Govenment

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  • Govenment

    1. 1. The Public RelationsFour-Step Process Summer 2011
    2. 2. Strategic Planning Planned communications with a purpose It is based on research – not just on a “hunch.” It is results-oriented, which can be evaluated for effectiveness
    3. 3. What is a Campaign? A campaign is a series of coordinated brand messages delivered to a specific target audience through a variety of promotional media and activities during a fixed period of time.
    4. 4. Public Relations 4-Step ProcessThe Strategic Communicationfor Planning a Campaign Research– Gathering Information Objectives– Establishing goals & objectives Programming/Planning/Promotions– Choosing Communication tools Evaluation – evaluating the effectiveness of the campaign R.O.P.E plan
    5. 5. RESEARCH What do you need to know?
    6. 6. Types of Research Secondary(Library) – gather existing information from data sources, reports, reports, Internet sources. (ex: Census Data) Primary–conduct research first-hand for the client/organization. secondary- research that has already been done. primary- doing research yourself. survey etc.
    7. 7. Various Research Techniques Secondary  Primary Archival Information  Focus Groups Market Research Data  Personal Interviews  Call-In Telephone Lines  Content Analysis  Communication Audits  Feedback Research  Internet Surveys  Man-on-the-street  Scientific Surveys using random sampling
    8. 8. -understand the3 Steps in the Research Process: company -understand what the companys situation is -what do we need to target for our campaign
    9. 9. -understand the 3 Steps in the Research Process: company -understand what the companys situation is -what do we need to target for our campaign Analyze the Organization (client research)
    10. 10. -understand the 3 Steps in the Research Process: company -understand what the companys situation is -what do we need to target for our campaign Analyze the Organization (client research) Analyze the Situation (opportunity/problem research)
    11. 11. -understand the 3 Steps in the Research Process: company -understand what the companys situation is -what do we need to target for our campaign Analyze the Organization (client research) Analyze the Situation (opportunity/problem research) Analyze the Various Publics/Audiences (audience research)
    12. 12. Step One (Research):Analyze the Organization
    13. 13. Step One (Research):Analyze the Organization The Internal Environment The External Environment The Public’s Perception of the Organization
    14. 14. performance- reviews niche- what makes itThe Internal Environment special impediments- little things that you can be struggling with
    15. 15. performance- reviews niche- what makes it The Internal Environment special impediments- little things that you can be Structure – mission/purpose, budget, struggling with history
    16. 16. performance- reviews niche- what makes it The Internal Environment special impediments- little things that you can be Structure – mission/purpose, budget, struggling with history Performance – quality of its goods and services
    17. 17. performance- reviews niche- what makes it The Internal Environment special impediments- little things that you can be Structure – mission/purpose, budget, struggling with history Performance – quality of its goods and services Niche – its specialty, the function or role that makes the organization different from similar organizations
    18. 18. performance- reviews niche- what makes it The Internal Environment special impediments- little things that you can be Structure – mission/purpose, budget, struggling with history Performance – quality of its goods and services Niche – its specialty, the function or role that makes the organization different from similar organizations Brand Image– A mental image that reflects the way a brand is perceived, including all the identification elements
    19. 19. performance- reviews niche- what makes it The Internal Environment special impediments- little things that you can be Structure – mission/purpose, budget, struggling with history Performance – quality of its goods and services Niche – its specialty, the function or role that makes the organization different from similar organizations Brand Image– A mental image that reflects the way a brand is perceived, including all the identification elements Impediments– obstacles that may limit the effectiveness of the public relations campaign.
    20. 20. The External Environment
    21. 21. The External Environment Competitors – organizations with similar products/services
    22. 22. The External Environment Competitors – organizations with similar products/services Opponents– people who are fighting your organization-against your organization
    23. 23. The External Environment Competitors – organizations with similar products/services Opponents– people who are fighting your organization-against your organization External Impediments– social, political, or governmental factors that might interfere
    24. 24. Public’s Perception
    25. 25. Public’s Perception  Organization’s Visibility– the extent to which the organization is known
    26. 26. Public’s Perception  Organization’s Visibility– the extent to which the organization is known  Organizations Reputation– the general sense of what the public opinion is of the organization.
    27. 27. Image Index
    28. 28. SWOT Analysis
    29. 29. SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
    30. 30. Step Two:Analyze the Situation Situation – a set of circumstances facing the organization/client  Opportunity or Problem?  Proactive or Reactive?
    31. 31. Questions to Analyze Situation What is the situation facing this organization/client? What is the background of this situation? What is the significance or importance of this situation?
    32. 32. Step Three (Research):Analyze the Various Publics
    33. 33. Step Three (Research):Analyze the Various Publics Audience Research  Who are the target publics?  Examples: Media, employees, members, community, government officials, consumers, shareholders, allies of the organization, opinion leaders, regulators, opponents to the organization, competitors  Break down into categories  Primary/Secondary/Intervening  Latent/Aware/Active
    34. 34. Audience …
    35. 35. Audience … Analysis– Who is the audience?
