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D R . I B R A H I M A L H A R I R I
2 4 - 2 8 A U G U S T 2 0 1 5
L O N D O N
SUCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT FOR
BUSINESS ACHIEVEME...
2
Introducing the Trainer
Dr.Eng.IBRAHIM ALHARIRI
396 YORK WAY - N7 9LW
LONDON.UK
Mob: +447890380000
Email: ithariri@yahoo...
3
 Name?
 Position?
 Experience?
 Expectations
?
Introducing Each Other
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
4
Our Schedule
 –5 Day‐Training Program:
 08:30 – Starting Time
 10:00-10:20 Coffee Break
 12:30 – -12:00 Coffee Break...
5Rules of The Workshop…
 Attendance is a must.
 Participation is required.
 Freedom of speech & expression.
 Mobiles s...
General Information
‫أو‬ ‫أسئلة‬ ‫بتقديم‬ ‫القيام‬ ‫من‬ ‫تتحرج‬ ‫ال‬‫إ‬‫ستفسارات‬.
‫تردد‬ ‫وبدون‬ ‫مفتوح‬ ‫وبفكر‬ ‫وأمان...
Expectations
• To Learn the Managerial Work Process and Skills
• To become a more Productive Manager.
• To develop Effecti...
Agenda
Day One
 Management Process
1- Planning
2- Organizing
3- Staffing & Leading
4-Directing
5- Controlling
 6- Nature...
Agenda
Day Three
 Organizational Behavior
1- Multi Culture
2- Diversity
3- Effective Communication
4- Managing Teams
5- M...
Agenda
Day Five
 Managerial Grid Styles
1- Creativity
2- Innovation
3- Critical Thinking
4- Emotional Intelligence
5- The...
11
FUNCTIONS
OF
MANAGEMENT
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
PLANNING
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
13
Planning
 Deciding in advance :
 What to do
 How to do
 When to do
 Who is going to do it
 Bridges a gap between ...
14
PLANNING
 It is the basic function of management. It deals with
chalking out a future course of action & deciding in
a...
15
ORGANISING
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
16
Organizing
 It is the process of bringing together physical,
financial and human resources and developing
productive r...
17
 Establishing the framework of working:
 How many units or sub-units or departments are needed.
 How many posts or d...
18
 Organizing as a process involves:
Identification of activities.
Classification of grouping of activities.
Assignme...
19
STAFFING
& LEADING
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
20
Staffing
 Recruiting, selecting, appointing the employees,
assigning duties, maintaining cordial relationship
and taki...
21
 It is the function of manning the organization
structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has
assumed greater importan...
22
 Staffing involves:
 Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of
searching, choose the person and giving the ...
23
DIRECTING
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
24
Directing
 Giving direction or instruction to employees to get
the job done.
 Leadership qualities are required.
 Mo...
25
 It is that part of managerial function which actuates
the organizational methods to work efficiently for
achievement ...
26
 Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates
by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing wo...
27
CONTROLLING
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
28
Controlling
 Matching actual performance with the planed goal.
 If problem, tries to find out the reasons of deviatio...
29
CONTROLLING:
 It implies measurement of accomplishment against
the standards and correction of deviation if any to
ens...
30
 Therefore controlling has following steps:
 Establishment of standard performance.
 Measurement of actual performan...
Principles of Leadership
and Management
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
32
Definition of Leadership
 The ability to obtain followers
through Influence.
Proverbs: He who thinks he leads
and has ...
Introduction to Strategic
Management
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
34
Strategic Management
 Strategic management is the study of why some
firms outperform others.
 How to create a competi...
35
Definition of Strategic Management
 Strategic management consists of the analysis,
decisions, and actions an organizat...
36
Definition of Strategic Management
 Analysis
 Strategic goals (vision, mission, strategic objectives)
 Internal and ...
37
Attributes of Strategic Management
 Directs the organization toward overall goals and
objectives.
 Includes multiple ...
38
Mintzberg’s Views of Strategy
 Plan - consciously intended course of action
 Ploy - maneuver to outwit opponent
 Pat...
39
Forms of Strategy
 Formal versus informal - associated with size of firm
and stage of development. Mintzberg’s distinc...
Forms of Strategy
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
41
Strategic Management Process
 Analysis
 Hierarchy of goals
 Analysis of external and internal environments
 Formula...
Coherence in Strategic Direction
 Company vision
 Massively inspiring
 Overarching
 Long-term
 Driven by and evokes
p...
Coherence in Strategic Direction
Mission statements
 Purpose of the
company
 Basis of competition
and competitive
advant...
Coherence in Strategic Direction
Strategic objectives
 Operationalize the
mission statement
 Measurable, specific,
appro...
Levels of Strategy
www.Projacs.com
CEO
Disney
Corporation
Studio
Entertainment
Walt Disney
Pictures
Manager
Operations
Mar...
46
Does Strategic Planning Pay Off?
 Original research showed mixed results. Planning might
not pay off for firms in stat...
Strategic Management
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
48
Strategic Management Defined
The set of managerial decisions and actions that
determines the long-run performance of a ...
49
Benefits of Strategic Management
 Clearer sense of strategic vision
 Sharper focus on what is strategically important...
50
Three Key Strategic Questions
 Where is the organization now?
 If no changes are made, where will the organization
be...
Strategic Management Model
Strategy
Formulation
Strategy
Implementation
Evaluation
and Control
Mission
Objectives
Strategi...
52
Environmental Scanning
Monitoring, evaluating and disseminating information
from the environment to key people within t...
53
Strategy Formulation
The process of developing long-range plans to deal
effectively with environmental opportunities an...
54
Mission
 The purpose or reason for the corporation’s
existence. It tells who the company is, what they do
as well as w...
55
Objectives
 The end results of planned activity. They state
WHAT is to be accomplished by WHEN. They
should be quantif...
56
Strategies
 A strategy is a comprehensive master plan
stating HOW the corporation will achieve its mission
and objecti...
Hierarchy of Strategy
www.Projacs.com
Functional
Strategy
Business
(Division
Level)
Strategy
Corporate
Strategy
Manufactur...
58
Policies
 Broad guidelines for making decisions.
 E.g. - 3M’s policy requiring researchers to spend
15% of their time...
59
Strategy Implementation
 The process of putting strategies and policies into
action through the development of:
 Prog...
60
Evaluation and Control
 The process of monitoring corporate activities
and performance results so that actual performa...
Strategic Decision-Making Process
Review and
Revise as
Necessary:
Mission
 Objectives
Generate
and
Evaluate
Strategic
A...
Leadership Theories.
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
63
Session objectives
 What is leadership?
 Identify the traits and skills of an effective leader
 Key leadership theor...
64
Understanding Leadership
 What is leadership?
 Why is leadership important – why do we need
leaders?
 Leaders – born...
65
Understanding Leadership
 "Leadership is a function of knowing yourself,
having a vision that is well communicated, bu...
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
67
Exercise In pairs
 Discuss examples you have come across of strong
and weak leadership
 You can use examples from emp...
68
Leadership Theory
Early Theories:
 Great Man Theories
 Leaders are exceptional people, born with innate qualities,
de...
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
70
Leadership Traits
Group Exercise:
 Choose leaders YOU admire
 What personality traits and skills do they have?
www.Pr...
71
Traits
 Adaptable to situations
 Alert to social environment
 Ambitious and achievement
orientated
 Assertive
 Coo...
72
Leadership Theory
Functional Theories (John Adair, Action Centred
Leadership, 1970)
Leader is concerned with the intera...
73
Leadership Theory
 Behaviourist Theories (Blake and Mouton,
Managerial grid, 1964)
 Leaders behaviour and actions, ra...
74
Leadership Theory
 Situational/contingency Leadership (Hersey-
Blanchard, 1970/80)
Leadership style changes according ...
75
Competency Low competence Some
competence
High competence High competence
Motivation
Low
commitment/
Unable and
unwilli...
76
New Leadership Theory
Transformational Theory (Bass and Avolio,
1994)
 Leaders inspire individuals, develop trust, and...
77
Leadership Philosophies
Ethical Leadership
 CSR, sustainability, equality, humanitarianism
 Four P’s - Purpose, Peopl...
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
79
Group Exercise
Examine and discuss the Team Leader
Job descriptions
 What are the key responsibilities of the team lea...
80
Key Team Leader Responsibilities
1. Guide/coordinate team members – encourage
teamwork and motivate individuals
2. Prov...
81
Accountability, Responsibility, and Authority
Responsibility Vs Accountability?
What does having authority mean?
www.Pr...
82
Accountability, Responsibility, and Authority
 Accountability the state of being accountable, liable, or
answerable
 ...
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
84
Group Exercise
When have you experienced an issue as a
leader that you did not have the authority to
resolve?
How did y...
85
Team Leader Authority
 Team Leader authority will vary from role to role
dependent on the scope of duties and organisa...
86
Team Leader Authority
Authorities for the following:
 HR (staff recruitment and training, performance
and discipline, ...
87
How to improve your leadership skills
 Reflect and identify the skills YOU need to lead effectively
and create your ac...
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
89
Review your performance as a Leader
1. Assess yourself as a Leader
• Conduct a SWOT analysis - Strengths, Weaknesses, O...
Leadership vs. Management
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
91
Leadership vs. Management
 Leaders and managers are completely different and
mutually exclusive
 Managers are concern...
92
Leadership vs. Management
 Leaders and managers are different roles but don’t
have to be different types of people
 M...
93
Leadership vs. Management
Manager Characteristics
 Administers
 A copy
 Maintains
 Focuses on systems and structure...
94
Direct vs. Indirect Leadership
 Direct leadership
 Leader’s direct influence on immediate subordinates.
 Leader’s di...
95
Difference between a Leader and Manager
Leader
- Provide vision and motivates people;
- Goal-oriented
Manager
- Make su...
96
Difference between a Leader and Manager
 Making sure the work is done by others is the
accomplishment of a MANAGER;
 ...
97
Traits of Leader Manager
 Leader managers are long-term thinkers who see
beyond the day’s crisis and the quarterly rep...
98
Traits of Leader Manager
 They put heavy emphasis on vision, values, and
motivation;
 They have strong political skil...
99
Are leaders born?
Traits of a leading LEADER:
1. Is born with leadership qualities;
2. Has seen leadership modeled
thro...
100
Five levels of Leadership
 Level 1: Position or title; people follow because
they have to (Rights).
 Level 2: Permis...
