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  1. 1. Hinduism<br />The Aryans laid the foundation of Hinduism<br />At the beginning, they were mainly concerned with their life on earth, praying to gods with certain favors.<br />
  2. 2. Hinduism <br />Their religions was more nature worship<br />Their gods and goddesses represents the sun, fire, storm, rivers, and other objects of nature.<br />Gradually, as life became more complicated, they began to be interested in life after death. <br />In 2000 B.C. the fair skinned Aryans invaded the Indus valley.<br />These invaders belongs to the white race (Caucasian) and spoke sanskrit, Indo European Language.<br />
  3. 3. Hinduism<br />The Aryans drove the dark complexioned Dravidians, southward.<br />The Aryans gave India the vedic literature, the Sanskrit epics, the Hindu religion and the Caste system.<br />
  4. 4. The Hindu Mind<br />Essentially spiritual as reflected in their literature.<br />In India we see an ethos of a nation.<br />Religion and Philosophy are inseparable<br />Literature was practically confined to religion and philosophy<br />Its earliest literature the vedas, may be considered both as religion and philosophy.<br />
  5. 5. The Hindu Mind<br />The Vedas are supposed to be sacred books of the ancient sanskrit, hymns with accompanying comments;<br /> * Believed by the Hindus to have been revealed by Brahma<br />* where the Brahmanical system is based.<br />* each vedas consist of Mantras (hymns)<br />* Brahmanas (doctrinal and ceremonies)<br />* Upanishads (an inspired set of commentaries on Vedanta Philosophy)<br />
  6. 6. Vedas<br />Rig Veda (the most literary), Yasjur Veda (rituals), Sama Veda (liturgies), and Atharva Veda (spells, magic, incantation etc.)<br />- Belief gathered in Upanishads:<br />The ultimate reality is Brahman, incomprehensible and surpasses all understanding.<br />The individual soul or the self – Atman. – by discovering the real self, man achieves freedom and emancipation from illusion.<br />
  7. 7. The Upanishads<br />The Trinity – Brahman (the creator), Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer)<br />Reincarnation and Nirvana – where the purified soul is absorbed into Brahma.<br />The philosophy of Ethics must be by a divine revelation or realization.<br />NO one can understand things human who does not understand the divine.<br />Superconsciousness<br />
  8. 8. Japan<br />Ancient History of Japan is recorded in Kojiki –The records of ancient matters and Nihon Shoki or Nijongi (Chronicles of Japan).<br />The early Japanese learned from the Chinese : their art, letters and philosophy.<br />
  9. 9. Contributions of Japan to World civilization<br />The Bushido ( code of chivalry)<br />The Shinto religion<br />Kana (alphabet)<br />Literary forms such as <br />1. Kabuki (classical play)<br />2. The Noh (lyrical play)<br />3. the Tanka (31 syllables)<br />4. Haiku (17 syllables)<br />
  10. 10. Cha-no-yu (tea drinking ceremony)<br />And the Ikebana (flower arrangement)<br />Lanscapegradening<br />Many sports such as judo (art of self defense), kendo (fencing) and sumo (wrestling)<br />
  11. 11. General view of literature<br />In poetry and history Nara period was the greatest age of Japanese poetry.<br />Manyoshu (collection of one thousand leaves)<br />Kokinshu (poems of ancient and modern)<br />Ablest woman writer Lady MurasakiShikibu- writer of GenjiMonotagari.<br />