
  12. 12. Causes of Replant Problems Abiotic factors Biotic factors Not Specific Apple Replant Disease Specific Apple Replant Disease (= NSARD) (= SARD) Poor soil structure and drainage Phytophthora, Pythium, Nemtodes Cylindrocarpon, Rhizoctonia Soil life and content of humus Penicillium spp. Soil pH-value SARD Actinomycetes Water- ,drought- and cold stress Pseudomonas fluorescens, Fungi Bacteria Unbalanced nutrition P. putida, P syringae© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 12
  13. 13. Microorganisms in the rhizosphere Soil Rhizosphere rhizosphere Root bacteria Ro ot ex ud ate s nematodes fungi es sidu Wurzelhaar Root re VA- others vesicle Mykorrhiza hyphes arbuscle© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 13
  14. 14. Causes of SARD Soil Carbohydrate- and Root energy-reserves of the rhizosphere l1 Selection of rhizosphere microflora Ro Imbalance towards ot ex Saprophytic ud a te microorganisms s z.B.:Phytophthora, Pythium, Penicillium, Actinomycetes es sidu Wurzelhaar oot re R Change of life-form Phytopathogenic microorganisms© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 14
  15. 15. Folie 14l1 ??? lua; 24.09.2012
  16. 16. Attack by fungi and bacteria after a change of life-form Roots Phytophthora Direct attack Pythium Cylindrocarpon Rhizoctonia Actinomycetes Pseudomonas Penicillium spp. Phytotoxines z.B. Patulin cause© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Growth inhibition Folie 15
  17. 17. Causes of Specific Apple Replant Disease -Conclusion - The causes are diverse not totally understood Dead roots and their exudates probably lead to an imbalance towards a pathenogenic rhizosphere microflora Leading to an accumulation of (saprophytic and pathenogenic) bacteria and fungi which attack the new roots Damages are: direct or indirect through secundary metabolites© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 16
  18. 18. Experiences with Apple Replant Disease in Germany - Overview - Symptoms Causes Control Strategies •chemical • physical •practical •biological© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 17
  19. 19. Shoot length per tree [cm] Chlorpikrin ‘Sapora‘ 2010 Treatment 2010 500 cm 392 398 400 313 300 245 249 258 b b 212 230 200 ab ab ab ab a a 100 0 l ol l in in e ta ta .. at .. tr kr kr o. Vi Vi z. on tr pi pi z zo zo hi bs hi or or C R hi hi R Su hl hl .+ .+ R R ²C ²C ho ho e + a+ ut d. m m ic ic m ho ti t g/ g/ Tr Tr er bs 20 40 ic d + + Tr Su ho p. p. or or S+ ic hl hl Tr A ²C ²C m m g/ g/ 20 40© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau Folie 18
  20. 20. Chemical strategies against SARD Products o us eragainst nematodes Methylisothiocyanat (Metam-Fluid) ng ent Only Dazomed da (Basamid Microgranulat) m nd viro e a eNot licenced in Chlorpicrin (Tipicrin TM) iv n Metylbromid e ns (Terabol) the Germany xp and ul t, e e r Summary if fic us D the for Efficient Expensive (2.500 -3.000 €/ha) Presently not licenced Dangerous for enviroment and user ‚Biological desert‘ Poor soil structure (no earth worms)© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 19
  21. 21. Soil heat-steaming using heat resistant foil Heat resistant foil© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 20
  22. 22. Which microorganisms can be ‚killed‘ -Lethal temperatures- according to Jarvis 1992 °C ° 100°C (15 min.) most viruses 90 °C (30 min.) most actinomycetes 70-80 °C (15 min.) most weed seeds ° 60-70°C (10 min.) most bacteria ° 60°C (30 min.) most phytopathogenic fungi + worms + snails ° 50°C (10 min.) most nematodes incl. pratylenchus penetrans© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 21
  23. 23. Soil heat-steaming using heat resistant foil Reliable strategy against SARD Non toxic Presently high costs (6000 €/ ha, (3000 trees/ ha)) Other energy sources besides oil might be useable Heat resistant foil© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 22
