Nativization of English Words in Bahasa Malaysia and Bahasa Indonesia


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Nativization of English Words in Bahasa Malaysia and Bahasa Indonesia

  1. 1. KULLIYYAH OF ISLAMIC REVEALED KNOWLEDGE AND HUMAN SCIENCES LEXICOGRAPHY ENGL 6203 Nativization of English Words in Bahasa Malaysia and Bahasa IndonesiaIhsanIbadurrahman (G1025429)SyareenIzzatyBtMajelan (G1029580)RudianaRazali (G1115202) 1
  2. 2. IntroductionThe use of English throughout many countries today was the result of the British Empire whoonce conquered 1/3 of the world that lead to colonization, migration and settlement in other partsof the world and was later dominated by the momentum of United States of America (Rajandran,2011). The internationalization of English can be attributed to the political and economic powerof its users (Crystal, 1997:7-8). This lead to the perception of ithaving a high status in cultural,scientific, technological fields which resulted in globalized language (Leitner, 1992:186). Due tothis wide spread, countries which have taken up English as a second or foreign language do notfollow the mold of Standard English but create their own local varieties wherethe language isnativized.Nativize here means to modify in conformity with local customs or usages (Merriam-Webster, 2012). These second language English speakers are more comfortable using thesedifferent varieties of English because they are more familiar with it and these varieties arebecoming the acceptable model for each respective country (Thirusanku&Md. Yunus, 2012). Malaysia is one of the countries where English is adopted as a second language. TheBritish colonization introduced English to the Malay Peninsula and it held an important positionof being the official language at that time. Over the years, English held different statuses ofimportance but was not completely ignored. Because of this, many English words were adoptedinto Bahasa Malaysia to enlarge the lexis of Malay (McArthur, 2003). English is also beingnativized by the usage of Malay words in English to compensate for the lack of words todescribe proper or exact culturally specific ideas resulting in what is known as MalaysianEnglish (Thirusanku&Md. Yunus, 2012). Similarly, Indonesia also shares the same process of nativization as an impact of itsDutch colonialism which lasted for almost 350 years. Although this suggests that there are moreborrowings and loanwords from the Dutch language than English ascompared to Malaysia,thereare also quite a number of Indonesian words borrowed from English, the meaning of which maysometimes contradict to the real meaning in English. The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the words which have been „nativized‟ inboth Malaysian and Indonesian language. For the purpose of this study, Google is used to findinstances of how the words are used in context. Alongside Google, Corpus of Contemporary 2
  3. 3. American English (COCA) is also used to get authentic examples of how these words are used inEnglish. The corpus contains a selection of more than 425 million words taken from spokentranscripts, fiction, popular magazines, newspapers, and academic journalsthat are collected from1990 until 2011. It can be accessed online for free at ReviewThe status of English has been at a crossroads in Malaysia with the debate of its use andimportance spanning over centuries. The British colonization of the Malay Peninsula in 1786 hasmade English the official language by using the language in administration, government,commerce as well as education. This status changed when Malaysia gained independence in1957 where English had to coexist with Malay as the official language but with the view thatEnglish will be phased out in 10 years(Thirusanku&Md. Yunus, 2012).In 1967, English wasrelegated to be used only as a second language instead of an alternate official language when theLanguage Act was passed and Malay became the dominant language in Malaysia (Subramaniam,2007). Then in the mid 1990s, the government saw that English was important for Malaysia to becompetitive in the international arena and thus reintroduced English especially for technicalsubjects and remained as an important language until today (Thirusanku&Yunus, 2012). Theexistence of English alongside Malay has led to many Malay words being borrowed fromEnglish such as bag (bag), akaun (account), botani (botany), ekologi (ecology) and kalendar(calendar) (Burhanudeen et