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WORLD MALARIA DAY
Are Malaria elimination efforts on the
right track?-An analysis of gains
achieved and challenges ahead
A...
Definitions and Terminology
MALARIA ELIMINATION
Interruption of local transmission (reduction to zero
incidence of indigen...
Definitions and Terminology
MALARIA-FREE STATUS
Certification granted by WHO after it has been
proved beyond reasonable do...
Malaria control efforts and
funding sources in Nigeria
• National malaria control program (1986)
• National malaria elimin...
Malaria control tools
TOOLS
Universal access to Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated nets
(LLINs)
In-door residual spraying (I...
Outcome and gains
Index 2000 2019
Incidence 238 million 229 million
Incidence per 1000
population
80 58
Proportion of infections due
to P. v...
Source : World Malaria report 2020:20 years of global progress and challenges
https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/mala...
Source : World Malaria report 2020:20 years of global progress and challenges
https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/mala...
GAINS-Contributing
factors
Aggressive control targeted at population at risk
Massive investment and funding ( GFATM,
PMI,D...
MALARIA CONTROL/ELIMINATION
TODAY
Stagnated Progress due to
challenges
Malaria Control/Elimination-
Challenges
Reduced domestic and donor funding (3 billion UDS Vs
5.6 billion USD
Decrease poli...
Malaria Elimination-Critical
issues
Malaria Elimination-Critical issues
• Sustain gains of interventions
• Accelerate research and development of new
tools fo...
Gradual reduction in dependency
of foreigners for funding
Source : World Malaria report 2020:20 years of global progress and challenges
https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/mala...
Prudent management of
dedicated funds
Report of GAVI Cash Programme
Audit in Nigeria
Systemic weaknesses regarding the operation of controls
and procedures in n...
COVID 19 –FUNDS
MISMNAGEMENT
• COVID-19: ICPC commences investigation into
distribution of funds, palliatives –PREMIUM TIM...
Ensure universal health coverage
Source : World Malaria report 2020:20 years of global progress and challenges
https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/mala...
MALARIA ELIMINATION
Feasible ? Yes
Possible ? Yes
Reality ?
References
• WHO MALARIA TERMINILOGY .Available at
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/208815/WHO_HTM_
GMP_201...
Are malaria elimination efforts on the right tracks ADJE U D PhD, MPH, FPC Pharm
Are malaria elimination efforts on the right tracks ADJE U D PhD, MPH, FPC Pharm
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Are malaria elimination efforts on the right tracks ADJE U D PhD, MPH, FPC Pharm

World Malaria Day

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Are malaria elimination efforts on the right tracks ADJE U D PhD, MPH, FPC Pharm