101
Important factors in leadership
 The key to leadership: Priorities;
 The most important ingredient of
leadership: In...
102
Important factors in leadership
 The quickest way to gain leadership:
Problem solving;
 The extra plus in leadership...
103
Important factors in leadership
 The indispensable quality of
leadership: Vision;
 The price tag of leadership: Self...
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
105
Question for critical thinking
 Do you think managers are the same as leaders? If
not, explain the possible differenc...
Leadership Styles
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
107
Leadership Style
 Coercive:
 Modus operandi: Demands immediate compliance
 The style in a phrase: “Do what I tell y...
108
Leadership Style
 Authoritative:
 Modus operandi: Mobilizes people toward a vision
 The style in a phrase: “Come wi...
109
Leadership Style
 Democratic:
 Modus operandi: Forges consensus through participation
 The style in a phrase: “What...
110
Leadership Style
 Affiliative:
 Modus operandi: Creates harmony and builds emotional
bonds
 The style in a phrase: ...
111
Leadership Style
 Pacesetting:
 Modus operandi: Sets high standard of performance
 The style in a phrase: “Do as I ...
112
Leadership Style
 Coaching:
 Modus operandi: Develops people for the future.
 The style in a phrase: “Try this.”
 ...
113
The Lesson
 Different strokes for different folks.
 Leaders must be flexible and change their styles
according to th...
Old Style vs. New Style
 Heroic (Old)
1. Managers are important
people, quite apart from
others who develop
products and ...
Heroic (Old) Engaging (New)
3. Down the hierarchy
comes the strategy—
clear, deliberate, and
bold—emanating from
the chief...
Heroic (Old) Engaging (New)
5. To manage is to make
decisions and allocate
resources—including those
human resources. Mana...
leadership effectiveness
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
118
Definition of Leadership Effectiveness
Leader are effective when their
followers achieve their goals, can
function we...
119
Leaders are Effective When:
The group achieves its goals
Internal processes are smooth
The group can adapt to exter...
Effective vs. Successful Managers
Effective Managers
 Satisfied followers
 Productive
 Focus on communication
 Active ...
121
Key Leadership Variables
 Characteristics of the leader
 Characteristics of the followers
 Characteristics of the s...
Developing Your Leadership
Competencies
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
123
OBJECTIVES
 Understand Leadership Competencies
 Understand how competencies can be used to improve
Leadership abilit...
124
Leadership Autograph Seeker Bingo
 Obtain signature from fellow participants in boxes
that identify with their experi...
125
Traits and Components Commonly Found in
Leadership Competency Models
 Values
 Cognitive Skills
 Interpersonal Skill...
126
Components of Competency Frameworks
 Competencies are labels that describe how they relate to
leadership and behavior...
127
Values
Values are our core beliefs that we feel most
passionate about. There are individual, family,
community, cultur...
128
Cognitive Skills
Cognitive skills represents knowledge acquired
through perception, reasoning, and intuition. (i.e.
an...
129
Interpersonal Skills
Interpersonal skills pertain to interactions between
individuals.
 Oral Communication
 Written ...
130
Diversity Components
Diversity encompasses the understanding, respect and
acceptance of the various differences and un...
131
Change Orientation
Change orientation is a systematic approach to
achieving change at individual and organizational
le...
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
133
Exercise
Break into groups of four
 Discuss various types of models from your respective
organizations
 What categor...
Power and Influence
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
135
Power & Politics in Organizations
 Professor Stephen Standifird
 GSBA 594
 Welcome, I’m glad you’re here!
 Today’s...
136
The Basis of Social Power
 Power is influence (measured as the maximum
possible influence of O over P)
 Power is mor...
137
Reward Power
 Influence based on the ability to reward
(money CAN be a source of power)
 Resistance = None, usually
...
138
Coercive Power
 Influence based on the ability to punish
(might makes right)
 Resistance = Potentially quite strong
...
139
Legitimate Power
 Influence based on the legitimate right of someone to
influence others
(often embedded in position,...
140
Referent Power
 Influence by example, peer pressure power
(I want to be like Mike)
 Resistance = None
 Appropriaten...
141
Expert Power
 Influence based on the ability to convince others to
follow your good advice
(information is power)
 R...
Leadership communication
strategies
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
143
Objectives
 To consider verbal and non-verbal communication
methods
 To understand and practise effective listening ...
144
What is Communication?
What does it mean to you?
 The process of communication is what allows us to
interact with oth...
145
Verbal vs Non Verbal
 Can we communicate without words?
 Voice attributes
 What are they and how do they affect com...
146
Personal Presentation
 Does personal presentation make a difference to the
way we are perceived?
 Does it matter?
 ...
147
The Communication Equation
 What you hear
 Tone of voice
 Vocal clarity
 Verbal expressiveness 40% of the
message
...
148
Understanding Communication
We are going to consider:
The 2-Way communication process:
 Effective communication skill...
149
Communication is a 2-way process
 Communication skills involve:
 Listening to others (Receiving)
message
 Asserting...
150
Effective Communication Skills
www.Projacs.com
Effective
Communication skills
Eye contact & visible mouth
Body languag...
151
Barriers to Effective Communication
www.Projacs.com
Barriers to
effective
communication
Language
NoiseTime
Distraction...
152
The Art of Listening
 “If we were supposed to talk more than listen, we
would have been given two mouths and one ear....
153
Listening Skills
 Active Listening
 Responding
 Paraphrasing
 Asking questions for clarification
 Mirroring the o...
154
Responding
 Responses to check that your perceptions are correct
 Responses to encourage further communication
www.P...
155
Cultural Diversity
 What do we know about the communication styles of
different cultures?
 Consider verbal and non v...
156
Constraints on Communication
 Legal Obligations
 Anti Discrimination
 Privacy Laws
 Code of Conduct of Organisatio...
157
Communication Key Elements
• Message
• Source (sender)
• Channel
• Receiver
• Filter
• Feedback
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibr...
The Communication Process
SENDER
(encodes)
RECEIVER
(decodes)
Barrier
Barrier
Medium
Feedback/Response
Communication Key E...
159
Characteristics of effective communications
 Effective communication requires the message to be:
 Clear and concise
...
160
Characteristics of effective communications
 Effective communication requires the sender to:
 Know the subject well
...
161
Characteristics of effective communications
 The channel should be:
 Appropriate
 Affordable
 Appealing
www.Projac...
162
Characteristics of effective communications
The receiver should:
 Be aware, interested, and willing to accept the
mes...
Characteristics of effective communicator
 An effective verbal
communicator:
 Clarifies
 Listens
 Encourages empathica...
The decision making model
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
165
Key Topics
 Introduction
 The Decision-making process
 Decision-making models
 Decision Styles
 A discussion on G...
166
What is decision-making?
The word decision is defined as:
 “A choice between two or more alternatives”.
 Thus decisi...
167
Decision-making Process
 Identifying a problem
 Identifying decision criteria
 Allocating weights to criteria
 Dev...
168
Problem Definition
 Problem is a discrepancy (difference) between an
existing and a desired state.
 Example:
 “The ...
169
Identifying Decision Criteria
 The word criteria, is defined as “a standard by which
something can be judged”.
 A de...
170
Decision Criteria: Example
In the above-cited scenario, the decision criteria may
include the following factors:
 Rel...
171
Allocating Weights to Criteria
 The next step in the decision making process is
prioritization.
 Prioritization is a...
172
Allocating Weights: Example
Criterion Weight
Relevant qualifications 3
Leadership skills 5
Communication skills 3
Anal...
173
Developing Alternatives
 Involves defining the possible alternatives (or
choices) that would resolve the problem.
 I...
174
Analyzing Alternatives
 Alternatives are rated and analyzed on the basis of
the criteria
 The rating can be based on...
175
Criteria Rating: Example
C A N D I D A T E S R A T I N G A N D A S S E S S M E N T
Candidate Qualif-
ication
Leader-
s...
176
Analyzing & Assessment: Example
E V A L U A T I O N O F C A N D I D A T E S
Candidate Qualif-
ication
Leader-
ship
Com...
177
Selecting an alternative
 Involves choosing the best alternative, based on the
above rating and analysis
 Generally ...
178
Implementing the Alternative
 Putting the decision into action
 Involves clear communication of the decision to all
...
179
Evaluation
 Evaluation forms an integral part of any process
 Involves evaluation of the outcome based on the
desire...
180
Decision-making Models
Model
“A simplified representation or description
of a system or complex entity”
Examples
 A m...
181
Rational/Bounded Rational
 So Rational and Bounded Rational Models are
cognitive models that describe how managers ma...
182
The Rational Model
External and
internal
Environ. forces
1. Define and diagnose
the problem
2. Set goals
3. Search for...
183
Rational Model: Assumptions
 Clear and unambiguous problem
 Single, well-defined goal
 All alternatives are known
...
184
Rational Model: Criticism
 Not all decisions made on rational basis
 Most problems, goals and preferences are not cl...
185
Bounded Rational: Assumptions
 Limited set of criteria
 Self-interest influences ratings
 Limited no. of alternativ...
186
Intuition
 An unconscious process of making decisions on the
basis of experience and judgment
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibra...
187
Intuition
 Involves gut feeling
 May also have rational basis
 The “feeling” arises from past experience and
knowle...
188
Decision Types
Effective managers make various kinds of decisions. In
general, these decisions are either
 Programmed...
189
Programmed Decisions
 A decision that is repetitive and routine
 A definite method for its solution can be establish...
190
Non-programmed Decisions
 A decision that is novel (new or unique) or Ill
structured
 No established methods exist, ...
191
Non-programmed Decisions
Organizational
Levels
Nature of
Problems
Nature of
Decision-making
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim...
192
Non-programmed Decisions
 Are “tough” decisions that involve risk and
uncertainty and
 call for entrepreneurial abil...
193
Decision Styles
 Decision-making, though a rational process does
include some subjective elements
 Thus in real orga...
194
Decision Styles: Directive
Directive
 Represents low tolerance for
ambiguity and uncertainty
 Reflects rational thin...
195
Decision Styles: Analytic
Analytic
 Analytical style is also a rational style
of thinking
 Involves a very high tole...
196
Decision Styles: Behavioral
Behavioral
 Represents a creative way of thinking
 Involves a low tolerance for
ambiguit...
197
Decision Styles: Conceptual
Conceptual
 Conceptual style also reflects a
creative and intuitive way of thinking
 Con...