al., 2007), borrowings which allow for the Malay lexis to grow. Malaysian English (ME), the variety of English that exists in Malaysia, is a product ofnativization where words from Malay are included into the English language to better conveymessages especially when there are no exact words in English to describe a culturally specificidea.These borrowings vary according to social and racial background of the speakers as wells asdifferent political, economic and cultural demands that enables the speakers to communicatesocially and informally.ME also tend to have distinct phonology, socially grounded lexical itemsand syntactic structurethat gives the speakers a sense of identity (Subramaniam, 2007;Rajandran, 2011; Thirusanku&Yunus, 2012).Even though the formal ME differs slightly from 3
  4. 4. Standard British English especially in terms of phonology, ME is still thought to be a „corrupt‟lower prestige language because of these differences (Ahmad Mahir&SilahudinJarjis, 2007). Since English is prevalent in Malaysia, the masses have freely borrowed English wordsand used them with their Malay language that they use to communicate which almost everyonein Malaysia understands and this is the basilect form of the language or also knownas“bahasarojak”which is the mixture of two or more languages. In this form, English words areassimilated into the Malay lexicon even though there is an equivalent in Malay. This might bedue to the association with English that is considered a prestige language (Abu Bakar, 2009).The English words are sometimes wholly borrowed and imported to expand the Malay lexiconorsometimes the English words have a shift in meaning when they are used in different contexts(Abdul Rahim &Awab, 2008; Thirusanku&Yunus, 2012). Changes in meaning are made to the English words to suit the Malay language used bythe speakers instead of holding on to its original meaning because as stated by Haley (1997 ascited in Abdul Rahim &Awab, 2008), words are “culture prototype”. This means that thechanges to the form of the English language and its use wouldonly makes sense in that particularculture and group of speakerseven though the form is not grammatically correct or havedeveloped different meanings (Abu Bakar, 2009). However, this variety is frowned upon bylanguage purist because they perceive it as a threat to the national language and identity whereEnglish words are liberally used in Malay. These authoritative figures also deem the use ofEnglish as corrupting and degrading the standard form of Bahasa Malaysia, the same argumentused against the usage of Malay words in English (Abdul Rahim &Awab, 2008). Bahasa Indonesia on the other hand is the official language in Indonesia, spoken by 220million speakers of its users. Together with Bahasa Malaysia, it is one of the most widelyspoken language worldwide (Wikipedia, 2012). The language is used in education, mass media,and most importantly in the communication between different ethnics group (Hassall et al,2008). Bahasa Indonesia is also widely known for its use of loanwords from different languagessuch as Sanskrit, Arabic, Dutch, and English. However, because the country was colonized byDutch for a long time, many of these loanwords are originated from Dutch, suchastas(bag),kantor(office), and wastafel (washbasin) (Burhanudeen et al., 2007). It was not until1945, when Indonesia gained its independence that it started to take in western cultural 4
  5. 5. influences. It was then that the emergence of English nativization came into picture. Some of thewestern loanwords commonly found in Indonesian language today include sosialiasifrom theEnglish word socialization, horor from horror, and klasifikasi from classification (Alwi et al.,2000 as cited in Hiramoto, 2007). These words seem to be increasing in number in the last fewyears (Sneddon, 2003 as cited in Hassall et al., 2008). One possible reason for the growth in the number of western loanwords (WLW) inIndonesia is people‟s attitude towards them. A hallmark study led by Hassall et al. (2008)indicates that people‟s attitude towards WLWs is quite positive. Taking 153 young tertiaryeducated Indonesian students as the sample, the findings suggest that the majority of the studentsthought that WLWs are favorable, with more respondents answering “WLWs sound nice” (mean5.04) and “WLWs enrich Indonesian” (mean 5.17) than those answering “WLWs polluteIndonesian” (mean 2.29) and “We should avoid using WLWs” (mean 2.68). The researchers