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  2. 2. PHASE 5 2 SDLC Phases Phase 5: Systems Operation and Support Objectives Provide maintenance and improvements for the new information system Support users and help them obtain the most value from the new systemSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  3. 3. PHASE 5 3 Chapter 12 Systems Operation and SupportSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  4. 4. PHASE 5 4 Objectives Explain how the systems operation and support phase relates to the rest of the SDLC Describe the information center concept and how it supports user needs Discuss the three main categories of systems maintenance Describe standard maintenance proceduresSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  5. 5. PHASE 5 5 Objectives Discuss the role of configuration management in systems operation Describe the process of capacity planning, including workload and performance measurements Recognize the signs of system obsolescenceSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  6. 6. PHASE 5 6 Introduction The new system must meet user expectations and provide support for business objectives Systems analysts perform maintenance, and also act as internal consultants to help users obtain the greatest value from the system The more a system is used, the more features and enhancements are requested, and the more maintenance is requiredSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  7. 7. PHASE 5 7 Introduction Chapter topics Three types of maintenance: corrective, adaptive, and perfective Support techniques include maintenance teams, configuration management, and maintenance releases System performance issues CASE maintenance tools Recognizing system obsolescenceSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  8. 8. PHASE 5 Overview of Systems Support and 8 Maintenance Activities The systems operation and support phase begins when the system becomes operational and ends when the system is replacedSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  9. 9. PHASE 5 Overview of Systems Support and 9 Maintenance Activities After delivering the system, the analyst must perform two tasks Provide guidance and user training Formal training sessions Technical support Creation of a centralized information center Perform necessary maintenance Keep the system operating properly Increase its value to usersSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  10. 10. PHASE 5 10 Support Activities User training and assistance Current employees are trained when the new system is introduced New employees typically are trained by user departments, rather than IS staff If significant changes take place, the IS group might develop a user training package Special Help via e-mail or company intranet Revisions to the user guide Training manual supplements Formal training sessions Click to see Figure 12-1SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E Package
  11. 11. PHASE 5 11 Support Activities Information centers An information center has three main objectives To help people use system resources more effectively To provide answers to technical or operational questions To make users more productive by teaching them how to meet their own information needs An information center also is called a help desk Click to see Figure 12-2SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E Package
  12. 12. PHASE 5 12 Support Activities Information centers Typical information center tasks Show a user how to create a data query or report Demonstrate an advanced system feature Help a user recover damaged data Offer tips for better operation Explain an undocumented software feature Show a user how to write a macro Explain how to access the company’s intranet or the InternetSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  13. 13. PHASE 5 13 Support Activities Typical information centers tasks Assist a user in developing a simple database Answer questions about software licensing and upgrades Provide information about system specifications Recommend a system solution that integrates data from different locations An information center also monitors performance and provides support Click to see Figure 12-3SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E Package
  14. 14. PHASE 5 14 Maintenance Activities The overall cost of a system includes the systems operation and support phase Costs include fixed operational costs and maintenance activities Operational costs are relatively constant, while maintenance costs vary over time High costs when system is implemented Relatively low costs during system’s useful life High costs near end of system’s useful life Click to see Figure 12-4 Package Click to see Figure 12-5SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E Package
  15. 15. PHASE 5 15 Maintenance Activities Operational costs Supplies Equipment rentals Software leases Maintenance activities Changing programs, procedures, or documentation to ensure correct performance Adapting the system to changing requirements Making the system operate more efficientlySYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  16. 16. PHASE 5 16 Maintenance Activities Three types of maintenance Corrective maintenance To fix errors Adaptive maintenance To add new capability and enhancements Perfective maintenance To improve efficiencySYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  17. 17. PHASE 5 17 Maintenance Activities Corrective maintenance Diagnoses and corrects errors in the system Investigation, analysis, design, and testing are necessary before a solution is implemented Typically, a user submits a systems request form with supporting evidence, if necessary Response depends on the priority of the request All maintenance is logged Click to see Figure 12-6SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E Package
  18. 18. PHASE 5 18 Maintenance Activities Adaptive maintenance Adds enhancements to the system An enhancement is a new feature or capability Adaptive maintenance often is required in a dynamic business environment An adaptive maintenance project is like a mini- SDLC, with similar phases and tasks Can be more difficult than new systems development, because of the constraints of an existing systemSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  19. 19. PHASE 5 19 Maintenance Activities Perfective maintenance Involves changing an operational system to make it more efficient, reliable, or maintainable Requests for corrective and adaptive maintenance typically come from users, while requests for perfective maintenance typically come from the IS department Techniques Reverse engineering tools aid design analysis Reengineering tools can be used interactively to correct errors Click to see Figure 12-7SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E Package