198
Vroom and Yetton Model
Vroom and Yetton have identified five
decision styles for managers, and are
classified as follo...
199
Vroom and Yetton Model
AII
 The manager obtains information from
subordinates and himself makes the
decision
 May or...
200
Vroom and Yetton Model
Consultative
CI
 The manager shares the problem with
relevant subordinates individually
 Gett...
201
Vroom and Yetton Model
CII
 The problem is shared to subordinates
in a group
 Their ideas and suggestions are sought...
202
Vroom and Yetton Model
Group Consensus
GI
 The problem is shared to subordinates
as a group
 Alternatives are genera...
203
Vroom and Yetton Model
GI (Contd.)
 The decision is made collectively and
the manager functions as a coordinator
 Do...
204
Group Decision-making
The factors requiring group decisions
include:
 Involving sensitive issues
 High cost alternat...
205
Group Decisions: Advantages
 Acceptance of group members
 Coordination is easier
 Communication is easier
 Existen...
206
Group Decisions: Disadvantages
 Take longer time
 Group can be indecisive
 Groups can compromise
 Groups can be do...
207
Situational Factors for Individual
Decision-making
 Short time
 Unimportant to group
 Manager can take decision
 D...
208
Situational Factors for Individual
Decision-making
 Confidential data
 Incapability of members
 Manager’s dominance...
209
Situational Factors for
Group Decision-making
 Need for innovation and creativity
 Data collection
 Importance of a...
210
Situational Factors for
Group Decision-making
 Risk taking solution needed
 Better understanding
 Whole responsibil...
211
Improving Group
Decision-making
 Brainstorming
 Nominal group techniques
 Electronic meeting
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibr...
Brainstorming 1
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
Brainstorming
What is it?
Why do we need it?
A gathering of ideas from your brain onto paper.
The variety of ideas and the...
Brainstorming Technique
Number One
Freewriting
What is it?
Think about the topic. Then write, write, write. Whatever
comes...
Brainstorming Technique
Number One
Freewriting
"This paper is supposed to be on the politics of tobacco production
but eve...
Brainstorming Technique
Number One
Freewriting
Options:
Write for a specific time period
Write for a specific amount of pa...
Number One
Freewriting
When is it helpful?
When you have NO ideas about a topic
When you have TOO MANY ideas about a topic...
Number Two
Making a Cube
What is it?
Imagine a cube. It has six sides. On each side, you have a
different task regarding t...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Two
Making a Cube
Describe
Side One: Describe the topic.
Side Two: Compare the topic.
Side ...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Three
Clustering
What is it?
When you write down words or concepts associated with
the topi...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Three
Clustering
Draw a bubble.
And write the topic above it.
Brainstorm!
Now look for word...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Four
Listing or Bulleting
What is it?
Create a list of terms/ideas/concepts about the topic...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Five
Venn Diagram
What is it?
Draw two circles that connect, like this:
List two topics abo...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Five
Venn Diagram
When is it used?
When you are writing a comparison or contrast essay.
Cit...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Six
Tree Diagram
What is it?
This diagram has a central idea to which you add branches
that...
Number Six
Tree Diagram
When do you use it?
This type of diagram is helpful in classification essays.
Media
Print Visual
A...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Seven
Act like a Journalist
What is it?
Using the question words in English to explore the ...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Seven
Act like a Journalist
When is it useful?
Use this technique when you want to write a ...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Eight
T-Diagram
What is it?
Using a T shape, list a category that you want to compare or
co...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Eight
T-Diagram
When is it useful?
This technique helps when you are writing a contrast or
...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Nine
Spoke Diagram
What is it?
Write the topic in a circle. Then think of about causes and
...
Brainstorming Technique
Number Nine
Spoke Diagram
When is it useful?
Use this technique when you want to explore cause and...
BRAINSTORMING 2
www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
234
WHAT IS BRAINSTORMING?
 Brainstorming is a group activity technique.It is
designed to generate lots of ideas for solu...
235
RULES
There are four basic rules
in brainstorming.
1)Focus on quantity:If lots
of ideas are generated it
will be easy ...
236
RULES
3)Welcome unusual ideas:To get a good and long list
of ideas,unusual ideas are welcomed.
4)Combine and improve i...
237
PROCEDURE
 Decide on the question or topic that you will
present to the group during brainstorming.
 Give yourself a...
238
 Plan how you will record the results of brainstorming
session.
 Describe what you will do with the data.
 Go throu...
239
TECHNIQUES
 1) FREEWRITING
 When you freewrite,you write down whatever
comes into your mind.You don’t judge the qual...
240
TECHNIQUES
2) NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE
Participants are asked to write their ideas
anonymously.Then the moderator colle...
241
TECHNIQUES
3) GROUP PASSING TECHNIQUE
Each person in a circular group writes down one
idea,and then passes the piece o...
242
TECHNIQUES
4)TEAM IDEA MAPPING METHOD
This technique may improve collaboration and
increase the quantity of ideas,and ...
243
TECHNIQUES
5)INDIVIDUAL BRAINSTORMING
 It typically includes such techniques as free
writing, free speaking, word ass...
244
TECHNIQUES
6)QUESTION BRAINSTORMING
This process involves brainstorming the
questions,rather than trying to come up wi...
245
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF BRAINSTORMING
ADVANTAGES
 * Many ideas can be generated in a short time.
 * Requires f...
246
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF BRAINSTORMING
 * Is a “democratic” way of generating ideas.
 * The concept of brainsto...
247
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF BRAINSTORMING
DISADVANTAGES
* Requires an experienced and sensitive faciliator who
under...
248
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF BRAINSTORMING
* Shy people can have difficulties in participating.
* May not be appropri...
Problem-solving
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
250
OUTLINE
 Definition of Term
 The Problem-Solving Process
 Principles of Interpersonal Problem Solving
 Effective P...
251
DEFINITION OF TERM
WHAT IS A PROBLEM?
 It is a situation you want to change.
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS
STAGE ONE Define the Starting
Issue(s)
Define the Problem Analyze the Situation
Objectives:
1....
THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS
STAGE TWO
Generate Ideas
Make Decisions Evaluate Ideas
Objectives:
1. To generate ideas.
2. To...
THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS
STAGE THREE
Analyze the Impact
Plan the Follow-through
Plan Your Action
Objectives:
1. To dete...
PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL
PROBLEM-SOLVING
1. Presenting yourself
• Eye Contact
• Good voice
2. I-talk
• Convey displeasu...
EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING
• Left Brain
• Right Brain
Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING
Left Brain
• Follows a logical pattern
• Is objective, rather than subjective
• Views time chron...
EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING
Right Brain
• Follows intuitive hunches
• Creates patterns, without following a step-
by-step pr...
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Successful management for business achievement

  1. 1. D R . I B R A H I M A L H A R I R I 2 4 - 2 8 A U G U S T 2 0 1 5 L O N D O N SUCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT FOR BUSINESS ACHIEVEMENT Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri 1 2 3 4 5 Done Done www.Projacs.com
  2. 2. 2 Introducing the Trainer Dr.Eng.IBRAHIM ALHARIRI 396 YORK WAY - N7 9LW LONDON.UK Mob: +447890380000 Email: ithariri@yahoo.com Skype :ITHARIRI Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  3. 3. 3  Name?  Position?  Experience?  Expectations ? Introducing Each Other Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  4. 4. 4 Our Schedule  –5 Day‐Training Program:  08:30 – Starting Time  10:00-10:20 Coffee Break  12:30 – -12:00 Coffee Break  14:00 – Closing Time Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  5. 5. 5Rules of The Workshop…  Attendance is a must.  Participation is required.  Freedom of speech & expression.  Mobiles should be kept silent during training.  No smoking in the conference room.  Tea/coffee is allowed during training activities.  Distribution of Certificate of Attendance.  Let’s enjoy our program together and “Learn by Fun”! Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  6. 6. General Information ‫أو‬ ‫أسئلة‬ ‫بتقديم‬ ‫القيام‬ ‫من‬ ‫تتحرج‬ ‫ال‬‫إ‬‫ستفسارات‬. ‫تردد‬ ‫وبدون‬ ‫مفتوح‬ ‫وبفكر‬ ‫وأمانة‬ ‫بثقة‬ ‫بأفكارك‬ ‫وناقش‬ ‫شارك‬. ‫واضحة‬ ‫غير‬ ‫الفكرة‬ ‫كانت‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫توضيح‬ ‫أو‬ ‫مثال‬ ‫أطلب‬. ‫من‬ ‫تخاف‬ ‫أو‬ ‫تتحرج‬ ‫ال‬‫ا‬‫أل‬‫ختالف‬‫فى‬‫الرأى‬‫أ‬‫وجهة‬‫ال‬‫نظر‬. ‫جديد‬ ‫هناك‬ ‫من‬ ‫البد‬ ،‫أعرفها‬ ‫إنى‬ ‫تقول‬ ‫أو‬ ‫فكرك‬ ‫تغلق‬ ‫ال‬. ‫المستطاع‬ ‫قدر‬ ‫على‬ ‫االستفادة‬ ‫وحاول‬ ‫بوقتك‬ ‫أستمتع‬. ‫التشويش‬ ‫لعدم‬ ‫الجوال‬ ‫إغالق‬ ‫برجاء‬. ‫غير‬ ‫الجانبية‬ ‫المحادثات‬‫م‬‫ر‬‫غوب‬‫فيها‬. ‫واإلنصراف‬ ‫الحضور‬ ‫بمواعيد‬ ‫اإللتزام‬ ‫برجاء‬. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  7. 7. Expectations • To Learn the Managerial Work Process and Skills • To become a more Productive Manager. • To develop Effective Communication Skills and appreciation of the inter-functional coordination necessary for quality service as a Team Leader. • To learn different Management Styles and how to deal with it. • Management Process • Management Grid Styles • To Learn Different Leadership Styles • Followers Types • Leadership Dimensions • To become a more effective Leader , Manager and Supervisor in the 21st Century Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  8. 8. Agenda Day One  Management Process 1- Planning 2- Organizing 3- Staffing & Leading 4-Directing 5- Controlling  6- Nature of Managerial Work 7- Managerial Grid Styles 8- Strategic Management Day Two  The Nature Of Leadership 1- The Nature of Managerial Work 2- The Nature of Supervision 3- Effective Leadership 4- Change Management 5- Productive Performance Appraisal 6- Delegation and Empowerment 7- Supervision Tasks 8- Conflict Management Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  9. 9. Agenda Day Three  Organizational Behavior 1- Multi Culture 2- Diversity 3- Effective Communication 4- Managing Teams 5- Management in Decision Groups Day Four  Leadership and Management Styles 1- Developing Leadership Skills 2- Competent and Creative Managers 3- Management Innovative Dimensions 4- Followers Types 5- Situational Leadership Theory 6- Management in the 21st Century Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  10. 10. Agenda Day Five  Managerial Grid Styles 1- Creativity 2- Innovation 3- Critical Thinking 4- Emotional Intelligence 5- The Habits of Highly Effective Leaders and Managers Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  11. 11. 11 FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  12. 12. PLANNING Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  13. 13. 13 Planning  Deciding in advance :  What to do  How to do  When to do  Who is going to do it  Bridges a gap between where we are today and where we want to reach.  Sets the goal of an organization. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  14. 14. 14 PLANNING  It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals.  It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals.  Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  15. 15. 15 ORGANISING Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  16. 16. 16 Organizing  It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals.  According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  17. 17. 17  Establishing the framework of working:  How many units or sub-units or departments are needed.  How many posts or designations are needed in each department.  How to distribute authority and responsibility among employees  Once these decisions are taken, organizational structure gets set up. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  18. 18. 18  Organizing as a process involves: Identification of activities. Classification of grouping of activities. Assignment of duties. Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  19. 19. 19 STAFFING & LEADING Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  20. 20. 20 Staffing  Recruiting, selecting, appointing the employees, assigning duties, maintaining cordial relationship and taking care of grievances of employees.  Training and Development of employees, deciding their remuneration, promotion and increments.  Evaluting their performance. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  21. 21. 21  It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  22. 22. 22  Staffing involves:  Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place).  Recruitment, selection & placement.  Training & development.  Remuneration.  Performance appraisal.  Promotions & transfer. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  23. 23. 23 DIRECTING Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  24. 24. 24 Directing  Giving direction or instruction to employees to get the job done.  Leadership qualities are required.  Motivating employees by providing monatory and non-monetory incentives.  Comunicating with them at regular intervals. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  25. 