goon to argue that such positive attitudes towards WLWs are likely to influence futuredevelopments of WLWs in Indonesia as it is this young generation that is most in touch withlinguistic contact between Indonesian and English. Another possible reason for the growth in the number of WLWs is globalization.Alwasilah (2001) questions whether Indonesia is ready to establish its „Indonesian English‟, avariety of English that is nativized, as a direct impact of the so called globalization. He states thatin order for such variety to exists, Indonesia needs to at least have a number of bilingual schoolgraduates who are adept in both Indonesian and English, and prolific authors of collegeprofessors who would write thousands published articles or journals in English. However,Indonesia is still far beyond the required two criteria in order to establish its Indonesian English.Alwasilah asserts that most English graduates are not able to write English articles properly, noteven in their L1. Although it may be argued that globalization has not yet resulted in theemergence of Indonesian English, its impact is still considered significant as many Indonesianpeople would need to use English as a language of global communication in order to be acceptedin many fields of work and have a financial security (Hassall et al., 2008). In sum, it can be saidthat globalization may have its effect on the growth of WLWs in Indonesia but not profoundenough as to yield a nativized English called Indonesian English. 5
  6. 6. FindingsThis section is a compilation of some of the English words that are used in Bahasa Malaysia andBahasa Indonesia with meanings that differ from the original meaning of the word.Bahasa Malaysia1. Best The meaning of the superlative best has been changed to mean something is good or worthwhile instead of a comparison to something else as illustrated in the following examples: “akuadatengok interface windows 8 nampak mcm bestjer...ada yang penahcubatak....kongsisikit” ( “haaapa-apapunakukasi 5 bintangcampursatuanakbulan. sebabciterperangnibest..akumanalahsukasangattengokperangatasdarat..akutakuttengokas karhilang kaki hilangtanganhilangkepalahilangituhilangini... tapi yang battle atas air ni..huyooobest” ( Blur Blur is originally associated with something being vague or making something to become vague, dim or indistinct. The Malaysian speakers‟ useblurto describe the state of a person or themselves as having no clue as to what is going on or generally bored or uninterested. This essentially changes the original form of the word from a verb or noun to an adjective as seen in the following examples: “Semalambanyakklunak update entrikat blog burukni !hariniblurpulakkepalaotaknihishh, semalambukannakbanggaketidaksampai post 5 entrisehari..dasyatbetul, tapitakbolehlawanotai blogger sekaliandansebabnyakanharirabu..damm ..patut la 4 entri,rupanya post WW dansatulagi republish hmm.” ( 6
  7. 7. “Adoiiii..patut la blur je mamattubilaakusebutnamadia .. hahaha.. haihh... maluakupasni .. hahahhaa ..malu ..maluuuuu.. malusemalumalunyaaaaa....” ( Budget Apart from having the same meaning in English, budget here has alsodeveloped another meaning which means that a person thinks of him/herself in a way that is not generally agreed by others as found in the following examples: “Cikgu pun apalagiterusletaktaliantelefonapabilamandengar kata-kata keranituh.Pehh.Memamngcikgugeramdengankeranitu.Budgetbagussgt.Kitatycarabaik, die jwbdgnkasar.Nantikitalihat.Inilahyg paling cikgukesalkandgnperangaikeraniitu.” ( “Kalaunak business lajusilagunakan EVENTS, TRAINING, EVENTS, TRAINING.Bukanduduk sorang2 budgetpandai. Just use the system.” ( Bumper The speed bump is commonly known as a bumper, which refers to different things in its original meaning which does not include the current definition given by Malaysians such as in the following examples: “Topiksantaipaginiakunakmengheret kalian utksesamaberkongsiperasaanbetapabencinyaapabilaperjalanankorangdihalang...Akuakui pembinaanbonggol/bumper di sesetengahtempatadalahutkmenghalangkelajuankeretamotorutkkeselamatanterutamanya di sekolah-sekolahdanpersimpangan, tapi...adajuga orang perseorangan yang membinabumper di depanrumah..:)):)):))...” ( “kokatepadaakuker? akutakpotongler, akutukar sport spring. loweredseketketatpaitubumperjalankalojumpakalu, susahloh.....” ( 7