  1. 1. WORLD MALARIA DAY Are Malaria elimination efforts on the right track?-An analysis of gains achieved and challenges ahead ADJE U D PhD, MPH, FPC Pharm
  2. 2. Definitions and Terminology MALARIA ELIMINATION Interruption of local transmission (reduction to zero incidence of indigenous cases) of a specified malaria parasite in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate activities. Continued measures to prevent re-establishment of transmission are required. WHO
  3. 3. Definitions and Terminology MALARIA-FREE STATUS Certification granted by WHO after it has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that local human malaria transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes has been interrupted in an entire country for at least 3 consecutive years and a national surveillance system and a programme for the prevention of reintroduction are in place
  4. 4. Malaria control efforts and funding sources in Nigeria • National malaria control program (1986) • National malaria elimination program( 2013) • National Malaria Strategic plan 2001-2005, 2006- 2010,209-2013, 2014-2020 • Roll back Malaria (April 2000)( 80% malaria diagnosed and treated by 2010) • US President Malaria initiative (2011) • Global fund for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis , and Malaria
  5. 5. Malaria control tools TOOLS Universal access to Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) In-door residual spraying (IR Treatment of cases Larval source Management (LSM) Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp), Vector sentinel surveillance and resistance monitoring Quality assurance of commodities.
  6. 6. Outcome and gains
  7. 7. Index 2000 2019 Incidence 238 million 229 million Incidence per 1000 population 80 58 Proportion of infections due to P. vivax 7% 3% Net Ownership 50 % 80% Annual death rate ↓60% No of countries declared Malaria free 10 No of countries eliminate Malaria 21
  8. 8. Source : World Malaria report 2020:20 years of global progress and challenges https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/malaria/world-malaria-reports/9789240015791-double- page-view.pdf?sfvrsn=2c24349d
  9. 9. Source : World Malaria report 2020:20 years of global progress and challenges https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/malaria/world-malaria- reports/9789240015791-double-page-view.pdf?sfvrsn=2c24349d
  10. 10. GAINS-Contributing factors Aggressive control targeted at population at risk Massive investment and funding ( GFATM, PMI,DFDI,WORLD BANK , DOMESTIC FUNDING) Political commitment (Abuja 2000,RBM) Large scale deployment of tools (ITNS, LLITN, Indoor, residual spraying Transparency in funds disbursements
  11. 11. MALARIA CONTROL/ELIMINATION TODAY
  12. 12. Stagnated Progress due to challenges
  13. 13. Malaria Control/Elimination- Challenges Reduced domestic and donor funding (3 billion UDS Vs 5.6 billion USD Decrease political commitment Weak health systems(Poor service delivery) Poor access to quality, affordable , accessible care (NHIS) Parasite resistance to Artemisinin, Pyrethroids and other chemicals Poor infrastructure especially housing Armed conflicts, Insurgency –Large scale displacement and movement of non-immune people to endemic areas, IDPs
  14. 14. Malaria Elimination-Critical issues
  15. 15. Malaria Elimination-Critical issues • Sustain gains of interventions • Accelerate research and development of new tools for diagnosis, prevention ,and treatment (Next generation of drugs, malaria vaccines, field tests to detect low level of parasitemia) • Enhanced community surveillance • Rational use of antimalarial
  16. 16. Gradual reduction in dependency of foreigners for funding
  17. 17. Source : World Malaria report 2020:20 years of global progress and challenges https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/malaria/world-malaria- reports/9789240015791-double-page-view.pdf?sfvrsn=2c24349d
  18. 18. Prudent management of dedicated funds
  19. 19. Report of GAVI Cash Programme Audit in Nigeria Systemic weaknesses regarding the operation of controls and procedures in national systems used to manage Gavi cash-based support Gavi has requested that Nigeria’s Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) carries out a thorough and detailed investigation The Government of Nigeria has agreed to repay funds deemed to have been misused, which are quantified as US$ 2.2 million. https://www.gavi.org/news/media-room/review-gavi- support-nigeria
  20. 20. COVID 19 –FUNDS MISMNAGEMENT • COVID-19: ICPC commences investigation into distribution of funds, palliatives –PREMIUM TIMES May 29 ,2020 allegation of diversion of “COVID-19 logistics and contingency emergency fund into personal account.” allegations of fraud by some participating public institutions in the release and distribution of grains from strategic food reserve to “financially exploit local governments https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/more- news/395109-covid-19-icpc-commences-investigation- into-distribution-of-funds-palliatives.html
  21. 21. Ensure universal health coverage
  22. 22. Source : World Malaria report 2020:20 years of global progress and challenges https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/malaria/world-malaria-reports/9789240015791-double- page-view.pdf?sfvrsn=2c24349d
  23. 23. MALARIA ELIMINATION Feasible ? Yes Possible ? Yes Reality ?
  24. 24. References • WHO MALARIA TERMINILOGY .Available at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/208815/WHO_HTM_ GMP_2016.6_eng.pdf;jsessionid=5603444E871985ADB56E86E9A13C82 5C?sequence=1. Accessed 10/4/21 • World malaria report 2020: 20 years of global progress and challenges .Available at https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/malaria/world- malaria-reports/9789240015791-double-page- view.pdf?sfvrsn=2c24349d_5.Accessed 14/4/21 • Chukwuocha M Malaria control in Nigeria . Prymary Health open Access2012,2:3 DOI4172/2167-1079.1000118 • Sunil Dhiman Are malaria elimination efforts on right track? An analysis of gains achieved and challenges ahead. Dhiman Infectious Diseases of Poverty (2019) 8:14 • Omosivie Maduka End malaria for good: a review of current strategies and future novelties for malaria elimination in Nigeria. MWJ 2018, 9:1 •

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