25. 25  It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub- ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  26. 26. 26  Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers.  Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.  Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction.  Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  27. 27. 27 CONTROLLING Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  28. 28. 28 Controlling  Matching actual performance with the planed goal.  If problem, tries to find out the reasons of deviation.  Suggesting corrective measures come on the path of plan Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  29. 29. 29 CONTROLLING:  It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  30. 30. 30  Therefore controlling has following steps:  Establishment of standard performance.  Measurement of actual performance.  Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any.  Corrective action. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  31. 31. Principles of Leadership and Management www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  32. 32. 32 Definition of Leadership  The ability to obtain followers through Influence. Proverbs: He who thinks he leads and has no one following him is only taking a walk. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  33. 33. Introduction to Strategic Management Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  34. 34. 34 Strategic Management  Strategic management is the study of why some firms outperform others.  How to create a competitive advantage in the market place that is unique, valuable, and difficult to copy  “Total organization” perspective, integrating across functional areas.  Two perspectives of leadership: romantic view and external control perspective.  Strategies put together an understanding of the external environment with an understanding of internal strengths and weaknesses. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  35. 35. 35 Definition of Strategic Management  Strategic management consists of the analysis, decisions, and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain competitive advantages (Dess, Lumpkin, & Eisner, Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantage, 3rd Ed., p. 9). Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  36. 36. 36 Definition of Strategic Management  Analysis  Strategic goals (vision, mission, strategic objectives)  Internal and external environment of the firm  Decisions  What industries should we compete in?  How should we compete in those industries?  Actions  Allocate necessary resources  Design the organization to bring intended strategies to reality Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  37. 37. 37 Attributes of Strategic Management  Directs the organization toward overall goals and objectives.  Includes multiple stakeholders in decision making.  Needs to incorporate short-term and long-term perspectives.  Recognizes trade-offs between efficiency and effectiveness. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  38. 38. 38 Mintzberg’s Views of Strategy  Plan - consciously intended course of action  Ploy - maneuver to outwit opponent  Pattern - consistency in behavior  Position - location in environment  Perspective - way of perceiving the world www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  39. 39. 39 Forms of Strategy  Formal versus informal - associated with size of firm and stage of development. Mintzberg’s distinction between entrepreneurial and planning mode.  Intended versus realized - intended strategies are the plans managers develop; realized strategies are the actions that actually take place over time. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  40. 40. Forms of Strategy www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  41. 41. 41 Strategic Management Process  Analysis  Hierarchy of goals  Analysis of external and internal environments  Formulation  What business(es) should we be in?  For each, what is the basis for competitive advantage (low cost, differentiation, focus)?  Implementation  Functional tactics  Culture and organization structure www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  42. 42. Coherence in Strategic Direction  Company vision  Massively inspiring  Overarching  Long-term  Driven by and evokes passion  Fundamental statement of the organization’s  Values  Aspiration  Goals www.Projacs.com Hierarchy of Goals Company vision Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  43. 43. Coherence in Strategic Direction Mission statements  Purpose of the company  Basis of competition and competitive advantages  More specific than vision  Focused on the means by which the firm will compete www.Projacs.com Hierarchy of Goals Company vision Mission statements Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  44. 44. Coherence in Strategic Direction Strategic objectives  Operationalize the mission statement  Measurable, specific, appropriate, realistic, timely, challenging, resolve conflicts that arise, and yardstick for rewards and incentives www.Projacs.com Hierarchy of Goals Company vision Mission statements Strategic objectives Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  45. 45. Levels of Strategy www.Projacs.com CEO Disney Corporation Studio Entertainment Walt Disney Pictures Manager Operations Marketing Finance… Touchstone Pictures Parks & Resorts Disney Land Consumer Products Disney Stores… Media Networks ABC Network… Corporate-level Functional-level Business-level Organization Chart Title Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  46. 46. 46 Does Strategic Planning Pay Off?  Original research showed mixed results. Planning might not pay off for firms in static or turbulent environments or for small firms.  Miller and Cardinal’s (1994) meta-analysis found that strategic planning affects firm growth and profitability. In particular, they found that:  Planning  performance link true for formal and informal planning.  Planning  performance link even stronger in turbulent environments.  Firm size unrelated to effectiveness of planning. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  47. 47. Strategic Management www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  48. 48. 48 Strategic Management Defined The set of managerial decisions and actions that determines the long-run performance of a corporation. It includes: environmental scanning (internal & external) strategy formulation strategy implementation evaluation and control It focuses on integrating management, marketing, finance/accounting, production/operations, research and development, and computer information systems to achieve organizational success. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  49. 49. 49 Benefits of Strategic Management  Clearer sense of strategic vision  Sharper focus on what is strategically important  Improved understanding of rapidly changing environment www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  50. 50. 50 Three Key Strategic Questions  Where is the organization now?  If no changes are made, where will the organization be in one, two, five or ten years? Are the answers acceptable?  If the answers are not acceptable, what specific actions should management undertake? What are the risks and payoffs involved? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  51. 51. Strategic Management Model Strategy Formulation Strategy Implementation Evaluation and Control Mission Objectives Strategies Policies Feedback/Learning Environmental Scanning Societal Environment General Forces Task Environment Industry Analysis Structure Chain of Command Resources Assets, Skills Competencies, Knowledge Culture Beliefs, Expectations, Values Reason for existence What results to accomplish by when Plan to achieve the mission & objectives Broad guidelines for decision making Programs Activities needed to accomplish a plan Budgets Cost of the programs Procedures Sequence of steps needed to do the job Process to monitor performance and take corrective action Performance External Internal www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  52. 52. 52 Environmental Scanning Monitoring, evaluating and disseminating information from the environment to key people within the corporation. Scan via SWOT analysis: Look for opportunities/threats in the external environment Look for strengths/weaknesses in the internal environment www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  53. 53. 53 Strategy Formulation The process of developing long-range plans to deal effectively with environmental opportunities and threats in light of corporate strengths and weaknesses. Composed of:  Mission  Objectives  Strategies  Policies www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  54. 54. 54 Mission  The purpose or reason for the corporation’s existence. It tells who the company is, what they do as well as what they’d like to become. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  55. 55. 55 Objectives  The end results of planned activity. They state WHAT is to be accomplished by WHEN. They should be quantified, if possible.  Should be specific, measurable and obtainable. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  56. 56. 56 Strategies  A strategy is a comprehensive master plan stating HOW the corporation will achieve its mission and objectives. There are three types:  Corporate - a corporation’s overall direction and the management of its businesses.  Business - emphasizes improving the competitive position of a corporation’s products or services in a specific industry or market segment.  Functional - concerned with developing a distinctive competence to provide a company or business unit with a competitive advantage. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  57. 57. Hierarchy of Strategy www.Projacs.com Functional Strategy Business (Division Level) Strategy Corporate Strategy Manufacturing Finance Marketing Research and Development Human Resources Strategic Business Unit Strategic Business Unit Strategic Business Unit Corporate Headquarters Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  58. 58. 58 Policies  Broad guidelines for making decisions.  E.g. - 3M’s policy requiring researchers to spend 15% of their time working on something other than their primary project. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  59. 59. 59 Strategy Implementation  The process of putting strategies and policies into action through the development of:  Programs - statements of activities or steps needed to accomplish a single-use plan.  Budgets - statements of a corporation’s programs in dollar terms.  Procedures - systems of sequential steps or techniques that describe in detail how to perform particular tasks or jobs. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  60. 60. 60 Evaluation and Control  The process of monitoring corporate activities and performance results so that actual performance can be compared with desired performance. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  61. 61. Strategic Decision-Making Process Review and Revise as Necessary: Mission  Objectives Generate and Evaluate Strategic Alterna- tives Select and Recommend Best Alternative Implement Strategies:  Programs  Budgets  Procedures Evaluate and Control Strategy Implementation Step 7 5(b) 6(a) 6(b) 7 8 Analyze External Factors:  Opportun- ities  Threats Scan and Assess Internal Environment:  Structure Culture Resources Analyze Internal Factors:  Strengths  Weak- nesses Select Strategic Factors (SWOT) in Light of Current Situation Scan and Assess External Environment: Societal Task Evaluate Current Performance Results Examine and Evaluate the Current:  Mission Objectives  Strategies  Policies Review Corporate Governance:  Board of Directors  Top Man- agement Strategy Formulation: Steps 1 – 6 3(a) 1(a) 1(b) 2 5(a) 4(a) 3(b) 4(b) Evaluation and Control: Step 8 www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  62. 62. Leadership Theories. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  63. 63. 63 Session objectives  What is leadership?  Identify the traits and skills of an effective leader  Key leadership theories  Examine the role, duties and responsibilities of a Team Leader in the workplace  Understand the limits of authority in a Team Leader role  Develop a plan to develop your own leadership potential www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  64. 64. 64 Understanding Leadership  What is leadership?  Why is leadership important – why do we need leaders?  Leaders – born or bred? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  65. 65. 65 Understanding Leadership  "Leadership is a function of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among colleagues, and taking effective action to realize your own leadership potential." Prof. Warren Bennis www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  66. 66. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  67. 67. 67 Exercise In pairs  Discuss examples you have come across of strong and weak leadership  You can use examples from employment, academic studies or participation in sports clubs and societies (keep anonymous) www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  68. 68. 68 Leadership Theory Early Theories:  Great Man Theories  Leaders are exceptional people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead  Term 'man' was intentional - concept was primarily male, military and Western  Trait Theories  Research on traits or qualities associated with leadership are numerous  Traits are hard to measure. For example, how do we measure honesty or integrity? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  69. 69. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  70. 70. 70 Leadership Traits Group Exercise:  Choose leaders YOU admire  What personality traits and skills do they have? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  71. 71. 