  8. 8. 5. Last-last The word last is repeated to mean “in the end” instead of signaling time or position. This can be seen in the following examples: “Belumakutulisballlah, lukisbintanglahikanlah. HahaLast-last, makabah pun taklaratnakmarah, marker abangkakakakujahanamkan, belum yang conteng-contengkat kaki lagi. heheSebagaipenyelesaiannya, makabahkakakabangaku kami sekeluargakepasaraya, mencaripapanhitam, pemadamdankapur!” ( “Contohnyasayasemalampercubaanpertamanakbuatapampolkadot.Last- lasttakmenjadi..HuhuApampolkadotjadiapambatat dot.Memangtakpernahbuatnyaapampolkadotnih. Ikut dah resepinyasatupersatutapitak tau la plak tang manasilapnya. Cantik dah buatdarisegiwarna pink hijaudan filling blueberry dan strawberry filling.” ( Pickup Pick up gives the impression that something is grasped or gain which can be applied to many different contexts. The use of pick up in Malay gives almost the same meaning but it has only one specific context which is to signal that someone is somewhat slow on the uptake. This is illustrated in the following examples: “entry kali nie, sedihsikit. salahkekalaulambatpick up? nak kata lembap, takdelahhlembap. tapi LAMPI or lambat pick up. salahke?? akutak rasa bendatusalah pun.” ( “Masalah yang sayahadapisekarangadalahsepertitajukentriniiaitulambatsangat pick- updengansoalan-soalan yang diutarakankepadasayadanadasedikitkelemahandalammemahamisoalan yang diberikan. Orang kata lambatnakfaham.” 8
  9. 9. ( Power Power generally means that someone or aomething has a quality that is really good and is admired by others because of it as shown in the following examples: “ayie pong suarapower...tapitulakanartislelakisusahsikitzamantu..” (!) “Nakjadipowerbercakapinggerismacamguasekaranginibukanlahkerjaseharidua. Inikerjamakantahunjugasebabmelibatkan minatdandayausaha.Jadibila dah powerbercakapinggerismacamsekarangini, kalausekadartengok DVD orang putihtuselamba kodoksajagua hide subtitle.Orang powerbahasainggeris, manaadabaca subtitle bilatengok DVD.Even bilaguatengok movie di cinema pun guatakbaca subtitle yang keluar di bawahskrin.Tengoktuguapakaiperkataan even dalamayatgua. Kalaulu orang takfahamguamintamaafawal-awal. Tapitakfahamke?Oh my!” ( Terror Instead of describing something to be terrifying, terror here has almost the same meaning and usage with power and can be interchangeably used but this is based on the discretion of the speaker who would know when it is appropriate to use power or terror. Some of the examples are: “Terrorbetul,dapattangkap hidup2, kalaukatsini dah berlubang2 kenatembak.” ( “matgebumemangterrorbetul la merekamakanan @ minuman yang sedap2 belaka...” ( Slack 9
  10. 10. Slack here means that a person is giving someone else a disapproving look, usually without the recipient knowing the reason why they are given the lookas in the examples below: “Annoyed tak if ada unknown person tibatibapandangslackkatkita?” ( kita/189386863419624302) “akucuakgilanakmasuk hotel besartu… dahlasensorang…. pak gad ponpandangslack je kan, selebeh and selekeh. akunaikdukataslobi, peeling peelinganakdato‟ kejappepagibutatu!” ( Corner The final example of an English word used in Malay that has developed a different meaning iscorner. Here it means to take a turn at using the steering wheel instead of it being something at the edge of a connecting line. The examples are: “betultu...selalugak mcm nisebabminyak dah low sgt...cornerkanansengguk..cornerkiri no problem...” (;wap2) “danmasaygsamabilasycornerkanandiaakanbunyixsedapsikit. syjugaada try tekan pedal minyaksecaramengejut, diaakanbunyi "taq" katbelahkiri. pomentukta drive shaft and gearbox problem, betulke? Setakatninakmasuk gear or pickup xde problem lagi, smooth je.” ( Indonesia1. NominatorThe word nominatorhas been used in Indonesian language tomeana person who is nominated toreceive an honor or award, equivalent to the English nominee,such as seen in the followingexamples: 10
  11. 11. “Bintang Barcelona Lionel Messi kembali masuk ke dalam daftar kandidat 100 tokoh paling berpengaruh di dunia tahun 2012, versi majalah ternama TIME. Messi merupakan satu-satunya pemain sepakbola yang masuk daftar nominator. Baru-baru ini pemain asal Argentina itu masuk dalam liputan cerita utama (cover story) majalah TIME edisi Februari2012.” (source: kembali-masuk-daftar-nominator-100-tokoh-dunia) “Juri telah menerima 231 nominator penerima hadiah Nobel Perdamaian 2012. Di antara para nominator adalah mantan Perdana Menteri Ukraina dan seorang tentara AS yang membocorkan materi rahasia ke WikiLeaks.” ( “Akhirnya kami harus memilih 50 nominator dari 100 FTS Pilihan yang terseleksi walau harus