Presentation by Angela Andrade, Klaus Schutze y Angélica Cardon on participatory ecological restoration in the Rio Blanco watershed, Colombia. This was presented during the SER Conference Mexico, August 2011
Participatory Ecological Restoration in the Rio Blanco Watershed: Ecosystem Based Adaptation Actions to Address Climate Change Impacts in the Chingaza Massif, High Mountain Ecosystems of Colombia
PARTICIPATORY ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION IN THE RIOBLANCO WATERSHED: ECOSYSTEM BASED ADAPTATIONACTIONS TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN THE CHINGAZA MASSIF, HIGH MOUNTAIN ECOSYSTEMS OF COLOMBIA Angela Andrade, Klaus Schutze y Angélica Cardona
ContextHigh Mountain Ecosystems and Vulnerability to Climate Change Located over 2740msnm. 3.7% (4.210.000ha). 70% of National population depend on ES. 48% are protected areas. Glaciers tend to disappear in the coming 10 years. Current Andean forest cover: 23% “Paramos and High Andean Forestrys are highly vulnerable to cc, affecting provision of ecosystem services. (2nd NC. 2010).
Pilot Adaptation Project in High Mountain Ecosystems a) What is the current and projected climate variability at regional scale andhow can we best deal with the uncertainties of climate change trends? b) What are the effects of climatic variability in high mountain ecosystems(Glaciers, High Andean Forests and Páramos)? c) How can we best maintain or increase the resilience of high mountainecosystems (Glaciers, High Andean Forests and Páramos) in a context ofclimate change and climate vulnerability? d) How can we best prepare social actors for managing resilience andproactively adapt to global change and climate vulnerability in high mountainecosystems? e) How can we best influence public policies that focus on implementingenvironmental management processes?
STUDY AREARIO BLANCO WATERSHED Belongs to the Chingaza Massif (2nd largest Paramo in Colombia, and the Chingaza National Park. It is located 70 km from Bogota, covering an area of 40.528 ha (30% of the Massif). Provides water to a population of 8 million. It is used by the Water and Sewage Company in Bogotá. Population: 15.000 inhabitants. 1 National Park; 3 Regional Environmental Authorities; 3 municipalities, 1Department.
Projected Climate trends in the area 4.500.000 4.000.000 Average rainfall decrease for the period 3.500.000 2071-2100 between 10 and 30%, for both A2 and B2 scenarios. 3.000.000 2.500.000 2.000.000 Escenario A2 1.500.000 Escenario B2 Temperature increase: 2-4° for the period 2071–2100 in both CC scenarios. 1.000.000 500.000 0 Más lluvioso a lo Similar a lo actual Seco en Muy seco en actual comparación a lo comparación a lo actual actual +10 - +30 -10 - +10 -30 - -10 < -30Rainfall 2071–2100 3.500.000 3.000.000 2.500.000 2.000.000 Escenario A2 1.500.000 Escenario B2 1.000.000 500.000 0 Ligeramente más calido Más calido que lo Muy calido que lo que lo actual actual actual 0-2 2-4 >4 Temperature 2071–2100
How can we build resilience?1. Vulnerability Assessment Models: Territorial Sensibility Threats Slope Land Cover Change Climate Change Climatic disruptions Landslides Fragmentation Index Increase in the Ecological Integrity agricultural frontier Index. Mining Infrastructure
Land Use Change map 1950- 2010 Tipo cambio Área (ha) %Pérdida bosques 2.512 27Pérdida espacios naturales naturales 2.554 27Ganancia bosques 2.696 28Ganancia espacios naturales 900 10Estable 799 8 Total cambios 9.461 100
Land Cover ThreatsIncrease of Agricultural Mass Frontier Movements
Integrated Vulnerability Assessment of Río Blanco Watershed
2. Participative Analysis of Securities and ecosystem services: water, food, territory. REGULATING PROVISIONING SUPPORTING -Food -Water regulation. -Medicines-C02 fixation: -Fuel70% soil and -Erosion control. -Wood and Fiber30% biomass. -Freshwater -Quantity and Quality of-Soil formation Water. CULTURAL-Biodiversity -Natural Risks Reduction. Aesthetic-Nutrient Cycle -Water holding capacity. Religious. -Groundwater recharge. Recreation and tourism. Cultural Heritage3. Surveys with key stakeholders at farm level:interviews and local visits.
4. Participative Ecological Restoration, as an Adaptation Measure toaddress climate change impacts. Economic Aspects Social Aspects Ecological Aspects Ecosystem Services Improve living Conditions Ecosystem Structure Community participation to and Function Selection of sites for implement restoration restoration, to guarantee actions. Selection of priority provision of water and Restoration agreements . species for propagation. water regulation. Reduction of ecological stressors. Ecological and Social Resilience
a. Definition of the Ecological Adaptive Structure- EETAA geographical network of spaces that support essentialecological processes necessary to guide adaptationbeyond biodiversity conservation and towards themaintenance of ecosystem structure and functioning andmain ecosystem services.Main Objective: Maintenance, recovery and regulationof water resources and connect people with theirterritory. a) Land use recommendations in the framework ofecosystem functioning thresholds;b) Key elements to promote natural connectivity,including ecological restoration. c) Information gaps that need to be addressed tocontribute to ecosystem resilience.d) Promotion of social organization mechanisms.e) Proposed compensatory mechanisms.