71 Traits  Adaptable to situations  Alert to social environment  Ambitious and achievement orientated  Assertive  Cooperative  Decisive  Dependable  Dominant (desire to influence others)  Energetic (high activity level)  Persistent  Self-confident  Tolerant of stress  Willing to assume responsibility Skills • Clever (intelligent) • Conceptually skilled • Creative • Diplomatic and tactful • Fluent in speaking • Knowledgeable about group task • Organised (administrative ability) • Persuasive • Socially skilled Stogdill, 1974 Leaders will also use: Integrity, Honesty, Compassion, Humility Leadership Traits and Skills www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  72. 72. 72 Leadership Theory Functional Theories (John Adair, Action Centred Leadership, 1970) Leader is concerned with the interaction of 3 areas:  Task – goal setting, methods and process  Team – effective interaction/communication, clarify roles, team morale  Individual – attention to behaviour, feelings, coaching, CPD www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  73. 73. 73 Leadership Theory  Behaviourist Theories (Blake and Mouton, Managerial grid, 1964)  Leaders behaviour and actions, rather than their traits and skills e.g. production orientated or people orientated  Different leadership behaviours categorised as ‘leadership styles’ e.g. autocratic, persuasive, consultative, democratic  Doesn’t provide guide to effective leadership in different situations www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  74. 74. 74 Leadership Theory  Situational/contingency Leadership (Hersey- Blanchard, 1970/80) Leadership style changes according to the 'situation‘ and in response to the individuals being managed – their competency and motivation www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  75. 75. 75 Competency Low competence Some competence High competence High competence Motivation Low commitment/ Unable and unwilling or insecure Variable commitment/ Unable but willing or motivated Variable commitment/ Able but unwilling or insecure High commitment/ Able and willing or motivated Leadership style DIRECTIVE (Telling) COACHING (Selling) SUPPORTIVE (Participating) DELEGATORY (Observing) Leadership Theory www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  76. 76. 76 New Leadership Theory Transformational Theory (Bass and Avolio, 1994)  Leaders inspire individuals, develop trust, and encourage creativity and personal growth  Individuals develop a sense of purpose to benefit the group, organisation or society. This goes beyond their own self-interests and an exchange of rewards or recognition for effort or loyalty. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  77. 77. 77 Leadership Philosophies Ethical Leadership  CSR, sustainability, equality, humanitarianism  Four P’s - Purpose, People, Planet, Probity www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  78. 78. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  79. 79. 79 Group Exercise Examine and discuss the Team Leader Job descriptions  What are the key responsibilities of the team leader role? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  80. 80. 80 Key Team Leader Responsibilities 1. Guide/coordinate team members – encourage teamwork and motivate individuals 2. Provide structure for team – set mission and purpose, clarify roles and responsibilities, allocate tasks and set objectives 3. Clarify working methods, practises and protocol 4. Focus on performance – anticipate challenges, monitor performance, delegate and provide CPD support www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  81. 81. 81 Accountability, Responsibility, and Authority Responsibility Vs Accountability? What does having authority mean? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  82. 82. 82 Accountability, Responsibility, and Authority  Accountability the state of being accountable, liable, or answerable  Responsibility (for objects, tasks or people) can be delegated but accountability can not – buck stops with you!  A good leader accepts ultimate responsibility:  will give credit to others when delegated responsibilities succeed  will accept blame when delegated responsibilities fail  Accountability can not operate fairly without the leader being given full authority for the responsibilities concerned  Authority is the power to influence or command thought, opinion or behaviour  Cross-functional team – less authority - more difficult to manage www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  83. 83. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  84. 84. 84 Group Exercise When have you experienced an issue as a leader that you did not have the authority to resolve? How did you know you did not have the authority? Who did you refer to for help? Use examples from your own current experience – work, volunteer, club /society www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  85. 85. 85 Team Leader Authority  Team Leader authority will vary from role to role dependent on the scope of duties and organisational structure  A Team Leader may refer to line management or other www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  86. 86. 86 Team Leader Authority Authorities for the following:  HR (staff recruitment and training, performance and discipline, racism or bullying)  Policy and procedures (Health and Safety, changes to working practises)  Budget & resources (allocation and management)  Organisational objectives (strategy, targets)  Managing change (department restructure, office move)  Line management (support and advice, own CPD) www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  87. 87. 87 How to improve your leadership skills  Reflect and identify the skills YOU need to lead effectively and create your action plan to develop them  Ask for feedback from work colleagues, line managers, tutors, your ‘followers’  Practise! Take on responsibility (work, volunteering, clubs & Societies) and reflect on your performance SIFE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KB2fOF_gYBg  Find a mentor – learn from positive leadership role-models  Attend further leadership and management training  Use the resources on Exeter Leaders Award ELE pages www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  88. 88. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  89. 89. 89 Review your performance as a Leader 1. Assess yourself as a Leader • Conduct a SWOT analysis - Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats  (Use the Results of Leadership Questionnaire you have been completed prior to attending the session) 2. Develop an Action Plan to improve as a leader • list 2 actions you will undertake to address Weaknesses or capitalise on Opportunities identified • Apply SMART targets to your actions – Specific,  Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-bound www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  90. 90. Leadership vs. Management www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  91. 91. 91 Leadership vs. Management  Leaders and managers are completely different and mutually exclusive  Managers are concerned with doing things right (efficiency)  Leaders and concerned with doing the right things (effectiveness) www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  92. 92. 92 Leadership vs. Management  Leaders and managers are different roles but don’t have to be different types of people  Mintzberg’s 10 leadership roles  Kotter differentiating between managers and leaders in terms of core processes and intended outcomes  Rost view of management as a authority relationship and leadership as a multidirectional influence relationship www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  93. 93. 93 Leadership vs. Management Manager Characteristics  Administers  A copy  Maintains  Focuses on systems and structures  Relies on control  Short range view  Asks how and when  Eye on bottom line  Imitates  Accepts the status quo  Classic good soldiers  Does things right Leader Characteristics • Innovates • An original • Develops • Focuses on people • Inspires trust • Long range perspective • Asks what and why • Eye on horizon • Originates • Challenges the status quo • Own person • Does the right thing www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  94. 94. 94 Direct vs. Indirect Leadership  Direct leadership  Leader’s direct influence on immediate subordinates.  Leader’s direct influence on lower-level employees, peers, bosses, or outsiders  Indirect leadership  Cascading effect of leadership influence  Influence over formal programs, management systems, and structural forms  Influence over organizational culture www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  95. 95. 95 Difference between a Leader and Manager Leader - Provide vision and motivates people; - Goal-oriented Manager - Make sure things happen through other people; -Task-oriented www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  96. 96. 96 Difference between a Leader and Manager  Making sure the work is done by others is the accomplishment of a MANAGER;  Inspiring others to do better work is the accomplishment of a LEADER. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  97. 97. 97 Traits of Leader Manager  Leader managers are long-term thinkers who see beyond the day’s crisis and the quarterly report;  They constantly reaching beyond their specific area of influence www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  98. 98. 98 Traits of Leader Manager  They put heavy emphasis on vision, values, and motivation;  They have strong political skills to cope with conflicting requirements of multiple constituents;  They don’t accept status quo. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  99. 99. 99 Are leaders born? Traits of a leading LEADER: 1. Is born with leadership qualities; 2. Has seen leadership modeled throughout life; 3. Has learned added leadership through training; 4. Has self-discipline to become a great leader. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  100. 100. 100 Five levels of Leadership  Level 1: Position or title; people follow because they have to (Rights).  Level 2: Permission; people follow because they want to (Relationships).  Level 3: Production; people follow because of what you have done for the organization (Results).  Level 4: Personnel Development: People follow because of what you have done for them (Reproduction).  Level 5: Personhood; People follow because of who you are and what you represent (Respect). www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  101. 101. 101 Important factors in leadership  The key to leadership: Priorities;  The most important ingredient of leadership: Integrity;  The ultimate test of leadership: Creating positive change; www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  102. 102. 102 Important factors in leadership  The quickest way to gain leadership: Problem solving;  The extra plus in leadership: Attitude;  Most appreciable asset of leadership: People; www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  103. 103. 103 Important factors in leadership  The indispensable quality of leadership: Vision;  The price tag of leadership: Self-discipline;  The most important lesson I’ve learned about leadership: Staff development. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  104. 104. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  105. 105. 105 Question for critical thinking  Do you think managers are the same as leaders? If not, explain the possible differences between them? © PhotoDisc www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  106. 106. Leadership Styles www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  107. 107. 107 Leadership Style  Coercive:  Modus operandi: Demands immediate compliance  The style in a phrase: “Do what I tell you.”  Underlying emotional intelligence: Drive to achieve, initiate, self-control  When style works best: In a crisis, to kick start a turnaround, or with problem employees  Overall impact on climate: Negative www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  108. 108. 108 Leadership Style  Authoritative:  Modus operandi: Mobilizes people toward a vision  The style in a phrase: “Come with me.”  Underlying emotional intelligence: Self-confidence, empathy, change catalyst  When style works best: When changes require a new vision, or a clear direction is needed  Overall impact on climate: Most strongly positive www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  109. 109. 109 Leadership Style  Democratic:  Modus operandi: Forges consensus through participation  The style in a phrase: “What do you think?”  Underlying emotional intelligence: Collaboration, team leadership, communication  When style works best: To build buy-in or consensus, or to get input from valuable employees  Overall impact on climate: Positive www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  110. 110. 110 Leadership Style  Affiliative:  Modus operandi: Creates harmony and builds emotional bonds  The style in a phrase: “People come first.”  Underlying emotional intelligence: Empathy, building relationships, communication  When style works best: To heal rifts in a team or to motivate people during stressful circumstances  Overall impact on climate: Positive www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  111. 111. 111 Leadership Style  Pacesetting:  Modus operandi: Sets high standard of performance  The style in a phrase: “Do as I do, now.”  Underlying emotional intelligence: Conscientiousness, drive to achieve, initiative  When style works best: To get quick results from a highly motivated and competent team  Overall impact on climate: Negative www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  112. 112. 112 Leadership Style  Coaching:  Modus operandi: Develops people for the future.  The style in a phrase: “Try this.”  Underlying emotional intelligence: Developing others, empathy, self-awareness  When style works best: To help employee improve performance or develop long-term strengths  Overall impact on climate: Positive www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  113. 113. 113 The Lesson  Different strokes for different folks.  