sering membaca ulang dan juga dengan setengah terpaksa menggunakan jurus pamungkas “TEGA” untuk mengeliminasi FTS-FTS yang secara penulisan dan isi sungguh sangat menganggumkan.” ( On the contrary, the English wordnominator is the person who officially suggests acandidate, or nominates the nominees, such as found in the following examples: “The Nominator Panel of The Hatch are volunteer representatives of who would engage with aspiring startups, evaluate their readiness.” ( “The United State is facing tougher challenge as the world largest economy grows at slow pace and the unemployment hovers at high level, according to John Bryson, nominator to be Secretary of the Department of Commerce.” ( “It is the Nominator‟s responsibility to enlist four other people to write letters in support of a worthy nominee.” ( TreatmentThe word treatment has come into use in Indonesian English with a similar meaning, which is away to cure illness or injury or solve a problem.However, instead of using is as a noun in the 11
  12. 12. normal English usage, the word has been wrongly used as a verb in Bahasa Indonesia, as seen inthe following examples: “Pengedar narkotika jelas harus dihukum berat, karena dia menjual narkotika yang membuat orang tidak berguna lagi di masyakarat, kejahatannya sungguh luar biasa, menimbulkan kerusakan kehidupan. Tapi jika orang yang terlanjur menjadi pecandu, maka tentu harus di „treatment‟, dirawat. Kalau masuk penjara, kemungkinan juga semakin teler lagi di penjara dengan lebih memiliki banyak teman.” ( “PE ( polyethylene ) & PP ( polypropylene ) adalah jenis plastik yang memiliki surface tension yang sangat rendah dibandingkan dengan jenis jenis plastik yang lainnya , oleh karena itu kedua jenis plastik tersebut harus di treatment permukaannya terlebih dahulu agar memiliki daya lekat / bonding properties yang baik .” ( “Karena itu tindak pidana maka itu equality before the law yakni persamaan di mata hukum. Mau jaksa kek dia, mau apa kek dia, tapi itu harus di treatment dia. Persamaan di mata hukum dan persamaan penindakan. Artinya tidak ada perbedaan antara aparat penegak hukum dengan manusia lainnya. Karena dimata hukum itulah kemanusiaannya, bukan karena jabatannya,” ( English word treatment, in contrast, is used exclusively as a noun, as the following exampleindicates: “Mesothelioma treatmentoptions such as chemotherapy, surgery and radiation can help increase a patients quality of life and life expectancy.” ( “The following video is an introduction to The Son-Rise Program with some practical Autism teaching and treatment tools that you can begin using today and some examples of those tools in practice.” ( Thanks beforeThe phrasethanks before has been commonly used to mean thanks in advance. The word mightcome into existence as a poor work of word-by-word translation of the Indonesian phrase„terimakasihsebelumnya”, which Indonesians usually use as a more polite way of saying thank 12
  13. 13. you. Hence it could be argued that such expression is culturally bound. This also suggests thateven “thanks in advance” is quite rarely used in the target culture. The following excerptsillustrate how thanks before is used in Indonesian contexts: “halo.nama ku tulus.. btw,boleh kenalan gak sama salah satu atau beberapa anggota dari paduan suara nya? Ada yang cantik menurut ku euy.hehehehe...da contact yang bisa dihubungi?..thanks before ya...” ( “Dijelasin dikit dong tentang teori dibelakang ini, secara sederhana juga ga apa, maklum tidak paham soal audio elektronika. Damping itu apaan pak? Vibrasi (apakah getaran dari fisik Ipodnya?) itu pengaruhnya di suara bagian apanya? Thanks before ya Pak” ( “Kalo belom verified ane main dan menang eh PSR ane ga nambah gan boleh tau ga gan solusinya kalo ada yg tau thanks before” ( kenapa-ya-%28)The English word thanks in advance is very rarely used, probably because it might be consideredrude to use it since it gives the idea that we expect the person to help us before the person evenconsiders giving help, and thus it is quite presumptuous. It also assumes that we do not need tosay “thank you” after help has been given, because we have said it beforehand, which is alsorather rude (Jewell, 2011). However, to illustrate how it is used in L2 context, some examples aregiven as follows: “Thanks in advance for the help. I have a project which I need to write a poem with a metaphor.” ( which-need-write-334193) “Pretty new to online dating and would like thoughts or ideas. Im really serious about finding "my girl" and Im giving this a lot of effort. Id like to hear what you think...thanks in advance.( Boring 13