  24. 24. What to do? Some practical strategies© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 23
  25. 25. Rootstocks M9 CG 3041© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 24
  26. 26. Cumulated yield (2007-2010) of ‚Braeburn Schneider‘ in t/ ha on different rootstocks in virgin soil t/ ha 2007 2008 2009 20107060 2350 17 18 14 20 16 9 1640 9 11 12 12 23 830 22 21 17 19 17 16 17 20 20 14 16 1820 22 19 19 2010 15 17 16 17 13 15 13 13 13 0 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 82 56 65 13 1 r2 9 27 20 16 F 9 8 49 E- B M M 62 29 27 40 te M M P JT B or R R X G pp A A C Su© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 25
  27. 27. Cumulated yield (2007-2010) of ‚Braeburn Schneider‘ in t/ ha on different rootstocks in replant soil t/ ha 2007 2008 2009 2010 70 60 50 40 30 11 15 19 10 9 20 8 10 11 7 5 7 6 5 12 5 15 15 11 9 11 9 8 11 10 7 8 10 9 10 6 5 3 4 4 5 4 4 5 6 5 5 3 2 4 3 0 1 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 16 9 9 8 27 20 1 65 F 2 pp 56 r2 13 41 49 8 E- B M M 27 40 30 62 29 te P M M JT B or X R R G G A A C C Su© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 26
  28. 28. Quality parameters of plant material of apple-tress Amount of similarly developed horizontal branches Qualität AA: > 6 (at best 8) Qualität A+: 5-6 Qualität A: 4-5 Qualität B: 0-3 Trunkdiameter Kniptrees (20 cm above occulation: 16-18 mm© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau Folie 27
  29. 29. Cumulated yield/ ha (2008-2010) depending tree quality - 2900 trees/ha - 95,0 100 90,2 t/ha 2010 39,6 36,3 80 2009 71,9 68,3 58,9 a 28,8 23,8 52,1 2008 b 60 22,5 aa 35,5 33,0 c 20,9 a 40 29,6 a 28,0 23,6 a 19,6 a a b 20 b c 20,9 20,0 14,9 12,8 15,0 a b 11,6 b a a b 0 AA A B AA A B Braeburn Maririred Pinova Roho© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 28
  30. 30. Fertilizer in planting hole; Braeburn 1998 - Yield in 1999 - MAP Shoot length in m per tree in planting year 1998 Control1,2 24 m Amount1,0 200,8 160,6 120,4 80,2 4 Yield (t/ha) and fruit weight in 1999 (2. leave)0,0 0 g t/ha Kontrolle Nitro-Blau Melasse Thomas- 12APP MAP 180 spez. phosphat 10 160 8 140 6 120 4 100 2 80 0 60 Kontrolle Nitro-Blau Melasse Thomas- APP MAP© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau spez. phosphat Folie 29
  31. 31. Cultivation methods and practical strategies - Summary- Soil preparation Soil loosening No magic reaction Fertilization(Cyanamid-Nitrogen!) Calcium- slight low pH- range Plant material Volume (AA-quality) Virus-free Rootstocks: vigorous M9-clones; G 41; G 11 Good rooting system Plantation More trees per hectare Planting in autumm Exchange of soil/ Additions to the planting hole Irrigation© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 30
  32. 32. Biological control of SARD Agrobacterium radiobacter Trichoderma Bacillus subtilis Streptomyces spp. Pseudomonas fluorescens VA- Mycorrhiza Anthagonize and inhibit pathogens Direct destruction or damage of pathogens with antibiotic agents, enzymes, hormones Stören und Kontrollieren Promote plant resistance Soil born pathogens Saprophytic phytotoxic MOs Actinomycetes, Phytophthora .usw. Penicillium spp; Alternaria usw. Stimulation of root growth and plant growth© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 31
  33. 33. Bacillus spp. (B.amyloliquefaciens; B. subtilis) ‚The biological fungicide‘ Origin Universal saprophytic soil borne bacteria Function Produce antibiotic agents which work against pathogenic fungi and bacteria Effective against Phytophthora ; Pythium; Cylindrocarpon; Penicillium; Rhizoctonia; Botrytis; Fusarium; Verticillium; Erwinia; usw.© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 32
  34. 34. Trees dipped in and watered with RhizoVital 42-Solution (= Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 33