Leaders must be flexible and change their styles according to the situation and the people.  Situational leadership. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  114. 114. Old Style vs. New Style  Heroic (Old) 1. Managers are important people, quite apart from others who develop products and deliver services. 2. The higher “up” these managers go, the more important they become. At the “top,” the chief executive is the corporation.  Engaging (New) 1. Managers are important to the extent that they help other people who develop products and deliver services to be important. 2. An organization is an interacting network, not a vertical hierarchy. Effective leaders work throughout; they do not sit on top. Henry Mintzberg. Managers Not MBAs. 2004. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  115. 115. Heroic (Old) Engaging (New) 3. Down the hierarchy comes the strategy— clear, deliberate, and bold—emanating from the chief who takes the dramatic acts. Everyone else “implements.” 4. Implementation is the problem because while the chief embraces change, most others resist it. That is why outsiders must be favored over insiders. 3. Out of the network emerge strategies, as engaged people solve little problems that grow into big initiatives. 4. Implementation is the problem because it cannot be separated from formulation. That is why committed insiders are necessary to resist ill- considered changes imposed from above and without. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  116. 116. Heroic (Old) Engaging (New) 5. To manage is to make decisions and allocate resources—including those human resources. Managing thus means analyzing, often calculating, based on facts in reports. 6. Rewards for increased performance go to the leadership. What matters is what’s measured. 7. Leadership is thrust upon those who thrust their will on others. 5. To manage is to bring out the positive energy that exists naturally within people. Managing thus means engaging, based on judgment, rooted in context. 6. Rewards for making the organization a better place go to everyone. Human values matter, few of which can be measured. 7. Leadership is a sacred trust earned from the respect of others. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  117. 117. leadership effectiveness www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  118. 118. 118 Definition of Leadership Effectiveness Leader are effective when their followers achieve their goals, can function well together, and can adapt to the changing demands from external forces. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  119. 119. 119 Leaders are Effective When: The group achieves its goals Internal processes are smooth The group can adapt to external forces www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  120. 120. Effective vs. Successful Managers Effective Managers  Satisfied followers  Productive  Focus on communication  Active conflict management  Motivate, train and develop employees Successful Managers  Quick promotions  Focus on networking  Interact with outsiders  Socialize  Active in office politics www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  121. 121. 121 Key Leadership Variables  Characteristics of the leader  Characteristics of the followers  Characteristics of the situation www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  122. 122. Developing Your Leadership Competencies www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  123. 123. 123 OBJECTIVES  Understand Leadership Competencies  Understand how competencies can be used to improve Leadership abilities. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  124. 124. 124 Leadership Autograph Seeker Bingo  Obtain signature from fellow participants in boxes that identify with their experiences.  First person to black out card call out “BINGO”  Prize for the winner. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  125. 125. 125 Traits and Components Commonly Found in Leadership Competency Models  Values  Cognitive Skills  Interpersonal Skills  Diversity Components  Change Orientation A competency model is a roadmap to individual and group leadership success. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  126. 126. 126 Components of Competency Frameworks  Competencies are labels that describe how they relate to leadership and behavior  Competencies are often written as definitions that describe observable behaviors  Various types of frameworks used, many similarities, many differences  Army – Field Manual 22-100  ECQ’s – 5 Areas, 27 competencies  Marines -11 Principles, 14 Traits  IRS - 5 Core Responsibilities, 21 competencies  Others? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  127. 127. 127 Values Values are our core beliefs that we feel most passionate about. There are individual, family, community, cultural and work values. For example:  Family  Spiritual  Learning  Integrity  Honesty  Self Awareness www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  128. 128. 128 Cognitive Skills Cognitive skills represents knowledge acquired through perception, reasoning, and intuition. (i.e. analytical skills, learned processes like problem solving, planning and monitoring)  Decisiveness  Problem Solving  Political Savvy  Strategic Thinking  Entrepreneurship  Analytical Thinking  Technical Knowledge www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  129. 129. 129 Interpersonal Skills Interpersonal skills pertain to interactions between individuals.  Oral Communication  Written Communication  Influencing & Negotiating  Developing Others  Coaching  Mentoring  Partnering www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  130. 130. 130 Diversity Components Diversity encompasses the understanding, respect and acceptance of the various differences and uniqueness of individuals.  Cultural Awareness  Diversity Awareness  Teamwork  Customer Focus www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  131. 131. 131 Change Orientation Change orientation is a systematic approach to achieving change at individual and organizational levels.  Leading Transformation  Risk taking  Achievement Orientation  Change Management  Creativity  Innovation  Adaptability  Flexibility  Resilience www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  132. 132. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  133. 133. 133 Exercise Break into groups of four  Discuss various types of models from your respective organizations  What categories are emphasized most?  Values  Cognitive  Interpersonal  Diversity  Change www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  134. 134. Power and Influence www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  135. 135. 135 Power & Politics in Organizations  Professor Stephen Standifird  GSBA 594  Welcome, I’m glad you’re here!  Today’s Agenda  Go over syllabus, in detail  Establish ground rules for the class  Identify your perceptions of power and politics  Introduce French & Raven www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  136. 136. 136 The Basis of Social Power  Power is influence (measured as the maximum possible influence of O over P)  Power is more than your formal position  Social Power (the power to influence others) comes in many forms  Reward Power, Coercive Power, Legitimate Power, Referent Power, and Expert Power www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  137. 137. 137 Reward Power  Influence based on the ability to reward (money CAN be a source of power)  Resistance = None, usually  Appropriateness = Generally OK  State Change = No, requires constant attention www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  138. 138. 138 Coercive Power  Influence based on the ability to punish (might makes right)  Resistance = Potentially quite strong  Appropriateness = Often not  State Change = No, could provoke strong negative response www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  139. 139. 139 Legitimate Power  Influence based on the legitimate right of someone to influence others (often embedded in position, always complex)  Resistance = Usually quite low  Appropriateness = Yes, by definition  State Change = Often involves a state change www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  140. 140. 140 Referent Power  Influence by example, peer pressure power (I want to be like Mike)  Resistance = None  Appropriateness = Generally OK  State Change = Very much so www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  141. 141. 141 Expert Power  Influence based on the ability to convince others to follow your good advice (information is power)  Resistance = Generally low  Appropriateness = Generally OK  State Change = Not really www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  142. 142. Leadership communication strategies www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  143. 143. 143 Objectives  To consider verbal and non-verbal communication methods  To understand and practise effective listening skills  To communicate in clear, respectful and non- judgemental ways  To know when to seek advice www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  144. 144. 144 What is Communication? What does it mean to you?  The process of communication is what allows us to interact with other people; without it, we would be unable to share knowledge or experiences with anything outside of ourselves. Common forms of communication include speaking, writing, gestures, touch and broadcasting. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  145. 145. 145 Verbal vs Non Verbal  Can we communicate without words?  Voice attributes  What are they and how do they affect communication?  Physical attributes  What could be considered here and how do they affect communication?  The power of touch  What and when is OK?  Which is better, verbal or non verbal? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  146. 146. 146 Personal Presentation  Does personal presentation make a difference to the way we are perceived?  Does it matter?  What can we do about it - do we have to look bland and boring?  What if our organisation has a dress code? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  147. 147. 147 The Communication Equation  What you hear  Tone of voice  Vocal clarity  Verbal expressiveness 40% of the message  What you see or feel  Facial expression  Dress and grooming  Posture  Eye contact  Touch  Gesture 50% of the message  WORDS … 10% of the message! www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  148. 148. 148 Understanding Communication We are going to consider: The 2-Way communication process:  Effective communication skills  Barriers to effective communication www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  149. 149. 149 Communication is a 2-way process  Communication skills involve:  Listening to others (Receiving) message  Asserting/ Expressing (Sending)  Barriers to communication can lead to misunderstanding and confusion www.Projacs.com sender receiver sender receiver values and attitudes “generation gap” Cultural differences language noise hearing Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  150. 150. 150 Effective Communication Skills www.Projacs.com Effective Communication skills Eye contact & visible mouth Body language Silence Checking for understanding Smiling face Summarising what has been said Encouragement to continue Some questions Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  151. 151. 151 Barriers to Effective Communication www.Projacs.com Barriers to effective communication Language NoiseTime DistractionsOther people Put downsToo many questions Distance Discomfort with the topic Disability Lack of interest Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  152. 152. 152 The Art of Listening  “If we were supposed to talk more than listen, we would have been given two mouths and one ear.”  Mark Twain www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  153. 153. 153 Listening Skills  Active Listening  Responding  Paraphrasing  Asking questions for clarification  Mirroring the other person’s language www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  154. 154. 154 Responding  Responses to check that your perceptions are correct  Responses to encourage further communication www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  155. 155. 155 Cultural Diversity  What do we know about the communication styles of different cultures?  Consider verbal and non verbal, including dress constraints, language difficulties, taboos. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  156. 156. 156 Constraints on Communication  Legal Obligations  Anti Discrimination  Privacy Laws  Code of Conduct of Organisation  Confidentiality and Gossip  Seeking Advice www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  157. 157. 157 Communication Key Elements • Message • Source (sender) • Channel • Receiver • Filter • Feedback www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  158. 158. The Communication Process SENDER (encodes) RECEIVER (decodes) Barrier Barrier Medium Feedback/Response Communication Key Elements www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  159. 159. 159 Characteristics of effective communications  Effective communication requires the message to be:  Clear and concise  Accurate  Relevant to the needs of the receiver  Timely  Meaningful  Applicable to the situation www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  160. 160. 160 Characteristics of effective communications  Effective communication requires the sender to:  Know the subject well  Be interested in the subject  Know the audience members and establish a rapport with them  Speak at the level of the receiver  Choose an appropriate communication channel www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  161. 161. 161 Characteristics of effective communications  The channel should be:  Appropriate  Affordable  Appealing www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  162. 162. 