Today I will present the outcomes of my fyp which entitled…
Based on my findings, there are several issues related to my study
The natural resources is depleting day by day, hence it is obligatory for us to conserve the natural soruce byy….
More attention need to be devoted in addressing these kind of issues, which required a complex approaches and solutions.
Besides, This approach can also enhance sustainable construction practice, reduce green house gas emission such as (co2) by reducing mine the natural resources.
Also, the survey intends reveal the barriers, benefits and level of awareness regarding utili r&W among the related parties in pavement construction industry.
Several key factors need to be taken into account so that the execution of the research is in systematic manner.
instead of relying solely on the telephone interview, the use of a mixed-mode approach to contact or obtain data were taken into account. There are several mixed-mode approaches that have been used, stated as below: Telephone plus fax or email Telephone plus online survey Telephone plus in-person
Road Authorities consisted of Road Department of Malaysian Ministry of Works (KKR), Road Department of Public Work Department (JKR), Malaysian Road Authorities (LLM). Highway Concessionaires consisted of Lebuhraya Kajang Seremban (LEKAS) Sdn Bhd, New Pantai Expressway Sdn Bhd, Besraya Sdn Bhd, Projek Lebuhraya Utara Selatan (PLUS) Sdn Bhd, Lebuhraya Shah Alam (KESAS) Sdn Bhd, Grand Saga Sdn Bhd, Prolintas Sdn Bhd, South Klang Valley Expressway (SKVE) Holdings Sdn Bhd, SILK Holdings Sdn Bhd and (MRCB) Lingkaran Selatan Sdn Bhd. Federal Road Maintenance Concessionaires include the companies that in charge on northern, southern and central and east coast regions such as Belati Wangsa Sdn Bhd, Selia Selenggara Sdn Bhd, Roadcare Sdn Bhd, and HCM Engineering Sdn Bhd. Various quarry contractors which specialize in asphalt mix plant. Researchers and lecturers from various universities and institutions of higher learning such as Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Infrastructure University of Kuala Lumpur (IUKL) and many more which expertise in pavement construction and engineering.
These are the selected recycled and waste materials from domestic/municipal, industrial and agricultural and construction and demolition activities.
The review on literarture regarding their characteristics and possible used as substitutes in conventional asphalt mixture materials were discussed thoroughly/comprehensively (toraly) in the report.
Generally, there are various respondents’ category have been selected to obtained wider range of information and perceptions from the experts with different positions and background
the respondents of the survey are set up to only 50 respondents because some of the respondents are harder to contact or hard to reach due to their work restraints.
on the average of respondents, there are solely one representative from every company that have been approached.
Otherwise, 30% of the respondents which mostly among the road authorities did not aware about the utilization of recycled and waste materials in pavement construction. This is probably because the utilization of recycled and waste materials in Malaysian pavement construction is not significant and yet to be developed
various recycled and waste materials were listed in the survey in order to determine whether the respondents aware of these materials which are related to pavement construction.
The selection of these materials are based on the review of literature on recycled and waste materials that have been developed in pavement construction of other countries such as United States, Canada, United Kingdom, India and many more.
highest percentage of recycled and waste materials that the respondents are aware of goes to reclaimed asphalt pavement at 25%, followed by crumb rubber with 14%. Meanwhile, the recycled brick powder are the least common recycled and waste materials among all which they are aware of which is only 3%.
because it is already being practice in Malaysia, even though the technology is relatively new and only limited to road rehabilitation work. Practically, the material such as reclaimed asphalt pavement is recycled with foamed bitumen or bitumen emulsion in a purpose of road rehabilitation work
the use of crumb rubber as additive in asphalt mixture to form Polymer Modified Asphalt (PMA) mixtures had been utilized as an alternative method to increase the durability and lifespan of the pavement in Malaysia. It is widely used in resurfacing work.
Not like brick powder, eventho it has been utilized in many construction applications, but until recently, there are few reports about using waste brick in asphalt mixture in the literatures. Hence, that is probably why the respondents are not familiar with the materials.
that more than half of the respondents know that the utilization of recycled and waste materials is actually available in Malaysian pavement construction.
After that, they were ask to stated the recycled and waste materials that have been utilized and all of them had stated RAP.
In the matter of fact, the utilization of recycled and waste materials have been introduced in 1980s in our country where the rubberised bitumen is used for resurfacing jobs for roads and airports. However, these works were not monitored and as a consequence there were no published reports on it. The Public Work Department (PWD) started monitoring and reporting the use of rubber additives for its road construction started from the late 1980’s. The first recorded trial was in 1988 for the rehabilitation of Jalan Vantooran in Kelang by using crumb rubber as additives in asphalt mix. Until recently, the used of rubberised bitumen or also known as polymer modified bitumen (PMA) had been used by Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur (DBKL), PLUS Sdn Bhd and Malaysian Airport Holdings Berhad (MAB) for resurfacing works for road and airports (JKR, 2010).