  35. 35. Trichoderma harzianum -The ‚Star‘ among the benefical microorganisms- Origin: Universal saprophytic soil borne fungi (ascomycetes) Function Cracks the hyphae of pathogenic fungi by producing specific enzymes (Hemicellulase, Pectinase) Effective against: Pythium, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Botrytis, Verticillium© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 34
  36. 36. Trees watered with Trichoderma T50 (= Trichoderma harazium)© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 35
  37. 37. Plantation of ‚Junami‘ in 2009© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 36
  38. 38. Additives to the soil during planting + +© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 37
  39. 39. Shoot length per tree [cm] ‘Junami‘ August 2009 250 cm/ tree 216 221 203 203 206 194 198 200 186 150 b b b b b b b b 100 -N l ig d rm S 50 r tro o ol ss id m at ifa T lG n nu m flü iv Co a ad na ni t m ag ac 42 R a er ya M il- ng od l C ta So te Fo ch Vi hi a rip io zo n an Tr Ri ut M lin N ta Vi© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 38
  40. 40. New strategy: Treatment with a combination of soil stimulation agents Stimulation Benefical of biolocical microorganisms Organic activity FZB Rhizo Vital R 42 fl. with soil activators Substrate Vitalin Trichoderma© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 39
  41. 41. Replant trial with ‘Royal Braeburn‘ planted in march 2010 -Varianten- 1 Control 2 Substitute substrate (SS) 18l per tree 3 SS + Cynanamid- N 4 SS + Soil activator (SA) 5 SS + Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 6 SS + Trichoderma 7 SS + Bacillus amyloliquefaciens + Trichoderma 8 SS + Bacillus amyloliquefaciens + Trichoderma + Soil activator 9 SS + Bacillus amy. + Trichoderma + Cyanamid- N 10 SS + Bacillus amy. + Trichoderma + Cyan.- N + Soil activator© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 40
  42. 42. Shoot length per tree [cm] ‘Royal Braeburn‘ August 2010cm 277,1 300 254,6 261,5 207,4 221,8 200 166,0 196,4 d d 137,2 140,0 cd 100 78,5 bcd bcd bcd a ab ab abc 0 -N A SS il) -N s a +S en rm .. so id y. .. . rm -.. d. ci m SS +C de k y. de ho fa na ic ho +C h. ue (s ho ric ya ric ric h. iq ol ic +C +T ric +T +T ol tr Tr y. SS yl on y. +T SS am + am m y. C y. .a m m us us ac .a .a ill ill +B ac ac ac ac +B +B SS +B +B SS SS SS SS© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 41
  43. 43. Cumulated yield per tree and average fruit weight ‘Royal Braeburn‘; 2011+2012 15 205 200 199 199 202 203 199 210 194 194 191kg/ tree Two weeks before plantation: 140 Cyanamid- Nitrogen 10 12,8 12,4 12,9 10,9 11,2 10,9 11,1 11,2 70 10,4 10,6 Addition to the planting hole: 5 0 Substitute substrate A g/ -N SS a -N a SA A s il) + rm rm en +S +S so id y. a+ ci de de +C SS am -N fruit k Rhizo vital fl (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) fa rm ho ic ho y. h. an ue (s +C ric de ric ric Cy iq l + h. tro ho +T +T +T ol + ric SS yl y. ic n SS y. Co +T Tr am m Vitalin Trichoderma am .a y. + us y. us ac m + m ll .a ill +B ci .a ac ac Ba SS ac Soil activator +B +B + +B SS SS SS SS© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 42
  44. 44. SARD control management - summary- Change of position or soil best method but not always possible Chemical treatments not licenced Thermal sterlilization very reliable but high costs => still in trial Biological soil desinfection successful in nematode management Biofumigation Flooding- methode Antagonists Further research and field trials are required! successfull in combination with organic substrates and soil activators© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Gerhard Baab – Joana Henfrey Folie 43
  45. 45. Thank You for your attention! Gerhard Baab + Joana Henfrey DLR Rheinpfalz© DLR Rheinpfalz - Kompetenzzentrum Gartenbau - Vorname Name Folie 44

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