Cyberethics and AccessibilityIan Pouncey2012-03-02
✤   Introduction✤   What are Cyberethics?✤   Dilemmas✤   Priorities✤   Accessibility Cyberethics
Introduction
Introduction ✤   Who am I?
Introduction ✤   Who am I? ✤   Who are you?
Why are you interested inaccessibility?
Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤   Enlightened self-interest
Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤   Enlightened self-interest ✤   Professionalism
Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤   Enlightened self-interest ✤   Professionalism ✤   Legal
Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤   Enlightened self-interest ✤   Professionalism ✤   Legal ✤   Unique selling point
Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤   Enlightened self-interest ✤   Professionalism ✤   Legal ✤   Unique selling poi...
Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤   Enlightened self-interest ✤   Professionalism ✤   Legal ✤   Unique selling poi...
What are Cyberethics?The study of ethics pertaining to computer networks:  ✤   Acceptable behaviour for using the Internet...
Internet Engineering Task Force:RFC 1087Defines as unethical anything which:  ✤   Seeks to gain unauthorised access to the ...
Ten Commandments of ComputerEthics 1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. 2. Thou shalt not interfere with...
Ten Commandments of ComputerEthics 6. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you    have not paid. 7. T...
The Code of Fair InformationPractices 1. There must be no personal data record-keeping systems whose    very existence is ...
The Code of Fair InformationPractices 4. There must be a way for a person to correct or amend a record of    identifiable i...
What about accessibility?
The Universal Declaration ofHuman RightsArticle 27   Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of ...
UN Convention on the Rights ofPersons with DisabilitiesArticle 9 - Accessibility   To promote access for persons with disa...
Starting points for a definition ofCyberethical Accessibility
Starting points for a definition ofCyberethical Accessibility ✤   The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by e...
Starting points for a definition ofCyberethical Accessibility ✤   The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by e...
Starting points for a definition ofCyberethical Accessibility ✤   The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by e...
Dilemmas
The trolley problem
The trolley problem ✤   The driver dilemma
The trolley problem ✤   The driver dilemma ✤   The heavy weight
The trolley problem ✤   The driver dilemma ✤   The heavy weight ✤   The fat man
The trolley problem ✤   The driver dilemma ✤   The heavy weight ✤   The fat man ✤   The villainous fat man
Graded Absolutism
Priorities
How to build a webpage
How to build a webpage ✤   Content and markup
How to build a webpage ✤   Content and markup     ✤   Including alternative and link text
How to build a webpage ✤   Content and markup     ✤   Including alternative and link text ✤   Images based on alternative ...
How to build a webpage ✤   Content and markup     ✤   Including alternative and link text ✤   Images based on alternative ...
How to build a webpage ✤   Content and markup     ✤   Including alternative and link text ✤   Images based on alternative ...
How to build a webpage ✤   Content and markup     ✤   Including alternative and link text ✤   Images based on alternative ...
How to build a webpage ✤   Content and markup     ✤   Including alternative and link text ✤   Images based on alternative ...
How to build a webpage (part 2)
How to build a webpage (part 2) ✤   WAI-ARIA
How to build a webpage (part 2) ✤   WAI-ARIA     ✤   Usability enhancements
How to build a webpage (part 2) ✤   WAI-ARIA     ✤   Usability enhancements     ✤   Be careful - WAI-ARIA may be hazardous...
How to build a webpage (part 2) ✤   WAI-ARIA     ✤   Usability enhancements     ✤   Be careful - WAI-ARIA may be hazardous...
Considerations
Considerations ✤   Does it prevent user customisation?
Considerations ✤   Does it prevent user customisation? ✤   When there are conflicts, does it minimise the problems for the ...
Considerations ✤   Does it prevent user customisation? ✤   When there are conflicts, does it minimise the problems for the ...
<header>?
<header>? ✤   Jaws 10 and 11 in conjunction with Firefox 3.6 ignored <header>     content
<header>? ✤   Jaws 10 and 11 in conjunction with Firefox 3.6 ignored <header>     content ✤   Header Elements Removed (Sep...
<header>? ✤   Jaws 10 and 11 in conjunction with Firefox 3.6 ignored <header>     content ✤   Header Elements Removed (Sep...
