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Workshop 1

    EOK
October 2010
 Ida Borch
Workshop?
• I work
• You shop (or listen)
• No supervision

• The aim: To prepare you for the synopsis,
  speech contest a...
Today’s literature
• Gabrielsen & Christiansen: The power of
  speech
  – Analysis: The rhetorical situation
  – Argument:...
Today’s literature
                          Did you notice the alliteration
                              and the list of...
Knowledge of The Rhetorical Situation


• Takes you from mere use of intuition to
  strategic competence

• Makes you a mo...
When is a situation rhetorical?
• A situation is rhetorical once responding to it
  makes it possible to alter reality

• ...
When you speak, you steal time

• The time equation: You’re 100 students
  listening for 90 minutes = 150 man-hours
  spen...
Dymamics between the speech and
           the situation

• Speech and situation influence each other:
  The situation det...
Speech/Context
• There is a complex relationship between the
  speech and the context:

• Ex: “Mission accomplished”-speec...
Context awareness
Lloyd F Bitzer: The Rhetorical Situation
• Exigence: An imperfection marked by urgency

• Audience: Those that are actuall...
The situational factors in the context
•   The subject
•   The place
•   The time
•   The audience
•   The speaker
Danish version of Ciceros Pentagram
My understanding
                         Speaker


Constraints
                                     Topic




           ...
Gabrielsen & Christiansen
                    Speaker

Circumstances

                        The rhetorical
             ...
The Rhetorical Problem
• A kind of Bitzerian exigence

• A rhetorical problem is a problem that can be
  altered by the us...
Ex. Pro euthanasia
• Dignify-focus: Potential undignified death when
  unable to end it by own hand
• Law-focus: Law in Ne...
The Purpose
• What do you wish to achieve?
  –   Reflection?
  –   Understanding?
  –   Consensus?
  –   Commitment?
  –  ...
The Audience



Mediators of
                          Everybody present
  change
The Audience
• Address the entire audience, but be aware
  that probably only a part of it consist of real
  mediators of ...
Speaker
• You must know your own ’ethos’ in the
  situation (we’ll get back on that one next
  time)
• You must be consist...
Circumstances
• Physical circumstances:
  – Are we at Speakers Corner in Hyde Park or at Den
    Sorte Diamant?
  – Mike o...
Circumstances
• Temporal circumstances:
  – Is it May 1st or any ordinary day?
  – Are you 1st or last speaker – or in bet...
Recapitulation:
  What, why, who, where

                   Speaker



Circumstances                    The rhetorical
   ...
A situation analysis
• Steve Jobs is preparing his presentation of the
  iPhone G4 – on the same kind of stage as the
  ap...
Steve Jobs presenting iPhone G4
                                                       What is his
                       ...
Is this a fitting response?




 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yoqh27E6OuU
The noble art of argumentation


                     This doesn’t work ‘cause the
                     technicians are us...
The noble art of argumentation


                     This doesn’t work, cause the
                     product generally ...
The noble art of argumentation

                     This doesn’t work, cause there
                     are 570 wi-fi Bas...
Make the right choice
• Identification: Find the claim and proofs that
  will support your position
• Selection: Select th...
Toulmin model of argumentation

      Proof                           Claim



              Warrant         Qualifier


 ...
Socrates is mortal
       Socrates is a human being
                        All men are mortal
Socrates is wildly mortal!
           Socrates is a human being
                            All men are mortal
Socrates is wildly mortal!
                 Socrates is a human being
                                   All men are morta...
Socrates is wildly mortal!
                 Socrates is a human being
                                  All men are mortal...
Socrates is wildly mortal!
                 Socrates is a human being
                                  All men are mortal...
Toulmins argumentmodel
•   Claim
•   Proof         Proof                      Claim

•   Warrant
                         ...
Prospect AIESEC members in the
            model
   It is good for                           You should
    your career   ...
Prospect AIESEC members in the
            model
We’re getting drunk                           You should
 every weekend  ...
Important rule in argumentation