    36. 36. Audience … Analysis– Who is the audience? Understand – What is the audience’s knowledge of your product/ service (if any)?
    37. 37. Audience … Analysis– Who is the audience? Understand – What is the audience’s knowledge of your product/ service (if any)? Demographics – What is their ages, gender, educational background?
    38. 38. Audience … Analysis– Who is the audience? Understand – What is the audience’s knowledge of your product/ service (if any)? Demographics – What is their ages, gender, educational background? Interest– why should they be interested in your product/service?
    39. 39. Audience … Analysis– Who is the audience? Understand – What is the audience’s knowledge of your product/ service (if any)? Demographics – What is their ages, gender, educational background? Interest– why should they be interested in your product/service? Environment– Where will they get their information (media)?
    40. 40. Audience … Analysis– Who is the audience? Understand – What is the audience’s knowledge of your product/ service (if any)? Demographics – What is their ages, gender, educational background? Interest– why should they be interested in your product/service? Environment– Where will they get their information (media)? Needs – What are their needs and wants associated with what you have to offer?
    41. 41. Audience … Analysis– Who is the audience? Understand – What is the audience’s knowledge of your product/ service (if any)? Demographics – What is their ages, gender, educational background? Interest– why should they be interested in your product/service? Environment– Where will they get their information (media)? Needs – What are their needs and wants associated with what you have to offer? Customization – What specific need/interest should your campaign address relating to the specific audience
    42. 42. Audience … Analysis– Who is the audience? Understand – What is the audience’s knowledge of your product/ service (if any)? Demographics – What is their ages, gender, educational background? Interest– why should they be interested in your product/service? Environment– Where will they get their information (media)? Needs – What are their needs and wants associated with what you have to offer? Customization – What specific need/interest should your campaign address relating to the specific audience Expectations– What does the audience expect to learn or experience?
    43. 43. OBJECTIVES What do you want to accomplish?
    44. 44. Overall Campaign Goal
    45. 45. Overall Campaign Goal From the research, clearly state the issue facing the organization/client and the overall goal to address it .
    46. 46. Overall Campaign Goal From the research, clearly state the issue facing the organization/client and the overall goal to address it .
    47. 47. Overall Campaign Goal From the research, clearly state the issue facing the organization/client and the overall goal to address it . EXAMPLE:  Create a successful campaign to tie Lee Jeans’ passion for breast cancer with its business challenge to expand the acceptance of denim in the workplace.
    48. 48. Positioning Positioning is the process of distinguishing the organization with a unique meaning in the minds of its publics.  Lee Jeans positioned itself as a company which cares through corporate philanthropy.
    49. 49. Strategy
    50. 50. Strategy A strategy provides a rationale for the actions and program components that are being planned for the campaign.
    51. 51. Strategy A strategy provides a rationale for the actions and program components that are being planned for the campaign.  Lee Jeans wants to be associated with a reputable and well-known nonprofit organization to enhance its corporate brand identity.
    52. 52. Objectives An objective is a statement emerging from the organization’s overall goals.  What does the organization want to accomplish? Every objective should consist of 5 elements:  S – Specific  M - Measurable (percentages)  A – Attainable/Achievable  R – Results-oriented  T – Time Bound (timely)
    53. 53. Basically … Objectives are either  Informational– designed to expose the audience to information and to increase awareness of a topic/issue.  Aims to publicize, educate, communicate  Motivational– designed to change attitudes and influence behavior.  Aims to modify the way people feel and ultimately change or reinforce behavior
    54. 54. Objectives -- Examples
    55. 55. Objectives -- Examples To increase awareness of the tragedy of breast cancer by partnering with the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation.
    56. 56. Objectives -- Examples To increase awareness of the tragedy of breast cancer by partnering with the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. To raise money for breast cancer research during a one-day event in October.
    57. 57. Objectives -- Examples To increase awareness of the tragedy of breast cancer by partnering with the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. To raise money for breast cancer research during a one-day event in October. To increase the brand recognition and perception of Lee Jeans with the target publics.
    58. 58. Objectives -- Examples To increase awareness of the tragedy of breast cancer by partnering with the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. To raise money for breast cancer research during a one-day event in October. To increase the brand recognition and perception of Lee Jeans with the target publics. To increase sales of Lee Jeans for women.
    59. 59. Objectives -- Examples To increase awareness of the tragedy of breast cancer by partnering with the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation. To raise money for breast cancer research during a one-day event in October. To increase the brand recognition and perception of Lee Jeans with the target publics. To increase sales of Lee Jeans for women. Informational or Motivational?
    60. 60. Planning/Programming/Promotions How will you accomplish what you want to do?
    61. 61. Tactics For each objective, various tactics need to be created. Tactics – the visible elements (the specific activities/communication tools) that put the strategies into operation and help achieve the stated objectives.
    62. 62. Planning The planning and executing of the plan using specific tactics (the visible elements of the plan)  A message or theme  Controlled & Uncontrolled forms of information  Special Events  Effective Communications
    63. 63. Message/Theme Tagline– a branding slogan used to create a memorable phrase and to reinforce the target audience’s memory of the product or service. Popular Tagline according to Guru.com  Got milk? -- California Milk Processor Board  Dont leave home without it. -- American Express  Just do it. -- Nike  Youre in good hands with Allstate. -- Allstate Insurance
    64. 64. Controlled vs. Uncontrolled House publications  News/Publicity  Brochures, handbooks,  Media outlets – both letters, posters, flyers, mass and specialized annual reports, billing/pay  Media kits inserts, audiovisual buying an ad, if your anything... its  News releases information controlled  Feature stories Advertising media kit- uncontrolled  Captioned photos once you give it to the  Print/Broadcast media bc they can mess  News conferences it up.. writing wrong  Direct Mail  Public Service  Specialty items: pens, Announcements “PSAs” buttons, memo pads  Letters to the Editor Social Media? Where does it belong?
    65. 65. Special Events
    66. 66. Special Events Fairs, festivals exhibits Grand Openings Awards Ceremonies Charitable Events (walks, runs, golf tournaments …) Black Tie Dinners
    67. 67. Special Events Fairs, festivals  Celebration of exhibits national holidays Grand Openings  Community concerts Awards Ceremonies  Ground Breakings Charitable Events  Picnics, cookouts (walks, runs, golf  Guest lectures tournaments …)  Commencements Black Tie Dinners
    68. 68. Effective CommunicationPrinciples
    69. 69. Effective CommunicationPrinciples Source – credible, trustworthy, experience, attractive, has perceived similarities with the target audience.
    70. 70. Effective CommunicationPrinciples Source – credible, trustworthy, experience, attractive, has perceived similarities with the target audience. Message (Tagline-Salient Information)– powerful, motivational information that strikes a responsive chord (overall theme)
    71. 71. Effective CommunicationPrinciples Source – credible, trustworthy, experience, attractive, has perceived similarities with the target audience. Message (Tagline-Salient Information)– powerful, motivational information that strikes a responsive chord (overall theme) Verbal/Nonverbal cues– effective language that is clear and understood. Use of appropriate symbols, appropriate mood and atmosphere, know demographics of audience
    72. 72. Effective CommunicationPrinciples
    73. 73. Effective CommunicationPrinciples two way communication– allow audience to give feedback (open forums, suggestion boxes, speeches with Q&A, return response cards, surveys)
    74. 74. Effective CommunicationPrinciples two way communication– allow audience to give feedback (open forums, suggestion boxes, speeches with Q&A, return response cards, surveys) opinion leasers/decision makers– influential leaders to your target audience (government leaders, community leaders, pastors, entertainers).
    75. 75. Effective CommunicationPrinciples
    76. 76. Effective CommunicationPrinciples Group Influence – people belong to a variety of groups which have great influence on their decision making
    77. 77. Effective CommunicationPrinciples Group Influence – people belong to a variety of groups which have great influence on their decision making Selective Exposure– This principle holds that people will accept and seek out communication supporting their beliefs. Persuasive messages need to reinforce existing attitudes
    78. 78. Effective CommunicationPrinciples Group Influence – people belong to a variety of groups which have great influence on their decision making Selective Exposure– This principle holds that people will accept and seek out communication supporting their beliefs. Persuasive messages need to reinforce existing attitudes Audience Participation– Whenever possible, seek opportunities where the target audience can participate in the program (Special Events, Contests)
    79. 79. EVALUATION How will you know if you accomplished what you wanted?
    80. 80. Evaluation An ongoing process of monitoring and finally giving an assessment of the stated objectives.  Measurement of Message Exposure  Measurement of Audience Awareness  Measurement of Audience Action
    81. 81. Media Exposure Media Placement– compilation of press clippings, radio and TV mentions, Web mentions (clipping services) Media Impressions– calculate the number of people exposed to the message – the potential audience reach Internet Hits– cyberspace version of Media Impressions Advertising Equivalency– convert stories in the news columns or on air into equivalent advertising costs.
    82. 82. Audience Awareness Pre and Post Surveys  Message retention– surveys to check audience’s knowledge of the message  Day-After recall survey– surveys to measure audience’s memory of the message  Baseline or Benchmark Study– measuring an audience’s attitudes and opinions before, during and after a PR campaign
    83. 83. Audience Action  Acting on the Message – Ultimately accomplishing the objectives of the company by modifying behavior  Increased sales or fund raising dollars  Changing behavior (smoking/drinking/texting)  Audience Attendance/Participation
    84. 84. In Closing …
    85. 85. In Closing … Each step should build onto the next
    86. 86. In Closing … Each step should build onto the next  Research – finding what you need to know
    87. 87. In Closing … Each step should build onto the next  Research – finding what you need to know  Objectives – deciding what you can do
    88. 88. In Closing … Each step should build onto the next  Research – finding what you need to know  Objectives – deciding what you can do  Programming/Planning/Promotions – creating tactics to accomplish what you want
    89. 89. In Closing … Each step should build onto the next  Research – finding what you need to know  Objectives – deciding what you can do  Programming/Planning/Promotions – creating tactics to accomplish what you want  Evaluation – measuring your success

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