Ecological Adaptive Structure- EETA Areas which have to be Conservation protected, rich in biodiversity and contribute Riversides, Wetlands maintaining hydrological regulation. and CatchmentsRiversides : 7-30m;Catchment areas:10-100m. Secondary forests; Natural regeneration. Transition and Land use changes: Productive grazing to agroforestry systems Areas
b. Building an Ecological Restoration Plan. Catchment areas, wetlands and riversides. Geodynamic process: landslides, severe erosion. Land use conflicts/ land degradation. Forest fires. Degraded land of PNN Chingaza and Forest Reserve of Río Blanco and Negro. Potential area to be restored: 48%
c. Promoting Participative Ecological Restoration Actions- Community participation. Development of “Adaptive land use Plans”, at local level for the management of “globalcommons”: local agreements for building ecological and social resilience, including activitiessuch as watershed management, land restoration, farm planning, ecological monitoring andsocial networking; Identification and implementation of restoration actions which require collective work “mingas”.
- Selection of sites for the implementation of ecological restoration actions inpriority areas: Current land cover/land use and soil status. Water quantity/quality, and current use. Stakeholders and communities depending on water services.
- Community Agreements for Ecological Restoration. Agreements for the definition of restoration areas. Signature of Commitment Acts for the implementation of Restoration Actions. Delivery of inputs for the implementation of actions.
- Propagation of plant species for restoration in priority areas. Identification of species: pioneer species; early growing species; and others that help natural succession, including those identified by local knowledge. Collection, propagation and maintenance of the species. Advice to communities in local villages. Construction of satellite greenhouses and an experimental center to promote participatory research, capacity building and training of local communities and research.
- Reduction of tensors and planting native species in selected areas. Implementation of isolation actions. Communitarian actions for planting. Building drinking places and establishment of pastures for livestock outside isolated areas. ALTURA PROPIETARIO SITIO PREDIO COORDENADAS DESCRIPCIÓN EVALUACIÓN FINAL (msnm) Se realizó el aislamiento, se sembraron los Lat. 04° 39’ 04.3” N Sin vegetación arbórea. Abastece de agua a varias José Ever Cifuentes R La Esperanza 2.536 árboles y se instaló el bebedero. Se utilizaron Lon. 073° 52’ 46.0” W familias de la vereda de La Jangada. todos los insumos entregados.
Ejemplo de los sitios caracterizados en la vereda Chatasugá, para la implementación del proceso derestauración ecológica. Pedro Ángel Sitio de ronda hídrica, en la Barreto quebrada La Carbonera, desprovisto de vegetación arbórea circundante. Se acuerda con el propietario un aislamiento de 100 metros de perímetro para la protección de este sitio. Pedro Ángel Nacedero desprovisto de Barreto vegetación arbórea circundante, con suelo expuesto; conecta con parche de vegetación relictual. Se acuerda con el propietario un aislamiento de 43 metros de perímetro para la protección de este sitio. Mercedes Nacedero desprovisto de Pulido vegetación arbórea circundante e invadido por pastos y especies herbáceas. Se acuerda con el propietario un aislamiento de 20 metros de perímetro para la protección de este sitio.
Example of Restoration at Farm Level. Alternatives to Grazing Systems: Confined cattle Multispecies fences Sylvopastoral systems Improved pastures Forage Banks
Results1. Restoration actions implemented in 9 local communities, restoration agreements signed (6.440 planted trees, of 50 native species).2. 204 ecological restoration process implemented.3. Silvopastoral and agroforestry systems established in 121 farms.4. 8 homegardens in different localities, to promote propagation of native species and production of organic fertilizer.5. 1 main center for propagation, producing high quality plants for distribution among local communities.6. Capacity building of local communities: restoration, agro forestry systems, efficient use of water. (Benefiting 800 families).7. 2 Land Use plans including restoration in order to reduce territorial vulnerability.8. 9 adaptive land use plans at local level for the management of “global commons”.9. Restoration actions included in education processes and cultural activities.10. C/B analysis, indicating the avoided cost in water services, after 7 years of implementing restoration in catchment areas. (2.000US/catchment site/yr).
Lessons Learned Building resilience during Restoration An integrated vulnerability assessment is the first step to address the impacts of climate change through restoration. Vulnerability increases with non sustainable management practices. Restoration of ecosystem services is an ecosystem based adaptation (EbA) measure to climate change and build resilience. EbA through restoration is a learning by doing process. Restoration is a matter of social and economic development. The success of pilot adaptation projects using restoration, is a learning by doing process and depends on the participation of local communities and the recognition of traditional knowledge. Valuation of restoration has to be improved, including social, ecological and cultural costs. Impact on public policies and planning is relevant (land use/farm). Institutions have to be strengthened and adapted in order to improve resilience.
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