•Logic is not always the
 most logical thing to use
 in practical argumentation
Topics – or how to find proof
• Topics (sing: topos, plur: topoi, da: topik) is
  derived from Greek: Topos = place.
• Top...
Topoi-list
Thematic Topoi   Oppositional Topoi           Topoi of Evidence
Money apect      The individual vs. society   I...
Environment:
                                                      It’s good for the
                          Money:     ...
Be selective
• All the bubbles represent my views upon the
  matter – will they all help me get the message
  through?
• N...
Organizing the speech

    Disposition       Stating the       Argumentation
                         facts

             ...
Christiansen & Gabrielsen
• Intro
• Proof 1
• Proof 2
  – Example
• Refutation
• Conclusion

• + metacommunication
Introduction
• Aim: Catch the audience’s interest

• Captatio benevolentia = captivate goodwill

• Many different strategi...
Intro-tips
•   Rhetorical questions
•   Idioms (beware of potential clichés)
•   Quotations from sponsoring ethos's
•   Te...
Proof
• Use practical argumentation: Claim, proof and
  potentially outspoken warrant.

• Find the spot on right claims fo...
Rebuttal
• Reminding the audience that you do pay
  attention to the opposite side of the point
   – good for both mediato...
Conclusion
• Due to the premises of orality the audience
  cannot remember every word you’ve stated

• Never underestimate...
Tips
• Let the fish bite its tale
• Repeat the main points
• Refer to the example
• Future scenario if/if not
• A rhetoric...
How to get about it
Let’s check your memory


• Can you remember what I’ve told you during the last
  two lessons?



• (Had this been a ‘real...
Summing up
• Prior to making a speech:
  – Analyze the rhetorical situation
  – Argument: FOCUS – and find the right proof...
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The rhetorical situation, argumentation and arrangement

2 lessons on oral communication for students at CBS in Copenhagen studying English and Organisational Communication, 1. term.

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The rhetorical situation, argumentation and arrangement