  14. 14. This notorious word has most commonly been used to refer to either the state of oneself beingbored or the state of something that is not interesting. However, it is the former that contradictsto the real meaning in L2, as shown in the examples below: “Huahh…Gue lagi boring tingkat dewa. Gak tau mau ngapain. Daritadi cuma bengong di depan laptop, dengerin musik cozy republic, sama nonton pelem yang baru gue dapet dari bang hendy. Gue udah nonton 2 pelem hari ini, bosen juga kalo nonton terus.” ( “Gann... mau tanya dong buat para cwo2.. kalo bulan puasa gini kalo lagi pada boring sendirian apa yang dilakuin ya selain tidur ??” ( It is to be noted that such nativization is not exclusive to Indonesianlanguage, it alsoextends to Bahasa Malaysia as shown in the following example: “nak balik boleh? nak cincin jea. tak nak lain. boleh ? haha. i boring lah , taktahu nape , malam ni i boring sangat. haha. pasal i kata u tu, haha, i tahu i salah , i minta maaf.” ( Using Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), the following examplestypify how boring means something that is “not interesting or exciting” for the person concerned,rather than to mean the state of oneself being in boredom: “My husbands best friend is an intelligent funny man, but his girlfriend is really boring,” “I see him at the store and about town. I really dont know him well. He says he got into this because life at home was too boring.” “You know, put each other to sleep with old boring stories of our lives.”5. Take and giveThis phrase has the same meaning as its English equivalent “give and take” or to beunderstanding of others by giving up what we want and accepting what others want.However,the order has been inverted as can be seen in the examples below: “Mungkin itu kali ya yang bisa kita sebut dengan: “Take and Give”. Jadi simpelnya nih, kalau kita bisa memberikan yang terbaik, maka kita juga akan menerima yang baik juga.” 14
  15. 15. ( “Cinta bukan sekedar urusan take and give aja. Love is about give and give. Gimana mungkin?? Tentu aja karena cinta itu soal perasaan. Dan urusan perasaan gag pernah bisa di kalkulasikan seperti untung rugi.” ( “Kalo lebih hebat ya gak mungkin.. kan masih minim pengalaman, dangkal pengetahuan, just take and give aja dah..” ( Following is the correct usage of the word in English. Using COCA, it is revealed that theoriginal English words are mostly used as a noun rather than a verb: “Compromise is not a dirty word. Getting things done requires giveandtake.” “Deep down you must be able to reassure yourself that your choice of boyfriend is a good one, that he has solid values and beliefs, that you treat each other with respect, and that there is giveandtake on almost all matters.” “And I thought he did fairly well. I mean, it was a good back and forth and a good giveandtake”6. EnergicAlthough this word may have beenofficially listedas an entry in Webster English dictionary, itsuse is rather uncommon. The more commonly used one is the energetic. COCA found 2,845different instances of the use of energetic, as compared to 4 entries only for energic. This clearlysuggests that energetic is the more commonly used one in English. Many Indonesian peoplewould simply use the word energic to mean the same, which is to have a lot of enthusiasm or tobe full of energy: “Aku baru liat ini,, aduhh wonder girls energic banget, suka deh,,,, walau bukan konser resmi tunggal, karen ini dr product sony ericson, tp wah bgt yah antusisasnya,,,,” ( “Yesung oppa kalo nyanyi energic banget looh, maksimaaalll, fokuus bgt !!! kita bakal gemes sendiri ngeliat yesung oppa lg nyanyi, pas lg nyanyi, aura nya keluaaarr!!! keliatan seksi juga pas lg nyanyi” 15