162 Characteristics of effective communications The receiver should:  Be aware, interested, and willing to accept the message  Listen attentively  Understand the value of the message  Provide feedback www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  163. 163. Characteristics of effective communicator  An effective verbal communicator:  Clarifies  Listens  Encourages empathically  Acknowledges  Restates/repeats  An effective nonverbal communicator:  Relaxes  Opens up  Leans toward the other person  Establishes eye contact  Shows appropriate facial expressions www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  164. 164. The decision making model www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  165. 165. 165 Key Topics  Introduction  The Decision-making process  Decision-making models  Decision Styles  A discussion on Group Decisions www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  166. 166. 166 What is decision-making? The word decision is defined as:  “A choice between two or more alternatives”.  Thus decision-making can be defined as:  “the selection of a course of action from among alternatives ”. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  167. 167. 167 Decision-making Process  Identifying a problem  Identifying decision criteria  Allocating weights to criteria  Developing alternatives  Analyzing alternatives  Selecting an alternative  Implementing the alternative  Evaluation (of decision effectiveness) www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  168. 168. 168 Problem Definition  Problem is a discrepancy (difference) between an existing and a desired state.  Example:  “The manager has resigned, and we need another manager”  Here the phrase “manager has resigned” reflects the current state while “need another manager” represents a desired state. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  169. 169. 169 Identifying Decision Criteria  The word criteria, is defined as “a standard by which something can be judged”.  A decision criteria therefore, is the basis of a decision, which outlines the relevant and important factors for a decision. And implicitly, it also defines what is not important. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  170. 170. 170 Decision Criteria: Example In the above-cited scenario, the decision criteria may include the following factors:  Relevant qualifications  Leadership skills  Communication skills  Planning and analytical skills  Professional experience www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  171. 171. 171 Allocating Weights to Criteria  The next step in the decision making process is prioritization.  Prioritization is achieved by assigning quantitative weights to each criteria element.  The weightage defines the relative significance of each element. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  172. 172. 172 Allocating Weights: Example Criterion Weight Relevant qualifications 3 Leadership skills 5 Communication skills 3 Analytical skills 4 Professional experience 1 www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  173. 173. 173 Developing Alternatives  Involves defining the possible alternatives (or choices) that would resolve the problem.  In our case, the alternatives would be a list of candidates or job applicants. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  174. 174. 174 Analyzing Alternatives  Alternatives are rated and analyzed on the basis of the criteria  The rating can be based on a specified scale, say 1 – 5 etc.  Rating may be subjective in nature and thus,may depend on the judgment of the individual(s) www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  175. 175. 175 Criteria Rating: Example C A N D I D A T E S R A T I N G A N D A S S E S S M E N T Candidate Qualif- ication Leader- ship Commun- ication Analysis Exper- ience Kamran Ashraf 3 3 3 1 1 Rahila Mushtaq 2 1 4 2 2 Tasaduq Hussain 4 2 3 2 3 Zubair Ahmed 2 5 2 4 1 Maliha Javed 4 5 4 3 2 www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  176. 176. 176 Analyzing & Assessment: Example E V A L U A T I O N O F C A N D I D A T E S Candidate Qualif- ication Leader- ship Commun- ication Analysis Exper- ience Total Kamran Ashraf 9 15 9 4 1 38 Rahila Mushtaq 6 5 12 8 2 33 Tasaduq Hussain 12 10 9 8 3 42 Zubair Ahmed 6 25 6 16 1 54 Maliha Javed 12 25 12 12 2 63 www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  177. 177. 177 Selecting an alternative  Involves choosing the best alternative, based on the above rating and analysis  Generally implies selecting the alternative with the highest score. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  178. 178. 178 Implementing the Alternative  Putting the decision into action  Involves clear communication of the decision to all concerned and obtaining their commitment www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  179. 179. 179 Evaluation  Evaluation forms an integral part of any process  Involves evaluation of the outcome based on the desired goal and criteria  Involves assessing the effectiveness and efficiency of the outcome (or the entire process)  In case of any undesired results, each step of the process is carefully reviewed to trace the root causes www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  180. 180. 180 Decision-making Models Model “A simplified representation or description of a system or complex entity” Examples  A model of a building  A globe (Earth model) www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  181. 181. 181 Rational/Bounded Rational  So Rational and Bounded Rational Models are cognitive models that describe how managers make rational decisions www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  182. 182. 182 The Rational Model External and internal Environ. forces 1. Define and diagnose the problem 2. Set goals 3. Search for alternative solutions 4. Compare and evaluate solution 5. Choose among alternative solutions 6. Implement the solution selected 7. Follow up and control www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  183. 183. 183 Rational Model: Assumptions  Clear and unambiguous problem  Single, well-defined goal  All alternatives are known  Clear preferences (ranking criteria)  Constant/stable preferences  No time or cost constraints  Decision will maximize payoff www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  184. 184. 184 Rational Model: Criticism  Not all decisions made on rational basis  Most problems, goals and preferences are not clear or well defined  Not practical to know all possible alternatives  Time and cost constraints exist in all practical problems  Result not maximized in most cases www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  185. 185. 185 Bounded Rational: Assumptions  Limited set of criteria  Self-interest influences ratings  Limited no. of alternatives  Alternatives are assessed one at a time till a satisficing (or good enough) alternative is found  Politics influences acceptance and commitment of decision www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  186. 186. 186 Intuition  An unconscious process of making decisions on the basis of experience and judgment www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  187. 187. 187 Intuition  Involves gut feeling  May also have rational basis  The “feeling” arises from past experience and knowledge  Involves quicker response  Does not involve systematic analysis www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  188. 188. 188 Decision Types Effective managers make various kinds of decisions. In general, these decisions are either  Programmed decisions  Non-programmed decisions www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  189. 189. 189 Programmed Decisions  A decision that is repetitive and routine  A definite method for its solution can be established  Does not have to be treated a new each time it occurs  Procedures are often already laid out Examples: pricing standard customer orders, determining billing dates, recording office supplies etc. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  190. 190. 190 Non-programmed Decisions  A decision that is novel (new or unique) or Ill structured  No established methods exist, because it has never occurred before or because  It is too complex www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  191. 191. 191 Non-programmed Decisions Organizational Levels Nature of Problems Nature of Decision-making www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  192. 192. 192 Non-programmed Decisions  Are “tough” decisions that involve risk and uncertainty and  call for entrepreneurial abilities  Such decisions draw heavily on the analytical abilities of the manager  Examples: Moving into a new market, investing in a new unproven technology, changing strategic direction www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  193. 193. 193 Decision Styles  Decision-making, though a rational process does include some subjective elements  Thus in real organizational settings, the quality of decision does depend on the ability, style and approach of the manager www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  194. 194. 194 Decision Styles: Directive Directive  Represents low tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty  Reflects rational thinking of the manager  Such decision styles are more suitable for routine procedural tasks www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  195. 195. 195 Decision Styles: Analytic Analytic  Analytical style is also a rational style of thinking  Involves a very high tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty  Such managers generally seek detailed information before making a decision www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  196. 196. 196 Decision Styles: Behavioral Behavioral  Represents a creative way of thinking  Involves a low tolerance for ambiguity or uncertainty  Managers with a behavioral style introduce “new” ways of doing things www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  197. 197. 197 Decision Styles: Conceptual Conceptual  Conceptual style also reflects a creative and intuitive way of thinking  Conceptual style managers have a very broad vision and generally look at numerous alternatives for decision- making  Focused on the long run and often result in creative outcomes or alternatives www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  198. 198. 198 Vroom and Yetton Model Vroom and Yetton have identified five decision styles for managers, and are classified as follows: Autocratic AI The decision is made individually, using the information available to the individual only www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  199. 199. 199 Vroom and Yetton Model AII  The manager obtains information from subordinates and himself makes the decision  May or may not share with subordinates, the purpose of questions or the nature of problem  Subordinates do not play any role in problem definition or selection of alternatives www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  200. 200. 200 Vroom and Yetton Model Consultative CI  The manager shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually  Getting their input individually and not as a group. The manager then makes the decision independently, and may or may not be influenced by the subordinates’ suggestions www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  201. 201. 201 Vroom and Yetton Model CII  The problem is shared to subordinates in a group  Their ideas and suggestions are sought in a group meeting  The decision is then made by the manager which  May or may not reflect the subordinates’ influence www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  202. 202. 202 Vroom and Yetton Model Group Consensus GI  The problem is shared to subordinates as a group  Alternatives are generated and evaluated collectively  Effort is made to reach a consensus www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  203. 203. 203 Vroom and Yetton Model GI (Contd.)  The decision is made collectively and the manager functions as a coordinator  Does not “press” the group in adopting the manager’s “solution”  The manager is willing to accept and implement the decision of the group www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  204. 204. 204 Group Decision-making The factors requiring group decisions include:  Involving sensitive issues  High cost alternatives  Involving very high risk factor  Strategic impact www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  205. 205. 205 Group Decisions: Advantages  Acceptance of group members  Coordination is easier  Communication is easier  Existence of large alternatives  More information can be processed  Diversity of experience and perspectives www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  206. 206. 206 Group Decisions: Disadvantages  Take longer time  Group can be indecisive  Groups can compromise  Groups can be dominated  Groups can “play games”  Victim to Groupthink www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  207. 207. 207 Situational Factors for Individual Decision-making  Short time  Unimportant to group  Manager can take decision  Dominate the decision  Destructive conflict  Members hesitant www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  208. 208. 208 Situational Factors for Individual Decision-making  Confidential data  Incapability of members  Manager’s dominance  Indirect effect on group members www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  209. 209. 209 Situational Factors for Group Decision-making  Need for innovation and creativity  Data collection  Importance of acceptance  Importance of solution  Complex problem  Democratic process www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  210. 210. 210 Situational Factors for Group Decision-making  Risk taking solution needed  Better understanding  Whole responsibility  Feedback required www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  211. 211. 211 Improving Group Decision-making  Brainstorming  Nominal group techniques  Electronic meeting www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  212. 212. Brainstorming 1 www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  213. 