  20. 20. PHASE 5 Managing Systems Operation and 20 Support Systems operation requires effective management techniques Maintenance team Configuration management Maintenance releasesSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  21. 21. PHASE 5 Managing Systems Operation and 21 Support Maintenance team Consists of systems analysts and programmers Systems analysts on maintenance work need Solid background in information technology Strong analytical abilities Solid understanding of business operations Effective interpersonal and communication skills Analysis: studying the whole to understand the individual elements Synthesis: studying the individual elements to understand the overall systemSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  22. 22. PHASE 5 Managing Systems Operation and 22 Support Configuration management Process for controlling changes in system requirements Usually involves three steps 1. The maintenance request 2. Initial action on the request 3. Final disposition of the request Objectives of configuration management Manage different versions of the system Organize and handle documentationSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  23. 23. PHASE 5 23 TRADEOFF Should a systems review committee evaluate maintenance and new systems requests separately, or together? Some say “let the dollars go where they will do the most good, regardless of project type” Others feel that separate allocations are needed to protect maintenance projects All projects draw from the same resource pool, but IS groups often are organized into separate teams, and can handle separate projects betterSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  24. 24. PHASE 5 24 A KEY QUESTION At Brightside Insurance Company, you organized the IS group into two units — one for new systems, one for maintenance Now one of your best people might quit if he is assigned to the maintenance team Should you adopt a different policy and allow voluntary assignments? If you must make the assignments, what criteria should you use?SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  25. 25. PHASE 5 Managing Systems Operation and 25 Support Maintenance releases With a maintenance release methodology, all noncritical changes are held until they can be implemented at one time Each new system version is called a release Numbering systems Whole number = significant change After decimal = relatively minor changes or fixes There are pros and cons to this approachSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  26. 26. PHASE 5 26 Managing System Performance System performance directly affects users Centralized operations are easier to measure than complex networks and client/server systems Various statistics can be used to assess system performance Capacity planning uses operational data to forecast system capability and future needsSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  27. 27. PHASE 5 27 Managing System Performance Performance and workload measurement Response time Turnaround time ThroughputSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  28. 28. PHASE 5 28 Managing System Performance Response time Response time is the overall time between a request for system activity and the delivery of the response Response time includes three elements The time necessary to transmit or deliver the request to the system The time the system needs to process the results The time it takes to transmit or deliver the results back to the user Response time is critical for user satisfactionSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  29. 29. PHASE 5 29 Managing System Performance Turnaround time Turnaround time measures the efficiency of centralized computer operations, which still are used for certain tasks, such as credit card processing Turnaround time is the amount of time between the arrival of a request at a computer center and the availability of the output for delivery or transmissionSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  30. 30. PHASE 5 30 Managing System Performance Throughput Throughput measures the efficiency of the computer itself Throughput is the time from the input of a request to the central processor until the output is delivered to the systemSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  31. 31. PHASE 5 31 Managing System Performance Capacity planning Monitors current activity and performance levels Anticipates future activity Forecasts the resources needed to provide desired levels of service In capacity planning you can use a technique called what-if analysis, where you vary one or more elements in a model to see the effect on other elements Click to see Figure 12-8a Package Click to see Figure 12-8bSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E Package
  32. 32. PHASE 5 32 CASE Tools for System Maintenance A CASE toolkit provides valuable tools for system evaluation and maintenance, such as A performance monitor A program analyzer An interactive debugging analyzer A restructuring or reengineering tool Automated documentation tools Network activity monitors Workload forecasting softwareSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  33. 33. PHASE 5 33 System Obsolescence A system becomes obsolete when its functions are no longer required by users or when the platform becomes outmoded Typical signs of obsolescence Adaptive and corrective maintenance is increasing steadily Operational costs or execution times are increasing rapidly, and routine perfective maintenance does not reverse the trendSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  34. 34. PHASE 5 34 System Obsolescence Typical signs of obsolescence A software package is available that provides the same or additional services faster, better, and less expensively New technology offers a way to perform the same or additional functions more efficiently Maintenance changes or additions are difficult and expensive to perform Users request significant new features to support business requirements Click to see Figure 12-9 Package Click to see Figure 12-10SYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E Package
  35. 35. PHASE 5 35 SOFTWEAR, LIMITED Status report: in mid-December 1999, the payroll package and the ESIP system both are operating successfully and SWL users are satisfied Corrective maintenance has been performed Printing and alignment problems were resolved Adaptive maintenance has been requested Human resources department wants to develop an annual employee benefits statement, and add additional ESIP deduction choicesSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  36. 36. PHASE 5 36 SOFTWEAR, LIMITED New developments Pacific Software announced the latest version of its payroll package, which supports integration of payroll and human resources functions SWL decides to investigate the possibility of a human resources information system (HRIS) After a preliminary investigation, IS staff recommends that SWL upgrade to the new payroll package and study the development of a company-wide human resources systemSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E
  37. 37. PHASE 5 37 SOFTWEAR, LIMITED The future The business environment is changing rapidly SWL must investigate new information management technology constantly At this point, the systems development life cycle for SWL begins againSYSTEMS ANALYSIS & DESIGN 3E