WAI-ARIA interactions
“I believe this proposal isunethical and that we should not           pursue it.”
“Accessibility is actually more  important than Security”
Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y)
Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤   Usability
Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤   Usability     ✤   Choice
Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤   Usability     ✤   Choice         ✤   Complexity
Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤   Usability     ✤   Choice         ✤   Complexity ✤   Definition of perfect
Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤   Usability     ✤   Choice         ✤   Complexity ✤   Definition of perfect ✤   Acce...
Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤   Usability     ✤   Choice         ✤   Complexity ✤   Definition of perfect ✤   Acce...
Is it ever right to exclude access?
Is it ever right to exclude access? ✤   Gambling ✤   Alcohol ✤   Pornography ✤   Extreme political / religious beliefs
To the individual that is excluded it is of little comfort that effortshave been made to include others
Accessibility Cyberethics
Accessibility CyberethicsWe must:
Accessibility CyberethicsWe must:  ✤   Aim to provide an equivalent experience to all users
Accessibility CyberethicsWe must:  ✤   Aim to provide an equivalent experience to all users  ✤   Maximise support for the ...
Accessibility CyberethicsWe must:  ✤   Aim to provide an equivalent experience to all users  ✤   Maximise support for the ...
Accessibility CyberethicsWe must:  ✤   Aim to provide an equivalent experience to all users  ✤   Maximise support for the ...
Accessibility CyberethicsWe must:  ✤   Aim to provide an equivalent experience to all users  ✤   Maximise support for the ...
Accessibility Cyberethics
Accessibility CyberethicsWe must not:
Accessibility CyberethicsWe must not:  ✤   Regress accessibility between versions
Accessibility CyberethicsWe must not:  ✤   Regress accessibility between versions  ✤   See accessibility as a competitive ...
Accessibility CyberethicsWe must not:  ✤   Regress accessibility between versions  ✤   See accessibility as a competitive ...
Always strive to do the best you can with the knowledge and   resources that you have
Thank youhttp://ianpouncey.com@IanPouncey
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  • http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1087\n
  • http://www.computerethicsinstitute.org/images/TheTenCommandmentsOfComputerEthics.pdf\n
  • http://www.computerethicsinstitute.org/images/TheTenCommandmentsOfComputerEthics.pdf\n
  • http://epic.org/privacy/consumer/code_fair_info.html\n
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  • http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml\n
  • http://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?navid=14&amp;amp;pid=150\n
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  • http://www.terrillthompson.com/tests/html5-header.html\nhttp://www.accessibleculture.org/articles/2010/09/header-elements-removed/\nhttp://www.accessibleculture.org/articles/2010/10/header-is-back/\n
  • http://www.terrillthompson.com/tests/html5-header.html\nhttp://www.accessibleculture.org/articles/2010/09/header-elements-removed/\nhttp://www.accessibleculture.org/articles/2010/10/header-is-back/\n
  • http://www.terrillthompson.com/tests/html5-header.html\nhttp://www.accessibleculture.org/articles/2010/09/header-elements-removed/\nhttp://www.accessibleculture.org/articles/2010/10/header-is-back/\n
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  • http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-html/2012Feb/0274.html\n
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  • Cyberethics and accessibility

    1. 1. Cyberethics and AccessibilityIan Pouncey2012-03-02
    2. 2. ✤ Introduction✤ What are Cyberethics?✤ Dilemmas✤ Priorities✤ Accessibility Cyberethics
    3. 3. Introduction
    4. 4. Introduction ✤ Who am I?
    5. 5. Introduction ✤ Who am I? ✤ Who are you?
    6. 6. Why are you interested inaccessibility?
