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PDCA(slides)

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Also known as the Deming Cycle, this is a useful tool for improving any work processes, problems and quality issues. It incorporates quality tools such as Fishbone diagram, Checksheet, Pareto Chart, Histogram, Stratification, Control Chart, and Scatter Diagram

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PDCA(slides)

  1. 1. PRACTICAL HANDBOOKPRACTICAL HANDBOOK for Quality Improvement Team Dr Ibrahim Nor 1
  2. 2. COMPETENCY IMPROVEMENT TEAM USING PDCA CYCLEUSING PDCA CYCLE Dr Ibrahim Nor 2
  3. 3. THE PDCA CYCLE PLAN CHECK DO ACTION PDCA Dr Ibrahim Nor 3
  4. 4. SELECT THE THEME From:- • Customer complaints. • Department’s objectives. • The big ‘Q’ • The small ‘q”PLAN Dr Ibrahim Nor 4
  5. 5. PLAN THE SCHEDULE • List all the 8 steps in the PDCA cycle. • Indicate the expected time frame. • Use the milestone chart. PLAN Dr Ibrahim Nor 5
  6. 6. GRASP THE CURRENT STATUS Obtain and review data using checksheet. Study the effects of the problem from various perspectives. Present available data in graphs, and Pareto charts.PLAN Dr Ibrahim Nor 6
  7. 7. SET THE TARGET • Indicate clearly the statement of result to be achieved. • Target must be reasonable and realistic. • Use SMART concept. PLAN Dr Ibrahim Nor 7
  8. 8. ANALYSE THE CAUSE & DETERMINE CORRECTIVE ACTION • Prepare cause and effect diagram. • Prepare hypothesis and verify most probable causes. • Determine corrective action. PLAN Dr Ibrahim Nor 8
  9. 9. IMPLEMENT CORRECTIVE ACTION • Take immediate action by following exactly as planned. • Collect data on results and record any deviations. • Provide adequate training. DO Dr Ibrahim Nor 9
  10. 10. EVALUATE THE RESULT • Check the effect of the corrective action. • Compare results with target • Use paired Pareto Chart. CHECK Dr Ibrahim Nor 10
  11. 11. STANDARDISE THE PROCESS • Document as standard operating procedure (SOP). • Set parameters to monitor and control the successful process. • Ensure appropriate training on the new methods. ACTION Dr Ibrahim Nor 11
  12. 12. QUALITY TOOLS Dr Ibrahim Nor 12
  13. 13. CHECKSHEET • A Checksheet is used to gather relevant data in a simple, standardised format. The use of checksheet makes the collection of data easier and more systematic. Dr Ibrahim Nor 13
  14. 14. CHECKSHEET Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 1 Poor coordination and communication 25 2 No review on test run 22 3 Insufficient information 28 4 Errors in report 39 5 Inaccuracy of report 37 Total 34 17 19 10 12 29 7 13 10 151 Observed by: Frequency: Daily Checksheet on: Generation of Final Report Date: 13TH JAN 09 Location: IKRAM PAVES (Case study) Dr Ibrahim Nor 14
  15. 15. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM • The Cause and Effect diagram helps us to find out all possible causes, to sort them out, and to organise their inter-relationship. Typically, the causes are brainstormed in a free-flowing session. Dr Ibrahim Nor 15
  16. 16. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM MAN METHODMACHINE MATERIAL Lack Manpower Error in Report Generation Lack of training Tight Dateline Time wasted Data entry error Insufficient skill Paper wastage (Cost) Graphics module not on line No reference materials (Guide book) Unable to cater complex reports No proper evaluation of equipment (vendor) Take over of vendor No user requirement No proper planning No review during testing Redundant work Two individuals processing same data Manual to computer format Shipping delay Holiday season No inter dept communication Dr Ibrahim Nor 16
  17. 17. PARETO DIAGRAM • A Pareto diagram is constructed to show the relative importance of different categories in a process. The vital few is separated from the trivial many. This will ensure that focus is made on the what is important. Dr Ibrahim Nor 17
  18. 18. PARETO DIAGRAM Observed by: Frequency: Daily 100151Total 100.014.622No review on test run5 85.416.625Poor communication & coordination 4 68.818.528Insufficient information3 50.324.537Inaccuracy in report2 25.825.839Errors in report1 Cum % %TOTDescription Dr Ibrahim Nor 18
  19. 19. PARETO DIAGRAMPARETO DIAGRAM 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Errors in report Inaccuracyin report Insufficient Information Poor communoation No Review 100% 0 50% 25.8% 75% Dr Ibrahim Nor 19
  20. 20. HISTOGRAM • A histogram is used to summarise the frequency of occurrence of something from a sample of data. The shape of distribution is displayed and descriptive statistics can be calculated. Dr Ibrahim Nor 20
  21. 21. HISTOGRAM 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Dr Ibrahim Nor 21
  22. 22. CONTROL CHART • A control chart has a center line corresponding to the average quality at which the process should perform. An out of control situation and other unnatural patterns can be detected from the chart Dr Ibrahim Nor 22
  23. 23. CONTROL CHART 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 UCL LCL Dr Ibrahim Nor 23
  24. 24. SCATTER DIAGRAM • A scatter diagram is a special type of graph which shows the relationship between two variables. If there is an empirical relationship between the two variables it can be easily seen. Dr Ibrahim Nor 24
  25. 25. SCATTER DIAGRAM 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Dr Ibrahim Nor 25
  26. 26. STRATIFICATION • Stratification is the technique of analysing data by separating it into several groups with similar characteristics. The data must be stratified by group to better understand the differences Dr Ibrahim Nor 26
  27. 27. STRATIFICATION Dr Ibrahim Nor 27

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