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  1. 1. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 Behavior of mixture of Sulfamic Acid and Sodium Chloride Dr. Rita A. Gharde1*, Divakar T. Chunarkar 1, Department of Physics, Mumbai University, Kalina (Santacruz), Mumbai – 400 008. (India) E-mail ID:, divakar.chunarkar@rediffmail.comAbstract:- analyses a revealed the diffraction pattern for sulfamic acid and sodium chloride crystal have A mono crystal known as single crystal almost the same set of peaks [2]. Our study alsoof sulfamic acid (H2NSO3H) and sodium chloride found that good quality crystal growth material(NaCl) is an inorganic non-linear optical material can only be obtained into doping range this werewas grown by slow evaporation solution growth suggest a new approach for using material fortechnique. In this work, we are interested in the crystal growth material. It is found that thegrowing single crystal for non-linear optical dielectric constant of the material is enhancedapplication. Beside this, we are trying to develop due to doping of Sodium Chloride so Sulfamicnew material that, have specific thermo Acid. This can be used in many application. Formechanical properties to be used as a example. Azo dyes Industries, Influent watersuspension for the mirror in advanced Treatment Plant, Swimming pool and materialgravitational waves detector in order to decrease strength increasing in dyes etc [3].low thermal noise. Crystallization may be carried Crystallization is important as an industrialout from a vapor, from a melt or from a solution. process because of the material that are and can be marketed in the form of crystals. Nucleation and crystal growth are twoimportant steps involved in the synthesis of any Key Words :–Growth from solution, X-raymaterial. The present study discuss how the diffraction, FTIR, nonlinear optical material,nucleation and crystal growth rates can be Melting Point, pH scale and Dielectric studiesmodified by the changing experimental etc.parameter like starting regent, solvent,temperature, pressure etc. Mainly focus on the Introduction :-recent progress in the synthesis, properties,modification and application of crystal growth Crystallization is an important and industrialmaterial as whole with special emphasis. A process because of the number of martial canvariety of material in the big size dimension has be marketed in the form of crystals. Its wide usebeen synthesis and are characterized [1]. is probably due to the highly purified and attractive form of a chemical solid, which can be Crystal growth technology can be used obtained from relatively impure solution in againfully to enhance biotechnology single processing step .The shape of the particledevelopment, has been fabricated and tested involve the stacking of atom in cretin sequencewith a variety of optical, electrical, magnetic or direction [4]. The atomic arrangements aredielectric properties, present study doping of govern by the inter atomic course and chemicalsulfamic acid and sodium chloride were bonds. With growth in size, the crystalline orderprepared by unidirectional crystal and the starts appearing and ultimately result in chunksinfluence of the compound on structure, quality of In a particle, the ratio of number of atom, onand optical properties were investigated. FTIR the surface to the total number of atom is matterand X-Ray diffraction and dielectric study exhibiting solid like properties inversely 230 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
  2. 2. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012proportional to the particle size. Crystalline Preparing single crystal is a solid throughoutmaterial exhibits grain structure feature, which which the atoms or molecule are arranged in adiffer from those shown by bulk solid. The regularly repairing pattern [8].stability of the crystals and the value of theequilibrium lattice parameter are controlled by Experimental Set up :balance between short range repulsive forces As shown in fig.1 the schematic diagram of theand long range coulomb forces. The later forces experimental set up is shown in fig. It consist ofare comparatively more affected by the crystal a growth ampoule made out of glass with seedsize changes depending on the size the particle. mounting pad. An outer glass shield tubeAs a result the physical properties such as protect and holds the inner growth ampoule. Amagnetic, Ferro electricity and super ring heater positioned at the top of the growthconductivity of materials are expected to be ampoule was connected to the temperatureeffected [5]. In conventional slow solvent controller and it provides the necessaryevaporation growth, all crystal bounded by temperature for solvent evaporation. Theplanner habit faces contain separate region temperature around the growth ampoule wascommon to each fact having their own sharply selected based on the solvent used and wasdefined growth direction known as growth controlled with the aid of the temperaturesector. controller. Depending on the growth rate of the The boundaries between these growth crystal, the ring heater was the moved downsector are more strain than the extended growth using a translation mechanism [7].sector due to mismatch of the lattice on either Fig.1 Experiment set up mixture sampleside of the boundary are result of preferentialincorporation impurities into the lateral section.Further, in solution growth method many of thecommonly observed, characteristic growthinduced defect structure comprising growth thesector and boundaries, growth bounding, solventinclusion, dislocation and staking faults can beattributed to impurities. Single crystal are freeform internal boundaries. They give rise tocharacteristic x-ray diffraction pattern. A singlecrystal can be as big as few centimeter or it maybe as small as fraction as a centimeter suchthat its feature can not be seen by necked eye.Such crystal is called mono crystal. It is known Charechtarisation:-that the demotion of the typical unit cell is highinto 5X 10-8cm. Hence even if mono crystal has X-ray Diffraction Analysis :-104 unit cell, it size will be 5 x 10-4 cm whichcan be seen the necked eye), Following factor to Powder x ray diffraction spectrum of a growngrow crystal form solution [6]. crystal has been recovered on SIEFERT X-ray diffracto meter. The sample was scanned for 30 1) A good solubility for the given solute. range 20 to 800C and at a scan rate 3mm per 2) A good temperature coalition of solute min. The X-ray diffraction spectrum shown in solubility 3) Less viscosity fig.1. The powder XRD was taken and compared 4) Less volatility. SADA data [8]. The cut and polish wafer, 5) Less corrosion and non toxicity. fabricated out of the grown doping single crystal 6) Small vapor pressure. was subjected to x-ray diffraction spectrum were 7) Cost advantage. analyzed and indexed using the XRD 231 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