    7. 7. Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤ Enlightened self-interest
    8. 8. Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤ Enlightened self-interest ✤ Professionalism
    9. 9. Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤ Enlightened self-interest ✤ Professionalism ✤ Legal
    10. 10. Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤ Enlightened self-interest ✤ Professionalism ✤ Legal ✤ Unique selling point
    11. 11. Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤ Enlightened self-interest ✤ Professionalism ✤ Legal ✤ Unique selling point ✤ Technical challenge
    12. 12. Why are you interested inaccessibility? ✤ Enlightened self-interest ✤ Professionalism ✤ Legal ✤ Unique selling point ✤ Technical challenge ✤ Ethical thing to do
    13. 13. What are Cyberethics?The study of ethics pertaining to computer networks: ✤ Acceptable behaviour for using the Internet ✤ Storage and display of personal data ✤ Ownership of digital data ✤ Access to adult content ✤ The right to access Internet content
    14. 14. Internet Engineering Task Force:RFC 1087Defines as unethical anything which: ✤ Seeks to gain unauthorised access to the resources of the Internet. ✤ Disrupts the intended use of the Internet. ✤ Wastes resources (people, capacity, computer) through such actions. ✤ Destroys the integrity of computer-based information, or ✤ Compromises the privacy of users
    15. 15. Ten Commandments of ComputerEthics 1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. 2. Thou shalt not interfere with other peoples computer work. 3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other peoples computer files. 4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. 5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.
    16. 16. Ten Commandments of ComputerEthics 6. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid. 7. Thou shalt not use other peoples computer resources without authorisation or proper compensation. 8. Thou shalt not appropriate other peoples intellectual output. 9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing. 10.Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and respect for your fellow humans
    17. 17. The Code of Fair InformationPractices 1. There must be no personal data record-keeping systems whose very existence is secret. 2. There must be a way for a person to find out what information about the person is in a record and how it is used. 3. There must be a way for a person to prevent information about the person that was obtained for one purpose from being used or made available for other purposes without the persons consent.
    18. 18. The Code of Fair InformationPractices 4. There must be a way for a person to correct or amend a record of identifiable information about the person. 5. Any organisation creating, maintaining, using, or disseminating records of identifiable personal data must assure the reliability of the data for their intended use and must take precautions to prevent misuses of the data.
    19. 19. What about accessibility?
    20. 20. The Universal Declaration ofHuman RightsArticle 27 Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
    21. 21. UN Convention on the Rights ofPersons with DisabilitiesArticle 9 - Accessibility To promote access for persons with disabilities to new information and communications technologies and systems, including the Internet;
    22. 22. Starting points for a definition ofCyberethical Accessibility
    23. 23. Starting points for a definition ofCyberethical Accessibility ✤ The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.
    24. 24. Starting points for a definition ofCyberethical Accessibility ✤ The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect. ✤ Web pages are designed for people.
    25. 25. Starting points for a definition ofCyberethical Accessibility ✤ The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect. ✤ Web pages are designed for people. ✤ Whatever the device you use for getting your information out, it should be the same information.
    26. 26. Dilemmas
    27. 27. The trolley problem
    28. 28. The trolley problem ✤ The driver dilemma
    29. 29. The trolley problem ✤ The driver dilemma ✤ The heavy weight
    30. 30. The trolley problem ✤ The driver dilemma ✤ The heavy weight ✤ The fat man
    31. 31. The trolley problem ✤ The driver dilemma ✤ The heavy weight ✤ The fat man ✤ The villainous fat man
    32. 32. Graded Absolutism
    33. 33. Priorities
    34. 34. How to build a webpage
    35. 35. How to build a webpage ✤ Content and markup
    36. 36. How to build a webpage ✤ Content and markup ✤ Including alternative and link text
    37. 37. How to build a webpage ✤ Content and markup ✤ Including alternative and link text ✤ Images based on alternative / link text
    38. 38. How to build a webpage ✤ Content and markup ✤ Including alternative and link text ✤ Images based on alternative / link text ✤ CSS
    39. 39. How to build a webpage ✤ Content and markup ✤ Including alternative and link text ✤ Images based on alternative / link text ✤ CSS ✤ JavaScript
    40. 40. How to build a webpage ✤ Content and markup ✤ Including alternative and link text ✤ Images based on alternative / link text ✤ CSS ✤ JavaScript ✤ Usability enhancements
    41. 41. How to build a webpage ✤ Content and markup ✤ Including alternative and link text ✤ Images based on alternative / link text ✤ CSS ✤ JavaScript ✤ Usability enhancements ✤ Always consider focus, make Virtual Buffer refreshes
    42. 42. How to build a webpage (part 2)
    43. 43. How to build a webpage (part 2) ✤ WAI-ARIA
    44. 44. How to build a webpage (part 2) ✤ WAI-ARIA ✤ Usability enhancements
    45. 45. How to build a webpage (part 2) ✤ WAI-ARIA ✤ Usability enhancements ✤ Be careful - WAI-ARIA may be hazardous to your usability
    46. 46. How to build a webpage (part 2) ✤ WAI-ARIA ✤ Usability enhancements ✤ Be careful - WAI-ARIA may be hazardous to your usability ✤ Assistive technology specific fixes
    47. 47. Considerations
    48. 48. Considerations ✤ Does it prevent user customisation?