  1. 1. Workshop 1 EOK October 2010 Ida Borch
  2. 2. Workshop? • I work • You shop (or listen) • No supervision • The aim: To prepare you for the synopsis, speech contest and for the exam
  3. 3. Today’s literature • Gabrielsen & Christiansen: The power of speech – Analysis: The rhetorical situation – Argument: Practical argumentation – Arrangement: Organisation • In a few weeks: Ethos & Elocutio
  4. 4. Today’s literature Did you notice the alliteration and the list of three? • Gabrielsen & Christiansen: Oral Always a winner in oral communication – good for both Communication speaker’s and audience’s – Analysis: The rhetorical situation memory – Argument: Practical argumentation – Arrangement: Organisation • In a few weeks: Ethos & Elocutio
  5. 5. Knowledge of The Rhetorical Situation • Takes you from mere use of intuition to strategic competence • Makes you a more confident (persuasive) speaker
  6. 6. When is a situation rhetorical? • A situation is rhetorical once responding to it makes it possible to alter reality • A situation is not rhetorical when the audience has no choice • In the military and in totalitarian states rhetorical situations rarely occur. Whereas democracy has vast amounts
  7. 7. When you speak, you steal time • The time equation: You’re 100 students listening for 90 minutes = 150 man-hours spend on my lecture. That’s 4 weeks work in total. • So you better give something worthwhile back in return when you speak
  8. 8. Dymamics between the speech and the situation • Speech and situation influence each other: The situation determines what can be said; the speech affects how the situation is understood • It’s yet another case of the egg and the hen
  9. 9. Speech/Context • There is a complex relationship between the speech and the context: • Ex: “Mission accomplished”-speech – Was the war won – or did Bush make the Americans (perceive themselves as) winners due to the speech? • You do not just adapt to – you shape the situation with your choice of words
  10. 10. Context awareness
  11. 11. Lloyd F Bitzer: The Rhetorical Situation • Exigence: An imperfection marked by urgency • Audience: Those that are actually able to be moved from one point to another (mediators of change) • Constraints: The physical and psychological opportunities and limitations in the situation • = Fitting response (did the speaker achieve what he wanted?) • http://web.missouri.edu/~ricejr/Fall08/bitzer.pdf
  12. 12. The situational factors in the context • The subject • The place • The time • The audience • The speaker
  13. 13. Danish version of Ciceros Pentagram
  14. 14. My understanding Speaker Constraints Topic Choice of words + style Audience
  15. 15. Gabrielsen & Christiansen Speaker Circumstances The rhetorical problem The purpose Audience
  16. 16. The Rhetorical Problem • A kind of Bitzerian exigence • A rhetorical problem is a problem that can be altered by the use of speech • Important: Find the spot on right focus – for yourself, the audience and the situation
  17. 17. Ex. Pro euthanasia • Dignify-focus: Potential undignified death when unable to end it by own hand • Law-focus: Law in Netherlands allow – Law in DK prohibits • Autonomy-focus: Is life (and death) a personal matter or a matter of the state? • Method-focus: Is it done in humane ways? • Etc • DECIDE FOR ONE – and follow it all the way through (we’ll get back to later why...)
  18. 18. The Purpose • What do you wish to achieve? – Reflection? – Understanding? – Consensus? – Commitment? – Change of attitude? – Behaviour? • Rhetorical persuasion is not necessarily about making people act. It could be that mere reflection is adequate.
  19. 19. The Audience Mediators of Everybody present change
  20. 20. The Audience • Address the entire audience, but be aware that probably only a part of it consist of real mediators of change – People who will ‘act’ in accordance to your specific purpose • Ex: I’m not mediator of change in an audience listening to a speech pro death penalty
  21. 21. Speaker • You must know your own ’ethos’ in the situation (we’ll get back on that one next time) • You must be consistent and respectful of the relation to the audience • You must make sure they know your motives for speaking (up).
  22. 22. Circumstances • Physical circumstances: – Are we at Speakers Corner in Hyde Park or at Den Sorte Diamant? – Mike or no mike? – Av or no av? – Rostrum or plain floor? – Indoor or outdoor? – Come rain or come shine?
  23. 23. Circumstances • Temporal circumstances: – Is it May 1st or any ordinary day? – Are you 1st or last speaker – or in between? – Did something occur that altered the situation (ex. Speaking on Sept 12th 2001 called for addressing the Twin Towers no matter which context ) – Will people be on time or drop in/out – etc • (We will pay close attention to your analysis of the circumstances in you examination speeches)
  24. 24. Recapitulation: What, why, who, where Speaker Circumstances The rhetorical problem Audience The purpose
  25. 25. A situation analysis • Steve Jobs is preparing his presentation of the iPhone G4 – on the same kind of stage as the app-video you saw in September. • 2 X 2: Go through the various parts of the situation, and decide what you would recommend him to do in order to deliver a fitting response
  26. 26. Steve Jobs presenting iPhone G4 What is his exigence; the reason for Speaker speaking? Circumstances The rhetorical problem Audience What does he The purpose want the audience to do?
  27. 27. Is this a fitting response? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yoqh27E6OuU
  28. 28. The noble art of argumentation This doesn’t work ‘cause the technicians are useless
  29. 29. The noble art of argumentation This doesn’t work, cause the product generally sucks
  30. 30. The noble art of argumentation This doesn’t work, cause there are 570 wi-fi Base Stations operating in this room