Furthermore, over the past 20 years, recycling technology in rehabilitation work which include hot in place recycling (HIPR), cold in place recycling (CIPR) or full depth reclamation (FDR) technologies has been used throughout Malaysia in order to rehabilitate tolled expressways, major highways, rural and village roads with a range of traffic volumes. The recycled and waste materials such as reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled cement aggregate (RCA) are usually acted as stabilising agents with bitumen emulsion or foamed bitumen
look into possible factors that cause limitation of utilization of recycled and waste materials in Malaysian pavement construction
The result reveals the major factor of not utilizing recycled and waste materials is because lack of knowledge among related parties which is 80% followed by lack of awareness and exposure, which makes 65% of the reasons.
more than 70% of the respondents agreed that by implementing utilization of recycled and waste materials in Malaysian pavement construction will reduce the road construction cost compared to the use of raw materials, followed by reducing the use of raw/virgin materials at 68% and then enhance sustainability in construction industry at 50%. Somehow, there is only about 25% of the respondents agreed that modified asphalt mixture are better than conventional asphalt mixture in term of its quality and performance. This value shows that many road authorities and private companies related to pavement construction are still unfamiliar and not sure of what recycled and waste materials can be used for construction applications especially in pavement construction.
this shows that majority of the respondents know that there are some specific standard and specification relating to utilizing recycled and waste materials in pavement construction.
the specification provided regarding the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement and recycled cement for road rehabilitation works which comprises of cold in place recycling and hot in place recycling is namely the Specification for Hot In Place Recycling (REAM-SP 2/2007) and Specification for Cold In Place Recycling (REAM-SP 1/2005)
for the use of waste materials in Polymers Modified Asphalt (PMA) mix design was developed using the latest Malaysia Public Work Department Specification namely the Standard Specification for Road Works: Flexible Pavement (JKR/SPJ/2008-S4) or Specification for Polymer Modified Asphaltic Concrete (REAM-SP 4/2008).
The last q is an open ended question, here are the summary of recommendation from all the respondents
From the result of the survey and comprehensive review of literature regarding the topic, it is proven that the utilization of r&w materials in pavement construction bring
From the result, it shows that there are Significant research studies have been conducted on the development of new construction materials using different kinds of solid waste. However, the application of R&W materials in actual construction is still limited. Hence, More research is needed to study the actual behavior or performance of solid waste based construction materials under field conditions to encourage their practical applications.
As for now, the current practice of utilizing R&w in Malaysian pavement construction are still limited to road rehabilitation work only
The objective of the study is achieved.
In order to enforce the utilization of recycled and waste materials in actual pavement construction in Malaysia, more attention should be devoted to understand, research and have better assessment by conducting the following recommendations that have been suggested.
to make sure it is at par with the existing conventional asphalt mix materials.
for green infrastructure, connecting researches and industry with an overview of what recycled materials are available for different construction applications in order to encourage the use of recycled and waste materials in pavement construction industry.
That’s all from me. Thank you.
Final year project presentation
FINAL YEAR PROJECT
A REVIEW ON LITERATURE AND RESEARCH ON
PERCEPTIONS RELATING TO UTILIZATION OF
RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN MALAYSIAN
NAME : NURSYAFIQAH BINTI ISMAIL
MATRIC NO : 156275
MAJOR : HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION
SUPERVISOR : DR FAUZAN MOHD JAKARNI
WASTE ARISING AND MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE
• With the rapid economic growth and urbanization take place
currently, Malaysia is facing an increase of the generation of
solid wastes accompanying with the disposal of wastes.
• More production equals more waste, more waste creates
environmental concerns of toxic threat.
• Need to allocate more landfills and spend a lot of money on
transport, labour and maintenance purposes.
STATISTIC FINDINGS REGARDING
Percentage of Waste Materials
Data acquired from DOE of Malaysia
• In Malaysia, only 2% of
municipal wastes is
• Only about 42% is
incinerated or chemically
• The rest 56% is dumped
into landfills to decompose
or not to decompose
Here are some important
• increase amount of disposal waste -> Lead to illegal dump
-> causes pollution
DEMAND IN INNOVATION OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION
• Through research and statistics of increased in traffic
volumes, tyres pressure, heavy axle loadings, speed of
traffic and environmental concerns, the innovation for
road construction are very demanding.
CONTINUOUS REDUCTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
• Reduce the productivity of natural resources as well as
reduce the energy consumption of materials production
and all its associated pollution
According to the review of related literature,
Several number of studies suggested that the utilization of
recycled and waste materials as substitute in asphalt mixture
materials would be the one of the solutions.
Concerns mainly on the feasibility of utilizing recycled and waste
materials in Malaysian pavement construction.