    49. 49. Considerations ✤ Does it prevent user customisation? ✤ When there are conflicts, does it minimise the problems for the conflicted option?
    50. 50. Considerations ✤ Does it prevent user customisation? ✤ When there are conflicts, does it minimise the problems for the conflicted option? ✤ Assistive technology bugs
    51. 51. <header>?
    52. 52. <header>? ✤ Jaws 10 and 11 in conjunction with Firefox 3.6 ignored <header> content
    53. 53. <header>? ✤ Jaws 10 and 11 in conjunction with Firefox 3.6 ignored <header> content ✤ Header Elements Removed (September 8, 2010)
    54. 54. <header>? ✤ Jaws 10 and 11 in conjunction with Firefox 3.6 ignored <header> content ✤ Header Elements Removed (September 8, 2010) ✤ Header is Back! (October 13, 2010)
    55. 55. WAI-ARIA interactions
    56. 56. “I believe this proposal isunethical and that we should not pursue it.”
    57. 57. “Accessibility is actually more important than Security”
    58. 58. Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y)
    59. 59. Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤ Usability
    60. 60. Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤ Usability ✤ Choice
    61. 61. Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤ Usability ✤ Choice ✤ Complexity
    62. 62. Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤ Usability ✤ Choice ✤ Complexity ✤ Definition of perfect
    63. 63. Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤ Usability ✤ Choice ✤ Complexity ✤ Definition of perfect ✤ Accessibility as a feature
    64. 64. Perfect accessibility (#PerfectA11y) ✤ Usability ✤ Choice ✤ Complexity ✤ Definition of perfect ✤ Accessibility as a feature ✤ Non-commercial content
    65. 65. Is it ever right to exclude access?
    66. 66. Is it ever right to exclude access? ✤ Gambling ✤ Alcohol ✤ Pornography ✤ Extreme political / religious beliefs
    67. 67. To the individual that is excluded it is of little comfort that effortshave been made to include others
    68. 68. Accessibility Cyberethics
    69. 69. Accessibility CyberethicsWe must:
    70. 70. Accessibility CyberethicsWe must: ✤ Aim to provide an equivalent experience to all users
    71. 71. Accessibility CyberethicsWe must: ✤ Aim to provide an equivalent experience to all users ✤ Maximise support for the majority
    72. 72. Accessibility CyberethicsWe must: ✤ Aim to provide an equivalent experience to all users ✤ Maximise support for the majority ✤ Minimise friction for the minority
    73. 73. Accessibility CyberethicsWe must: ✤ Aim to provide an equivalent experience to all users ✤ Maximise support for the majority ✤ Minimise friction for the minority ✤ Build tools that are both accessible and produce accessible output
    74. 74. Accessibility CyberethicsWe must: ✤ Aim to provide an equivalent experience to all users ✤ Maximise support for the majority ✤ Minimise friction for the minority ✤ Build tools that are both accessible and produce accessible output ✤ Evangelise accessibility
    75. 75. Accessibility Cyberethics
    76. 76. Accessibility CyberethicsWe must not:
    77. 77. Accessibility CyberethicsWe must not: ✤ Regress accessibility between versions
    78. 78. Accessibility CyberethicsWe must not: ✤ Regress accessibility between versions ✤ See accessibility as a competitive advantage
    79. 79. Accessibility CyberethicsWe must not: ✤ Regress accessibility between versions ✤ See accessibility as a competitive advantage ✤ Give up the good fight!
    80. 80. Always strive to do the best you can with the knowledge and resources that you have
    81. 81. Thank youhttp://ianpouncey.com@IanPouncey

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