  16. 16. ( suju/246011988745050?comment_id=4637077) “Sakhing lemahnya gue, temen kantor pun sampe bilang „duh mba lu aneh banget sih, giliran bulan puasa orang-orang lemes gitu, lu malah sehat n energic banget, tiap hari ngider ga ada cape, riang gumbira, eh giliran abis lebaran makan enak lu malah sakit.” ( &show_interstitial=1&u=%2Fjournal%2Fitem)As mentioned previously, entries from COCA suggest that energicis rarely used indeed, and ifever used it rarely signifies the same meaning shared in Indonesian contexts. TheEnglishenergichere mostly refers to a thing that contains quite a lot of energy, rather than aperson with a lot of enthusiasm. From its 425 million entries, COCA found only four instances ofits authentic use. They are also quite archaic, literary, and are never used in the current English.Following are some examples of energicfound in COCA along with the date it was taken: “And what he wrestled with in the desert experience was the temptation to identify in an inflated fashion with the energic power represented in the title, Son of God, and so to distort the meaning of this elemental symbolic constellation. Such temptation is precisely demonic.” (data taken in 1993) “Is it any wonder, then, that he forbids the disciples to proclaim him as the Messiah, i.e., to project upon him an energic symbolic constellation that belongs to their own religious inferiority, and so to distort the meaning of the constellation by converting it into a mass movement?” (taken in 1993) “That is, the literary, musical, architectural, and artistic ventures of the time conspired to define the person in terms of a deep energic force, often equated with soul and rooted in both the spiritual and natural world.” (taken in 1990)7. DatelineThe word has been commonly used to mean deadline or a point in time where something musthave been completed. Not much is known on how the word dead changes to date other than theassumption that a deadline must inevitably entail a specific date by which the work must becompleted. Here are some examples of dateline used in Indonesian contexts: 16
  17. 17. “Itu kan denda maksimal ya gan, kalo biasanya denda yang diputuskan hakim berapa gan? Agan tau gak kira-kira? Buat persiapan uang dari rumah gan ane. Hoh, oke gan. Makasi banyak sarannya. Ane kemaren buru-buru sih, ngejar dateline inter[v]iew.” ( “Aku lagi beteee sama kakakku! Dia dengan seenaknya nyuruh aku pulang ke Medan buat nemenin dia, padahal dia tau aku lagi ngejar dateline sidang. Awalnya emang aku pikir gak ada salahnya aku pulang sekitar 1 minggu. Kasihan dia juga, lagi hamil tua tapi gak ada yang nemenin.” ( “Alhamdulillah, tanggapan dari para customer lumayan positif, ini terbukti dengan order yang cukup banyak, sampe2 karyawan cukup kuwalahan ngejar dateline yang diminta. Tapi, lagi-lagi ini bicara pelayanan, mau-gak-mau, suka-gak-suka harus selesai tepat waktu. Iya toh ?” ( In English, dateline has a different meaning ascribed to it. defines itas a line at the beginning of a news article that informs where the news is dispatched andoptionally when it is published as the following entry from COCA illustrates: “Are private psychiatric hospitals resorting to kidnapping in their quest for paying patients? # Dateline: Miami; Los Angeles; Ann Arbor; Chicago; Washington”Discussion and ConclusionThe findings in this paperreveal that English words are being nativized into Bahasa Malaysia andBahasa Indonesia to the extent that speakers do not realize that they are using these Englishwords unless they consciously think about it. Although words presented in this paper are by nomeans exhaustive, and that they represent only the tip of the ice berg, it could be said that ingeneral these words mostly have meanings that differ from the original English words. It could 17
  18. 18. also be concluded that the form of the word or phrase can slightly change as well.It is to beexpected that the number of English words being nativized into Bahasa Malaysia and BahasaIndonesia would increase since language users are creative in using the language that they know. The paperalso suggests that there are not many instances of nativized words in Indonesiaas compared to the Malaysian counterpart where the examples given in this paper make up ofonly some of the words nativized in Bahasa Malaysia.This could be related to the differenthistorical background, in which the country was colonized by Dutch and hence had moreborrowings from the Dutch instead of English. Another possible reason for the dearth ofnativized words is that English is used as a foreign language in Indonesia, and is used mostly bythe highly educated elite in the public discourse hence linguistic contact is quite limited for mostpeople. This is to be contrasted with the situation in Malaysia, whereby people use English as asecond language to communicate with people of different nationalities. More thorough researchshould be conducted to explore nativized words in Indonesian context, especially to confirm andtrack the growing number of these words as claimed by previous studies. 18
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