Main problem : to investigate whether the applications of R&W
materials in Malaysian pavement construction are SIGNIFICANT
in actual construction and past/current research.
Investigate the experts’ perceptions and acceptance towards
utilization of R&W materials as substitutes in asphalt mixture
The research is based on two methods:
• Comprehensive review of available literature regarding
the utilization of recycled and waste materials in pavement
• Conduct survey and interview to obtain experts
perceptions and acceptance regarding the utilization of
recycled and waste materials in Malaysian pavement
To determine the extent of the utilization of recycled and
waste materials in Malaysian pavement construction and also
to identify the characteristics and possible uses of various
recycled and waste materials as substitutes for conventional
asphalt mixture materials.
1. To identify the potential recycled and waste materials that
could be utilized as substitutes for conventional asphalt
mixture materials and its characteristics, based on the past
and current research and implementation.
2. To assess the economical and engineering implications with
the utilization of recycled and waste materials in asphalt
mixtures as compared to the conventional asphalt mixture
3. To identify the suitability, advantages and limitation of
recycled and waste materials to be utilized as asphalt
mixture materials and thus to provide solution if possible.
4. To evaluate perception and acceptance of recycled and
waste materials as substitutes for asphalt mixture
materials from respective parties involved with the
Malaysian pavement construction.
Phase 3 : Analysis of Data
Data gathering Result analysis & Evaluation
Phase 2 : Execution of Data Collection
Conduct survey Conduct interviews
Comprehensive literature review
on past and current research
Phase 1 : Research & Planning
Identification the objectives, problem statement
and scope of works of the research
Desk Study : Literature Review
Parameter Number of Respondents Percentages (%)
Project Manager 20 40
Engineer 16 32
Quality Control (QC)/ Quality Assurance (QA) 4 8
Technician 4 8
Researcher 6 12
Type of Company
Public Company 26 52
Private Company 24 48
Years of Working Experience
Less than 5 years 10 20
More than 5-10 years 10 20
More than 10-20 years 18 36
More than 20 years 12 24
1. Awareness on Recycled and Waste Materials Utilized in Pavement
2. Knowledge and Awareness on Recycled and Waste Materials
Utilized in Pavement Construction throughout the World
3. Knowledge on Practical Use of Recycled and Waste Materials in
Malaysian Pavement Construction
4. Response on Limitations of Utilizing Recycled and Waste
Materials in Malaysian Pavement Construction
5. Response on Benefits of Utilizing Recycled and Waste
Materials in Malaysian Pavement Construction
6. Specific Standard on Utilization of Recycled and Waste Materials
In Malaysian Pavement Construction
7. Recommendations towards Development of Utilizing
Recycled and Waste Materials in Malaysian Pavement
1. revise the current standard, specifications and regulations
regarding the utilization of recycled and waste materials in
2. encourage the existing pavement construction industry to
implement this green technology
3. more conference and seminar should be held to introduce the
availability and applicability of utilizing recycled and waste
materials in pavement construction industry as well as
enhancing awareness and knowledge regarding the utilization
of recycled and waste materials
• many positive impacts through different aspects which
includes the benefits in enhancing the sustainability of
pavement construction industry, reducing cost of pavement
construction, providing solutions to environmental pollution
and reduce the needs of using virgin materials (i.e natural
aggregates, sand and etc).
• in Malaysia, the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement, crumb
rubber and recycled concrete are still limited for road
rehabilitation only, and not yet to be widely develop in the
actual pavement construction.
From the review of literature and analysis of data from interview
• Results indicated that some respondents were not aware
of the availability, quality of the materials’ performance,
cost savings, or any other benefits including environmental
benefits of utilizing recycled and waste materials
• The barrier of not utilizing recycled and waste materials were
• the utilization of R&W materials should be scrutinized by
related government agencies and road authorities to give new
dimension on the existing technology in pavement
Enhance awareness among players in pavement construction
• Organize seminar and conference to promote and introduce
this new technology extensively to the players in pavement
• Waste and recycling management plans should be developed
for any construction project in order to sustain environmental,
economic, and social development principles.
• Government should encourages recycling by legislation,
purchasing power and grants that are offered to companies to
help initiate recycling locally
Extensive Research on the Potential Recycled and Waste
• Further investigation on the effects of different recycled and
waste materials on its durability performance as substitute in
asphalt mixture materials
• Establishment of environmental benefits and life cycle
assessment of recycled and waste materials and their
applications in construction industry especially in pavement
• Create better documentation
Applications in the pavement construction
• Further development on recycling facilities and equipment ,
develop potential recycled and waste materials and method
of construction for recycled and waste materials.
• Establish the legislation, regulation, guidelines and
specification in regard of utilization of recycled and waste
materials in Malaysian pavement construction.
• Commercialize the utilization of different recycled and waste
materials in the production of asphalt mix materials with
collaboration with the industries