213. Brainstorming What is it? Why do we need it? A gathering of ideas from your brain onto paper. The variety of ideas and the use of your imagination assist you in producing a lot of material with which to work. It’s the best way to collect your thoughts. It’s helpful for organization. It ensures only quality ideas are used in the essay. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  214. 214. Brainstorming Technique Number One Freewriting What is it? Think about the topic. Then write, write, write. Whatever comes into your brain – even if it doesn’t have to do with the topic. Example: www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  215. 215. Brainstorming Technique Number One Freewriting "This paper is supposed to be on the politics of tobacco production but even though I went to all the lectures and read the book I can't think of what to say and I've felt this way for four minutes now and I have 11 minutes left and I wonder if I'll keep thinking nothing during every minute but I'm not sure if it matters that I am babbling and I don't know what else to say about this topic and it is rainy today and I never noticed the number of cracks in that wall before and those cracks remind me of the walls in my grandfather's study and he smoked and he farmed and I wonder why he didn't farm tobacco..." www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  216. 216. Brainstorming Technique Number One Freewriting Options: Write for a specific time period Write for a specific amount of paper www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  217. 217. Number One Freewriting When is it helpful? When you have NO ideas about a topic When you have TOO MANY ideas about a topic Maybe I could say this or maybe I could say that… hmmm ??? ??? Brainstorming Technique www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  218. 218. Number Two Making a Cube What is it? Imagine a cube. It has six sides. On each side, you have a different task regarding the topic. Brainstorming Technique Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  219. 219. Brainstorming Technique Number Two Making a Cube Describe Side One: Describe the topic. Side Two: Compare the topic. Side Three: Associate the topic. Side Four: Analyze the topic. Side Five: Apply the topic. Side Six: Argue for or against the topic. CompareAssociateAnalyzeApplyArgue www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  220. 220. Brainstorming Technique Number Three Clustering What is it? When you write down words or concepts associated with the topic – any ideas that come into your mind www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  221. 221. Brainstorming Technique Number Three Clustering Draw a bubble. And write the topic above it. Brainstorm! Now look for words that connect with each other. Circle the words and connect them with lines. Global Warming rainforestsdisappearing extinction emissions dangerous dying animals toxic world wide Cars/SUVs factories landscape changes no icebergs expensive to fix? hurricanes Reversible? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  222. 222. Brainstorming Technique Number Four Listing or Bulleting What is it? Create a list of terms/ideas/concepts about the topic. Create multiple lists depending on the purpose. Global Warming Toxic fumes SUVs/Cars Extinction Belief/Disbelief Kyoto Agreement Belief/Disbelief Scientists disagree Average American China/USA Normal occurrence or abnormal event? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  223. 223. Brainstorming Technique Number Five Venn Diagram What is it? Draw two circles that connect, like this: List two topics above the circles. Brainstorm about the topics – what do they have in common and what is unique about each one. Cities Eiffel Tower Capital Became Paris in 400 A.D. francophone County seat Anglophone Founded in 1839 www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  224. 224. Brainstorming Technique Number Five Venn Diagram When is it used? When you are writing a comparison or contrast essay. Cities Eiffel Tower Capital Became Paris in 400 A.D. francophone County seat anglophone Founded in 1839 www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  225. 225. Brainstorming Technique Number Six Tree Diagram What is it? This diagram has a central idea to which you add branches that focus on details. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  226. 226. Number Six Tree Diagram When do you use it? This type of diagram is helpful in classification essays. Media Print Visual Audio Newspaper magazine booklet television webpage movie cd mp3 cassette Brainstorming Technique www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  227. 227. Brainstorming Technique Number Seven Act like a Journalist What is it? Using the question words in English to explore the topic. Who? What? When?Where? Why? How? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  228. 228. Brainstorming Technique Number Seven Act like a Journalist When is it useful? Use this technique when you want to write a narrative. Who? When? What? Where? Why? How? www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  229. 229. Brainstorming Technique Number Eight T-Diagram What is it? Using a T shape, list a category that you want to compare or contrast about a specific topic or topics. Do this for a variety of categories. Paris,FranceandParisTexas location Europe Northern France North America Northern Texas www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  230. 230. Brainstorming Technique Number Eight T-Diagram When is it useful? This technique helps when you are writing a contrast or comparison essay. Paris,FranceandParisTexas location Europe Northern France North America Northern Texas www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  231. 231. Brainstorming Technique Number Nine Spoke Diagram What is it? Write the topic in a circle. Then think of about causes and effects. Write these around the circle like spokes on a wheel. Global Warming too many people cars/suvs not recycling chopping down trees Crazy weather Loss of polar ice caps dying animals www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  232. 232. Brainstorming Technique Number Nine Spoke Diagram When is it useful? Use this technique when you want to explore cause and effect. too many people cars/suvs not recycling chopping down trees Global Warming Crazy weather loss of polar ice caps dying animals www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  233. 233. BRAINSTORMING 2 www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  234. 234. 234 WHAT IS BRAINSTORMING?  Brainstorming is a group activity technique.It is designed to generate lots of ideas for solution of a problem. The underlying principle is that the greater the number of ideas generated,the possibility that a quality solution will be found.  Brainstorming is a commonly used tool by academics researchers and business teams. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  235. 235. 235 RULES There are four basic rules in brainstorming. 1)Focus on quantity:If lots of ideas are generated it will be easy to produce a radical and effective solution. 2)Reserve criticism:Don’t comment on any ideas.First accept all,at a later stage judge. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  236. 236. 236 RULES 3)Welcome unusual ideas:To get a good and long list of ideas,unusual ideas are welcomed. 4)Combine and improve ideas:Good ideas may be combined to form a single better idea. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  237. 237. 237 PROCEDURE  Decide on the question or topic that you will present to the group during brainstorming.  Give yourself a time limit.  Choose the participants from five to twelve. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  238. 238. 238  Plan how you will record the results of brainstorming session.  Describe what you will do with the data.  Go through all the ideas and make sure that the meaning of idea is clear. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  239. 239. 239 TECHNIQUES  1) FREEWRITING  When you freewrite,you write down whatever comes into your mind.You don’t judge the quality of writing and don’t worry about style,spelling,grammar or punctuation.When you have finished your writing and have reached your goal,read back over the text,decide the solution. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  240. 240. 240 TECHNIQUES 2) NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE Participants are asked to write their ideas anonymously.Then the moderator collects the ideas and each is voted on by the group.The best idea is chosen. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  241. 241. 241 TECHNIQUES 3) GROUP PASSING TECHNIQUE Each person in a circular group writes down one idea,and then passes the piece of paper to the next person in a clockwise direction,who adds some thoughts.This continues until everybody gets his or her original piece of paper back.By this time,participants will have examined each idea in detail. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  242. 242. 242 TECHNIQUES 4)TEAM IDEA MAPPING METHOD This technique may improve collaboration and increase the quantity of ideas,and is designed so that all attendees participate and no ideas are rejected. The process begins with a well-defined topic.Each participant brainstorms individually,then all the ideas are merged onto one large idea map. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  243. 243. 243 TECHNIQUES 5)INDIVIDUAL BRAINSTORMING  It typically includes such techniques as free writing, free speaking, word association,and drawing a mind map,which people diagram their thoughts.  Individual brainstorming is useful method in creative wiriting. www.Projacs.com Dr.Ibrahim Alhariri
  244. 244. 244 TECHNIQUES 6)QUESTION BRAINSTORMING This process involves brainstorming the questions,rather than trying to come up with immediate answers and short term solutions. Questions are important in that tecnique.We need a list of questions to reach to the best solution in an orderly way. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  245. 245. 245 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF BRAINSTORMING ADVANTAGES  * Many ideas can be generated in a short time.  * Requires few material resources.  * The results can be used immediately or for possible use in other projects. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  246. 246. 246 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF BRAINSTORMING  * Is a “democratic” way of generating ideas.  * The concept of brainstorming is easy to understand. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  247. 247. 247 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF BRAINSTORMING DISADVANTAGES * Requires an experienced and sensitive faciliator who understands the social psychology of small groups. * Requires a dedication to quantity rather than quality. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  248. 248. 248 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF BRAINSTORMING * Shy people can have difficulties in participating. * May not be appropriate for some business or international cultures. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  249. 249. Problem-solving Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  250. 250. 250 OUTLINE  Definition of Term  The Problem-Solving Process  Principles of Interpersonal Problem Solving  Effective Problem Solving Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  251. 251. 251 DEFINITION OF TERM WHAT IS A PROBLEM?  It is a situation you want to change. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  252. 252. THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS STAGE ONE Define the Starting Issue(s) Define the Problem Analyze the Situation Objectives: 1. To analyze the facts. 2. To define the problem Understand the Issues Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  253. 253. THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS STAGE TWO Generate Ideas Make Decisions Evaluate Ideas Objectives: 1. To generate ideas. 2. To evaluate ideas. 3. To decide on the best possible solution Find Solutions Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  254. 254. THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS STAGE THREE Analyze the Impact Plan the Follow-through Plan Your Action Objectives: 1. To determine the impact on people and systems. 2. To build on action plan. 3. To decide on follow-through. Plan Your Action Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  255. 255. PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL PROBLEM-SOLVING 1. Presenting yourself • Eye Contact • Good voice 2. I-talk • Convey displeasure • Unhappiness about the situation 3. The Mary Poppins Rule “A spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down”. • Polite language 4. The Comic Parry (or keep it light) • Use of humor and wit in problem situations Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  256. 256. EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING • Left Brain • Right Brain Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  257. 257. EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING Left Brain • Follows a logical pattern • Is objective, rather than subjective • Views time chronologically, minute by minute, hour by hour • Sees things as true or false, black or white • Seeks the detail, sees the trees rather than the forest • Houses short-term memory • Thinks critically, perhaps negatively, asks “why?”. Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com
  258. 258. EFFECTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING Right Brain • Follows intuitive hunches • Creates patterns, without following a step- by-step process • Is subjective, rather than objective • Views time in a total sense – a lifetime, career, project • Sees the forest, rather than the trees • Thinks positively, unconstrained by preconceived ideas • Asks “why not?”, breaks rules Dr.Ibrahim Alhaririwww.Projacs.com

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