  31. 31. Make the right choice • Identification: Find the claim and proofs that will support your position • Selection: Select the ones that will be persuasive • Substantiation: Make sure that you can substantiate your claim. Or else it’s just a mere utterance
  32. 32. Toulmin model of argumentation Proof Claim Warrant Qualifier Backing Reservation
  33. 33. Socrates is mortal Socrates is a human being All men are mortal
  34. 34. Socrates is wildly mortal! Socrates is a human being All men are mortal
  35. 35. Socrates is wildly mortal! Socrates is a human being All men are mortal Even though Plato immortalized him through his Reservation dialogues
  36. 36. Socrates is wildly mortal! Socrates is a human being All men are mortal Even though Plato immortalized him through his At the end of the dialogues day, it’s a Backing biological fact
  37. 37. Socrates is wildly mortal! Socrates is a human being All men are mortal Even though Plato immortalized him through his At the end of the dialogues day, it’s a biological fact
  38. 38. Toulmins argumentmodel • Claim • Proof Proof Claim • Warrant Warrant Qualifier • Qualifier • Reservation Backing Reservation • Backing
  39. 39. Prospect AIESEC members in the model It is good for You should your career join AIESEC One should always make career moves Perhaps It’s highly recommended by Unless you’re way the SDU board behind schedule with your studies
  40. 40. Prospect AIESEC members in the model We’re getting drunk You should every weekend join AIESEC Having fun is a human right Totally And social networking Unless you’re way benefits relations behind schedule with your studies
  41. 41. Important rule in argumentation •Logic is not always the most logical thing to use in practical argumentation
  42. 42. Topics – or how to find proof • Topics (sing: topos, plur: topoi, da: topik) is derived from Greek: Topos = place. • Topical thinking helps you pinpoint the suitable angles, views or perspectives
  43. 43. Topoi-list Thematic Topoi Oppositional Topoi Topoi of Evidence Money apect The individual vs. society Investigations Environment Change vs. tradition Experience Helath Quality vs. Quantity General assumptions Work Well-being Time
  44. 44. Environment: It’s good for the Money: global environment It’s for free that you can connect Change vs. tradition: only by using a bit of Many elderly people Well-being: electricity General can access it – it’s Laughing at assumption: easy though it’s new updates is Social activities are tech healthy always fun Quality vs. Quantity Health: Why Facebook is The concept of You don’t get at awesome ’friends’ is enlarged cold from it Work: Investigation: Good for 500 mio people can’t personal be wrong branding Time: Individual vs. society: Experience: From Know-how to No need for Working as single- travelling Know-who is consultant would supported by FB be tough without
  45. 45. Be selective • All the bubbles represent my views upon the matter – will they all help me get the message through? • Not! Select the right ones for the rhetorical situation, and make ONE overall claim supported by various sub-proofs.
  46. 46. Organizing the speech Disposition Stating the Argumentation facts Finale Intro 1 2 3 4 5
  47. 47. Christiansen & Gabrielsen • Intro • Proof 1 • Proof 2 – Example • Refutation • Conclusion • + metacommunication
  48. 48. Introduction • Aim: Catch the audience’s interest • Captatio benevolentia = captivate goodwill • Many different strategies – two basic types – Beat around the bush – Wham-bam • Establishes/confirms initial ethos (more on that next time)
  49. 49. Intro-tips • Rhetorical questions • Idioms (beware of potential clichés) • Quotations from sponsoring ethos's • Tell a joke (beware of shared humour) • Anecdote • Local connection to the audience/place • If a long speech, remember stating the disposition - partitio
  50. 50. Proof • Use practical argumentation: Claim, proof and potentially outspoken warrant. • Find the spot on right claims for the situation and exemplify with analogies, concrete details or the like • Kock et al: Retorik der flytter stemmer: ONE overall claim followed by a number of subordinate data is better than numerous claims.
  51. 51. Rebuttal • Reminding the audience that you do pay attention to the opposite side of the point – good for both mediators of change and for hostile listeners • Is counter-argumentation: You show audience that you are aware there is a different opinion BUT that this opinion is after all not worthwhile • Sow doubt! (don’t remind them of a better argument than yours)
  52. 52. Conclusion • Due to the premises of orality the audience cannot remember every word you’ve stated • Never underestimate the importance of – Summing up the most important issues (what was it now the woman said?) – Reminding the audience that we are getting close to the end (how else would they know?)
  53. 53. Tips • Let the fish bite its tale • Repeat the main points • Refer to the example • Future scenario if/if not • A rhetorical question • Be concise, precise and eloquent – cause this is what they remember clearly afterwards • (if spontaneous clapping, you’ve done the job right. If not...)
  54. 54. How to get about it
  55. 55. Let’s check your memory • Can you remember what I’ve told you during the last two lessons? • (Had this been a ‘real’ rhetorical situation, your memorizing what I said was my – not your – responsibility. I would be to blame if you didn’t get the crucial points)
  56. 56. Summing up • Prior to making a speech: – Analyze the rhetorical situation – Argument: FOCUS – and find the right proof to support your claims – Arrange: Give the speech the right shape • Next time: – Analyze your own ethos in the situation – Use the right words for a fitting response

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