  3. 3. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012instrument, software package and the data Fig.3. FTIR Spectrum of mixture sampleobtained by the powder XRD analysis are inaccordance with the single crystal XRD data.The calculated plans satisfy the generalreflection condition of space group observedform the structure determination of the crystal.In previous study the single crystal XRD revealsthat the Sulfamic Acid crystal belongs toorthorhombic structure. From this spectrumproved to be highly useful in determiningstructure and dimension of crystal as well as inthe study of number of properties of x-ray issame as like a previous sulfamic acid samplethe value of 0 for the first order reflection formthe three faces of doping crystal are found [7]. The range of slpfamic acid sample and dopingWe conclude that there is not much change in sample is nearly same. The FTIR spectra of thethe molecular structure of sulfamic acid due to crystal were recorded in the sulfamic acid anddoping of sodium chloride. As shown in fig.2. doping sample in the frequency range 400 toPowder X-ray diffraction pattern of mixture 6000 cm-1 using Jusco spectro meter model 610sample FTIR at the resolution of 490 arb. It is an important material for possible application the single crystal FTIR show that, the doping crystal belongs to Centro symmetric space group [9]. Melting Point :- We studied the melting point of grown doping crystal by capillary melting method. Crush doped crystal sample and filled in the capillary tube and measure the melting point with the help of the help of the melting point instrument. We found that it gives higher heat energy as compared to sulfamic acid single crystal. Such type of material are used in the photo electricFTIR :- effect. The recorded FTIR spectra of doped sample as PH Scale :-shown in fig.3 were compared with the previous The solution are acidic or alkaline depend uponspectra of sulfamic acid of the functional group. the two ions is present grater concentration thanThe pick around 5200 cm-1 is due to N-H the other [10]. The doping crystal is an acidicstretching and the bond observe at 3900 cm-1 medium and its pH value of preparing 1%arises symmetric abrasion of NH3 group of both. solution is 1.82 by using model CL – 46 SR. No. 4944, power 230 V ac pH meter about 310C normal temperature. In this doping crystal we found that, Na being highly electro positive removes H2 atom from sulfamic acid and form Na salt of Sulfamic acid. Hence no effect on the crystal. Due to Na+ is more electropositive then H+ and hence doping sample formed is more 232 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
  4. 4. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012hard and with high melting than previous crystal.It is found that doped single crystal are moreclear than the single crystal of sulfamic acid form Reference:-that we can predicted that due to doping. TheImpurity inside the crystal is less reduce without 1) Arun Sethi,Reader of Chemestry, Universitychange. of Lakhnow. 2) W.L. Wang,M.Wang,W.D. Huang,OPTDielectric Studies :- MATTER 27 (2007)609. 3) K.Shankarnarayanan,P.Ramasamy, CrystalThe mixture single crystal crushed in the powder growth method .form, there are no any shape and size. Such 4) K.Shankarnarayanan,P.Ramasamy,Journaltype of crushed material filled in the assemble of of Crystal Growth 280(2005).467-473.dielectric instrument and found the capacitancewith help of multi meter. The precaution must 5) Msuhiko Hara, WOlfgana Kloll, Riken reviewbe taken that the air do not pass through the No . 45(2002).copper plate therefore to used the rubber ban 6) K.Shankarnarayanan,P.Ramasamy,Journalpacked with fevi quick. The doping material with of Crystal Growth 292 (2006) 445-448.high dielectric constant vales are quite good can 7) R.Ramesh Babu,be used in tunneling devices, insulator, K.Se3thuraman,R.Gopalkrishan,P.Ramasamfabricated capacitance and in other electric field y,Journal of Crystal Growth xxx(2006)xxx. 8) S.A.Martin Brito Das,S.Natrajan,MaterialResult at a glance:- letters xx(2007)xxx-xxx. Sulfamic acid and sodium chloride doped 9) Jolanta Prawer,Institute of Physics,Technicalunidirectional seeded single crystal was University of Lodz,wolczalska-219,93005successfully grown by slow evaporation solution Lodz Poland.grown technique. From the study x-ray 10) S.S.Gupte,A.Marcalrno,D.Pradhan,C.F.Desaidiffraction, FTIR it is confirm that vibration N.J.Melipohi,Allied Physics 89 (2001) 4939.frequency of doped sample. The crystal is 11) L.A.Guzman,N.Kubota,M.Yokota,A.Soro,K.Aextremely good of orthorhombic structure and ndo,Department of Chemical Engg.IWATEproperties also same as compare to the University 435- Ueda.previous crystal [10]. But hardness are more as 12) Yoshim, Kawahata, Yasunori Tomingacompared to sulfamic acid single crystal and Department of Physics and Chemestryclarity is also very high as like as a diamond Ochamomiu University Otsnka,Bunkio-Ku,crystal than this single crystal [11]. The melting Tokyo 112-8610 Japan.point of the doped crystal is found to be 2110C to2180 and dielectric constant to be 31088. Thistype of material used in the azo dyes industries Divakar T. Chunarkar [M.Sc.-Physics]strength increase the strength of materials. Department. Of Physics Kalina (Santacruz)Acknoledgement :- Mumbai University Mumbai india-4000098.I am thankful to Dr. D. C. Kothari Head of the Dr. Rita A. Gharde [M.Sc. PH.D.]Department of Physics, University of Mumbai. I Assi. Pro. Of Physicsam grateful to thanks Archana and Vrushali Depart. Of Physicsmam and I am also extreamly greatful to Mam. Mumbai University Mumbai (Santacruz)Ranjana B. Patil Principal, Pravin patil Engg. India-4000098.and Tech.College, and thankful to all Staffmember of Formokem India CorporationKashigaon Branch. 233 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET