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Classroom action research. added

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IDA BAGUS NYOMAN MANTRA
bagusmantra@hotmail.com

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Classroom action research. added

  1. 1. CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH: A PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Prepared by Ida Bagus Nyoman Mantra, SH., S.Pd., M.Pd Yayasan Karma Budaya Bali karmabudaya@yahoo.com 1. Introduction Classroom action research (CAR) begins with a question or questions about classroom experiences, issues, or challenges. It is a reflective process which helps teachers to explore and examine aspects of teaching and learning and to take action to change and improve. Classroom action research is used as one way to improve the quality of teaching and learning. This is due to the fact that CAR is developed primary because of the problems faced by the teacher in the classroom during teaching and learning activities. It is very critical that more teachers understand the importance of CAR and use this type of research as a tool to improve their teaching ability. CAR has a tendency to give direct impact on the better teaching process and the development of teachers’ professionalism in managing the class. In other words, through CAR, teacher and educator gain “theory” which he builds himself, not by others “or given” by other people – therefore the teacher becomes a implementer of a theory he builds himself.. To achieve the objective of classroom action research, it is conducted in cyclical process which consists of four phases, such as Planning, Action, Observation and Reflection. Figure 1: Phases of classroom action research All the above phases of CAR is considered as one cycle of CAR which is started from Planning, then followed by action, then observation and reflection. After conducting reflection which includes analysis of the result of the observation process, and the result of the action, usually problems occurred which need to be solved, therefore revised planning, action, observation and reflection are needed. This revised cycle phases is repeatedly conducted until the problem is appropriately solved. The four phases of CAR can be shown in figure 2 below. 1 Planning  Action  Observation  Reflection
  2. 2. Cycle I Planning →Action → Observation →Reflection Cycle II Revised → Action→ Observation → Reflection planning Figure 2. The process of each cycle in classroom action research. As Shown in the cycle of CAR in figure 2 above, a classroom action research can be conducted in four phases as shown in spiral activity. The cycle of CAR is started from planning, action, observation and evaluation, and reflection and continuously conducted until the problem is solved and there is as significant improvement of students’ achievement. Based on the above explanation, it can be said that CAR is a bottom-up and realistic solution and started from problem diagnoses and completed by doing a real improvement and action to solve the problem. Some importance points of classroom action research: 1. CAR is an approach to improve the quality of education through making changes and teaching-learning as a consequence of the change occurred. 2. CAR is participatory, which involves someone who is doing actions to improve his own practice. 3. CAR is developed through a spiral of cycles of planning, acting, observing, reflecting then revised planning. 4. CAR is collaborative, which involves participants in understanding and doing the action. 5. CAR develops self awareness of all participants in CAR. 6. CAR is a systematic process of learning. In this process, the researcher makes use of critical intelligence to create commitment to carry out an action.. 7. CAR develops the teacher’s ability to build a theory about his practice. 8. CAR give us possibility to give reasonable justification to teacher’s teaching activity and develop critical thinking in analyzing problems (McTaggart, 1997 : p16-17). 2. Characteristics of Classroom Action Research A very specific characteristic of CAR is that it is conducted in the classroom, that the focus of the study is the interaction between the researcher and the participants, and the researcher is involved as much as possible in the process and 2
  3. 3. experience of the participants. An essential part of action research as well as CAR is the collaboration with the research participants in each stage of the research project, including identifying research questions, developing data collection procedures, analyzing the information and sharing the results. Classroom action research has three main characteristics: 1) reflective inquiry, 2) collaborative and 3) reflective. 1) Reflective Inquiry. A Classroom action research starts from problems faced by the teacher during teaching-learning process in classroom. The purpose of classroom action research is to improve the quality of teaching and learning processes, therefore it focuses on solving a specific and contextual problem. CAR is not intended to find out a new knowledge which can be generalized to population of the research, that is why CAR is not similar to any other study (Raka Joni, 1998). CAR adopted ‘loose’ methodology. It means that it does not focus on the validation of the instrument; however, this research maintains methodlogy in collecting data which conducted objectively. The process and data finding of CAR is well-documented to allow possibility of peer review. The data is gathered through observation, evaluation and reflection (McNiff, 1992:9). Car can be said as self-reflective inquiry. In A Classroom action research, a teacher is committed to change himself, the way to think, the way to teach based on what he has been found from conducting a CAR in his classroom/school.. In other words, based on the teacher’s self-constructed knowledge which learned from CAR, The teacher will systematically learn to figure out alternative solution to the problem he faced in carrying out his job as a teacher. Moreover, McNiff (1992: 9) suggests that though CAR, a teacher will get used to facing problem and challenges in doing his duty as a teacher, consequently, the quality of teaching-learning process will be improved. The teacher/s involvement and commitment to change and create improvement is considered as change and improvement in a way of thinking of the educator. Therefore, CAR can be said as a way to figure out a real technique to implement an appropriate teachin-learning process. 2) Collaborative. CAR is conducted collaboratively with all parties to set up required improvement. Therefore, These collaborative characteristics should be consistently maintained, starting from problem identification, situation 3
  4. 4. diagnose, action planning, reflection and data collection and data analysis as well report writing. 3) Reflektive. CAR has a special characteristic that is a reflective characteristic. It is different from other studies which emphases on experimental approach. CAR emphases more on reflection of the process and the result of the study is used to improvement and solution towards the problem faced by the teacher and as a source to face the new challenge and problem in teaching-learning process. Action Research implies a long term commitment to interact with the research participants. So the idea of just working with a group or going into a classroom, collecting data on learning is not consistent with the ideal of action research. Action research as well as CAR is a straight forward practical approach to tackling issues of substance (Kember, 2000). The following four conditions are necessary: 1. It should be a form of strategic action susceptible to improvement 2. It should proceed through a spiral of circles: planning, actions, observing and reflecting which are all interrelated. 3. It includes other parties. 4. It maintains collaboration in the context of research. 3. Principles of Classroom Action Research According to Hopkins (1993: 57-61), principles of classroom action research, those are; 1. The teacher's primary role is to teach and any research project must not interfere with or disrupt this commitment. The teacher’s duty is to carry out an excellent quality of learning –teaching process. The teacher should be committed to the continuous improvement of the quality of the learning process which he carries out in everyday teaching activities. Because the teacher’s main job is teaching, and the focus of classroom action research is to maintain the quality of learning process, therefore the activity of classroom action research will not be destructive to the classroom activity. It will give a better classroom activity. Even the activity will be more meaningful and more intensive, in term of the students’ active involvement and creativity. In conducting classroom action research, there will be a possibility of the failure of the chosen activity, therefore as a teacher, he should always make an effort to figure out an alternative and appropriate solution or activity to solve the problem he faced in his classroom. The implication of this principle is to give 4
  5. 5. chances to the teacher to figure out a continuous solution to the problem until the problem is really solved. 2. The method of data collection should not be too demanding on the teacher's time. In conducting classroom action research, the teacher does not need a special time allocation for the study; it becomes integrative part of the teaching and leaning process. The stages of classroom study are equal to the stages of the usual learning process, consisted of planning, action, observation and reflection. The procedure of data collection can be gathered while he is actively teaching. All process of learning and the result of the students’ achievement are recorded and reported systematically, logically and objectively. 3. The methodology used must be reliable enough to allow teachers to formulate hypotheses confidently and develop strategies applicable to the classroom situation. This study which is integrated to teaching-learning process should be conducted based on scientific approach. It should make use of reliable research methodology, starting from problem identification, selecting actions which are going to be taken, formulating appropriate hypothesis, preparing teaching scenarios and determining the procedures of data collection and data analysis. The reliability of the process and data collection should be determined and maintained. 4. The teacher should be committed to the research problem under study. The problem which will be solved through CAR should be a real problem faced by the teacher and it needs immediate solution in order that the learning process becomes successful. The solution becomes a priority of CAR, therefore the problem being diagnosed should have a real impact towards the success of teaching-leaning. The problem should not be mainly based on literature based analysis, because the authenticity of the problem will not be reliable since it is not based on reality. 5. Teachers must follow ethical procedures when carrying out research. The teacher should be consistent in carrying out the ethical procedures of classroom action study as well maintaining the quality of learning and teaching. It means that the teacher should be genuinely interested in maintaining the procedure and the ethics of teaching. This is very important so that the teaching-learning process is conducted seriously. All components of the institution including the school principle should know and understand the process of classroom action research. Classroom action research where possible should adopt a perspective where all members of a school community build and share a common vision 6. The scope of the problem to be solved through CAR is mainly based on the problems of teaching-learning which occur in classroom activity, however it can 5
  6. 6. be external problems which might occur outside the classroom providing it has relation to the improvement of the quality of learning. 3. The Objectives of Classroom Action Research Based on the above explanation, it can be stated that CAR is conducted to the improvement of the quality of learning-teaching, which is carried out continuously in line with the teacher’ professional mission in the educational field. Though the development of modern technology, qualified human resources are really needed to face the globalization era. This is due to the fact that the development of science and technology is started at school; consequently, teachers are required to be competent in teaching. Therefore Classroom action research is introduced to improve the quality of teachers in teaching. CAR is one of strategic way to improve the teachers’ quality in teaching. It gives the teachers’ ability to solve the problems they face and then it will help the capability to achieve the school education objectives in a whole. Moreover, McNiff (1992) explains that the main objective of classroom action research is to improve the quality of learning and the success of the implementation of school programs in general. To achieve the above objectives, a teacher should evaluate several alternative solutions then taken into action. The alternative solutions to the problems should be previously tried out and the effectiveness of the solution should be continuously evaluated. This process should be conducted in cycle until the problem faced by the teacher is really solved. The phases of CAR conducted by the teacher also gives impact to the other teachers in doing their duty as educators. It is a good process of professional development. Since CAR is internally driven scientific study, therefore it helps the teacher to develop their teaching ability and the capability to tackle various learning problems. In addition to the above statement, Borg (1986) explicitly explains that the objectives of conducting CAR is to develop the teacher’ skill in solving and tackling the problem he faces in a real teaching – learning process in the classroom without doing explicit training. CAR is a real excellent study conducted by the teachers since this study develop the teacher’s problem solving skill. There are three reasons why CAR should be conducted by the teacher, such as; (a) Self driven study to carry out the whole phases of CAR, (b) the process of the study is conducted in a real classroom setting, therefore it is not artificial, and (c) if this study is properly conducted, there will be a complete support from all components of the school. If the improvement of the quality of education can be achieved, the benefits of this research will give a significant effect to teacher or the researcher and also to all 6
  7. 7. other teachers in the school. Then, the teachers will be more motivated to carry our further and deeper study to improve their skill in teaching. If this study is continuously conducted, the teacher’ competence and their professionalism will improve consistently. The impact of it will be a higher quality of education that can be delivered to the students and the students will be well-prepared to face various challenges in their life in this globalization era. Considering, the important of CAR, therefore, it is suggested that all teachers should have sufficient ability to conduct a classroom action study. 4. Advantages of Classroom Action Research Based on the above explanation that CAR has significant benefits to the improvement of teachers in teaching and the improvement of education quality, we will briefly discuss the significant benefits of CAR. Conducting CAR as integrated part of the teaching-learning processes, it develops the teacher’s ability in conducting scientific study and developing their skill in solving the classroom problems. It also develop the teachers self confidence in teaching and willingness to give the best education to their students. The teacher will be independent in solving any problems he faced in the classroom. The teachers self confidence will improve, because the theory and the solutions he used to solve the problem, he built himself through his own experience. Conducting CAR also will help the improvement of teaching curriculum. In this case, CAR is also used to develop the teaching curriculum. The result of CAR can be used as guidance to develop to strategic and useful teaching curriculum. This is due to the fact that the development and the improvement of school curriculum should be constantly taken into consideration. Moreover, Elliot (1992) explains that the process of curriculum reformation is not neutral theoretically. The process of curriculum reformation is affected by interconnected ideas which are related to education, knowledge, and the process of teaching-learning. CAR can help the teachers gain a deeper understanding through empirically-based activity, and not only based on theoretical understanding. 5. Conclusion Classroom action research is conducted as integrated parts of teaching- learning processes. A teacher as an agent of learning should have the awareness and willingness to conduct classroom action study to improve the quality of the teaching- learning processes. The teacher should have a strong commitment to an excellent quality of teaching-learning, therefore every teacher should have a good ability to 7
  8. 8. carry out classroom action study so that the quality of teaching-learning can be improved continuously. By doing action research a teacher is actually developing him/herself. The research is done in a series of planning, taking an action, doing observation and administering reflection and evaluating the feedback of action. Therefore, a teacher has to explore in his or her knowledge about how to act to solve a classroom problem. In other word, he or she will make a quest to find out the answer. Teachers who have experienced teaching for many years and for many different levels will find it easy to cope with problems in a classroom. They already have equiped themselves with various teaching techniques and methodologies. Therefore, they seem to have confidence in their performance in class, to have answers for questions asked by students, and to master the classroom entirely. However, a novice teacher will have a hard time when he or she is assigned to teach a class which requires him or her to be creative. By conducting classroom action research, a teacher will have more confidence in his performance and he will be well- equipped with various solutions to the problem he faces in class. REFERENCES Abimanyu, Soli, 1998. Penyusunan Proposal PTK. Makalah dalam PCP PTK Proyek PGSM tanggal 18 - 22 Oktober. Abimanyu, Soli, dkk. Penelitian Praktis untuk Perbaikan Pembelajaran. PPGSM (atau PPGSD) Ditjen Dikti, Depdikbud. Jakarta. 1995. Arends, Richard I. 1997. Classroom Instruction and Management. Toronto. Mc. Graw.Hill. Branson, J. dan Miller, D. 1998. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Singaraja. STKIP. Hadisubroto, Trisno, Penelitian Tindakan Berbasis Kelas dan Sekolah. FIP IKIP Surabaya, 1997. Hopkins, David. A Teacher’s Guide to Classroom Research 2nd ed., Open University Press. Philadelphia, 1992. Johnston, M. Action Research in a School University Partnership. AERA. Chicago. IL. 1997. John, Elliot, 1991. Action Research for Educational Change. Philadelphia: Open University Press. Joni, T. Raka. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas beberapa permasalahan, PCP. PPGSM Ditjen Dikti, Bogor. 1998. Kartono, Kartini. 1996. Pengantar Metodologi Riset Sosial. Bandung, Mandar Maju. 8
  9. 9. Kember, D. 2000. Action Learning and Action Research. London: Kogan Page Limited. Marifield, M. et. Al Bridging The Gap Between Campus And The School Through Collaboration In Professional Development School Network In Social Studies And Global Education, AERA. Chicago, IL in 1996. Muhadjhir, Noeng. 1997. Analisis dan Refleksi dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: BP3sd Dirjen Dikti Depdikbud. Natawidjaya, Rochman, 1997. Konsep Dasar Penelitian Tindakan. Bandung: IKIP Bandung. Rambu-Rambu Pemberian Nilai Proposal PTK II. Form B PGSM. Semiawan, Conny R. Konsep Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK). PCP. PPGSM Ditjen Dikti, 1998. Soedarsono, Fx. 1997. Rencana, Desain dan Implementasi, Dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: BP3SD, Dirjen Dikti, Depdikbud. Sugiyanto, dkk. 1998. Studi Tentang Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Untuk Optimalisasi Pemahaman Konsep-Konsep Geografi di SMU. Suyanto, Pedoman Pelaksanaan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK). PPTA Ditjen Dikti. Depdikbud, Yogyakarta, 1996/1997. Suyanto, 1997. Pengenalan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: BP3SD, Dirjen Dikti, Depdikbud. Sumarno, 1997. Pemantauan dan Evaluasi Dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: BP3SD, Dirjen Dikti. Depdikbud. Sumarno, 1997. Pedoman Pelaksanaan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Yogya. Ditjen Dikti. 9
  10. 10. Kember, D. 2000. Action Learning and Action Research. London: Kogan Page Limited. Marifield, M. et. Al Bridging The Gap Between Campus And The School Through Collaboration In Professional Development School Network In Social Studies And Global Education, AERA. Chicago, IL in 1996. Muhadjhir, Noeng. 1997. Analisis dan Refleksi dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: BP3sd Dirjen Dikti Depdikbud. Natawidjaya, Rochman, 1997. Konsep Dasar Penelitian Tindakan. Bandung: IKIP Bandung. Rambu-Rambu Pemberian Nilai Proposal PTK II. Form B PGSM. Semiawan, Conny R. Konsep Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK). PCP. PPGSM Ditjen Dikti, 1998. Soedarsono, Fx. 1997. Rencana, Desain dan Implementasi, Dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: BP3SD, Dirjen Dikti, Depdikbud. Sugiyanto, dkk. 1998. Studi Tentang Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Untuk Optimalisasi Pemahaman Konsep-Konsep Geografi di SMU. Suyanto, Pedoman Pelaksanaan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK). PPTA Ditjen Dikti. Depdikbud, Yogyakarta, 1996/1997. Suyanto, 1997. Pengenalan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: BP3SD, Dirjen Dikti, Depdikbud. Sumarno, 1997. Pemantauan dan Evaluasi Dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Jakarta: BP3SD, Dirjen Dikti. Depdikbud. Sumarno, 1997. Pedoman Pelaksanaan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Yogya. Ditjen Dikti. 9

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