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One-Cycle Correction of Timing Errors in Pipelines
with Standard Clocked Elements
Abstract:
One of the most aggressive uses of dynamic voltage scaling is timing speculation, which in turn
requires fast correction of timing errors. The fastest existing error correction technique imposes a
one-cycle time penalty only, but it is restricted to two-phase transparent latch-based pipelines.
We perform one-cycle error correction by gating only the main latch in each stage of the pipeline
that precedes a failed stage. This new method is applicable to widely used clocking elements,
such as flip-flops and pulsed latches. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic
size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2.
Enhancement of the project:
Existing System:
Among the several published error correction schemes, instruction replay is the most time
consuming. If an error occurs at a particular stage, it is allowed to propagate until the last stage,
and then all stages in the pipeline are flushed. If there are N pipeline stages, this will require N
cycles. The failed instruction is then reissued to the pipeline, with the clock running at half
speed, which should ensure that the failing instruction does not cause another error. This rerun
takes 2N cycles, and so the completion time of the next instruction that follows the error is
delayed by 3N cycles. An example of instruction replay is given in Fig. 1(a). Instruction i2 fails
at stage C in cycle 4. The error propagates to stage E. Then, all the pipeline stages are flushed,
from cycles 7 to 11, and instruction i2 is issued again in cycle 12. Since the clock frequency has
now been halved, i2 is only completed at cycle 21, and so the completion time of instruction i3 is
delayed from cycles 7 to 22.
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Fig. 1. Examples of error correction after an error occurs at stage C in cycle 4. (a) Instruction
replay. (b) Microrollback. (c) Counterflow pipelining
There are two existing methods of error correction that have a one-cycle timing penalty: 1)
global clock gating and 2) Bubble Razor . Global clock gating is conceptually the simplest error
correction method of all. When a stage detects an error, all the stages in the pipeline are stalled
for one cycle, and shadow latch data are restored to the main flip-flop. However, it may take
multiple cycles for the clock-gating signal to be propagated to all the stages in complicated or
high-frequency designs, and hence its applicability is limited.
Bubble Razor represents a breakthrough, because it reduces the timing penalty to one cycle
based on local stalling, allowing it to be used in complicated and high-frequency designs.
However, unlike other methods, Bubble Razor can only be used for two-phase transparent latch-
based designs. Therefore, flip-flop data paths in most existing designs have to be converted to
two-phase transparent latch data paths. This requires extra design effort, as proposed, and the
number of stages is doubled, which may lead to an increase of error rate. Since flip-flop and
pulsed latch are more popular clocking elements in current digital circuits than level-sensitive
latch, there remains a pressing need for one-cycle error correction in EDS circuits, which use
flip-flop or pulsed-latch.
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Disadvantages:
 power consumption is high
Proposed System:
Since the data in the shadow latch are correct, even in failing stage, the simplest error correction
method may be restoring the data from the shadow latch to the main latch. The only problem is
that the data coming from the input stage will be lost during the restore cycle. That is the reason
why counterflow pipelining reissues the next instruction to the failed instruction after the error
correction. Our insight is that the previous stages to the failed one, only main latch needs to be
gated, and their shadow latches do not need to be gated. If the main latch of a stage is gated,
while its shadow latch is being clocked, that stage can simultaneously capture input data at the
shadow latch while retaining its previous data at the main latch. This allows a stage that detects
an error to receive the correct data in the very next cycle after error correction.
Fig. 2 shows a circuit-level schematic of our Razor latch. In this design, multiplexer at the input
of the Razor latch is placed in the feedback path of the main latch to reduce delay and power
consumption. If the instruction i3 fails at cycle 3, clk_m and clk_s are gated at the following
cycle after error detection. In cycle 4, the restore signal becomes 1 so that the correct instruction
i3 is transmitted from the shadow latch to the main latch. Instruction i4 is captured at cycle 5.
ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com
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Fig. 2. Circuit-level schematic of our Razor latch.
Gating Signal Propagation
To maintain the correctness of the data, each of the stages previous to the one where the error
happened must eventually go through a two-cycle process in which its main latch is gated in the
first cycle and the data in its shadow latch are restored to its main latch in the second cycle.
Extension to General Pipelines
The proposed error correction method can be extended to more general pipelines with multiple
fan-in, fan-out, loops, or a combination of these structures. In the case of multiple fan-in and fan-
out, there are two problems that need to be addressed.
SRAM Interfaces
Different from Bubble Razor, which uses two-phase clocking, our proposed scheme does not
need to treat SRAM as positive latch. Hence, we do not need to place negative latches around
SRAM. Instead, we place flip-flops on the input and output of SRAM and detect the errors at the
flip-flips.
Advantages:
ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com
BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com
Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473
Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai
Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back
 reduce the power consumption
Software implementation:
 Modelsim
 Xilinx ISE

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One cycle correction of timing errors in pipelines with standard clocked elements

  • 1. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back One-Cycle Correction of Timing Errors in Pipelines with Standard Clocked Elements Abstract: One of the most aggressive uses of dynamic voltage scaling is timing speculation, which in turn requires fast correction of timing errors. The fastest existing error correction technique imposes a one-cycle time penalty only, but it is restricted to two-phase transparent latch-based pipelines. We perform one-cycle error correction by gating only the main latch in each stage of the pipeline that precedes a failed stage. This new method is applicable to widely used clocking elements, such as flip-flops and pulsed latches. The proposed architecture of this paper analysis the logic size, area and power consumption using Xilinx 14.2. Enhancement of the project: Existing System: Among the several published error correction schemes, instruction replay is the most time consuming. If an error occurs at a particular stage, it is allowed to propagate until the last stage, and then all stages in the pipeline are flushed. If there are N pipeline stages, this will require N cycles. The failed instruction is then reissued to the pipeline, with the clock running at half speed, which should ensure that the failing instruction does not cause another error. This rerun takes 2N cycles, and so the completion time of the next instruction that follows the error is delayed by 3N cycles. An example of instruction replay is given in Fig. 1(a). Instruction i2 fails at stage C in cycle 4. The error propagates to stage E. Then, all the pipeline stages are flushed, from cycles 7 to 11, and instruction i2 is issued again in cycle 12. Since the clock frequency has now been halved, i2 is only completed at cycle 21, and so the completion time of instruction i3 is delayed from cycles 7 to 22.
  • 2. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back Fig. 1. Examples of error correction after an error occurs at stage C in cycle 4. (a) Instruction replay. (b) Microrollback. (c) Counterflow pipelining There are two existing methods of error correction that have a one-cycle timing penalty: 1) global clock gating and 2) Bubble Razor . Global clock gating is conceptually the simplest error correction method of all. When a stage detects an error, all the stages in the pipeline are stalled for one cycle, and shadow latch data are restored to the main flip-flop. However, it may take multiple cycles for the clock-gating signal to be propagated to all the stages in complicated or high-frequency designs, and hence its applicability is limited. Bubble Razor represents a breakthrough, because it reduces the timing penalty to one cycle based on local stalling, allowing it to be used in complicated and high-frequency designs. However, unlike other methods, Bubble Razor can only be used for two-phase transparent latch- based designs. Therefore, flip-flop data paths in most existing designs have to be converted to two-phase transparent latch data paths. This requires extra design effort, as proposed, and the number of stages is doubled, which may lead to an increase of error rate. Since flip-flop and pulsed latch are more popular clocking elements in current digital circuits than level-sensitive latch, there remains a pressing need for one-cycle error correction in EDS circuits, which use flip-flop or pulsed-latch.
  • 3. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back Disadvantages:  power consumption is high Proposed System: Since the data in the shadow latch are correct, even in failing stage, the simplest error correction method may be restoring the data from the shadow latch to the main latch. The only problem is that the data coming from the input stage will be lost during the restore cycle. That is the reason why counterflow pipelining reissues the next instruction to the failed instruction after the error correction. Our insight is that the previous stages to the failed one, only main latch needs to be gated, and their shadow latches do not need to be gated. If the main latch of a stage is gated, while its shadow latch is being clocked, that stage can simultaneously capture input data at the shadow latch while retaining its previous data at the main latch. This allows a stage that detects an error to receive the correct data in the very next cycle after error correction. Fig. 2 shows a circuit-level schematic of our Razor latch. In this design, multiplexer at the input of the Razor latch is placed in the feedback path of the main latch to reduce delay and power consumption. If the instruction i3 fails at cycle 3, clk_m and clk_s are gated at the following cycle after error detection. In cycle 4, the restore signal becomes 1 so that the correct instruction i3 is transmitted from the shadow latch to the main latch. Instruction i4 is captured at cycle 5.
  • 4. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back Fig. 2. Circuit-level schematic of our Razor latch. Gating Signal Propagation To maintain the correctness of the data, each of the stages previous to the one where the error happened must eventually go through a two-cycle process in which its main latch is gated in the first cycle and the data in its shadow latch are restored to its main latch in the second cycle. Extension to General Pipelines The proposed error correction method can be extended to more general pipelines with multiple fan-in, fan-out, loops, or a combination of these structures. In the case of multiple fan-in and fan- out, there are two problems that need to be addressed. SRAM Interfaces Different from Bubble Razor, which uses two-phase clocking, our proposed scheme does not need to treat SRAM as positive latch. Hence, we do not need to place negative latches around SRAM. Instead, we place flip-flops on the input and output of SRAM and detect the errors at the flip-flips. Advantages:
  • 5. ONLINE IEEE PROJECTS IeeeXpert.com BUY THIS PROJECT FOR 2000 RS –IeeeXpert.com Mobile: +91-9566492473/+91-9042092473| WhatsApp: 09566492473 Email: contact@ieeexpert.com | Locations: Pondicherry/Chennai Delivering Projects all over India | 100% Output Satisfaction (or) Get Money back  reduce the power consumption Software implementation:  Modelsim  Xilinx ISE