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Out Of Sight, Is Out Of Mind


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For our role to be appreciated we must become more visible to the public eye. I propose the use of a little used (and not misunderstood) term, "Electronic Systems", as a banner behind which the Electronic, Computer Scientists, Embedded System, Mechatronic, Physicists, Mathematicians, Process Engineers, etc can 'assemble' ... and thus speak with unity.

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Out Of Sight, Is Out Of Mind

  1. 1. 1v0Prof. Ian Phillips Principal Staff Eng’r, Out of Sight, Sight ARM Visiting Prof. at ... is Out of Mind The Importance of VisibilityContribution to Industry Award 2008 Uo.Liverpool, 23feb12 & Uo.Plymouth, 2mar12 1
  2. 2. Our 21c World ... Statistics ...  Population ~7,000,000,000  Growth rate ~2%pa  Life expectancy 60-80yr ... Mission: Celebrity, Leisure 2
  3. 3. Engineering in the UK ... ... E i Engineering made th world we li i yet most people can’t see it ! i d the ld live in; t t l ’t 3
  4. 4. The Pre‐Engineered World (2,500 BC ‐ 800 AD.) World Stats ...  Population ~100K ->1M (Outnumbered!)  Growth rate ~0.1%pa  Life expectancy 30-40yr ... Mission: Survive and Grow Technology ...  Low stone wall for a base,  Wooden poles and rafters.  Thatch, turf, or hides for roof.  Timber split using wedges wedges  Sharp stones for cutting  ... 3,500yrs of: “If it was good enough for my father’s, father s, father’s father’s father s, father; its good enough for me!... Engineering brought mankind out of the mud-hut ! mud hut 4
  5. 5. Chronology of Science / Engineering Universe – 13.6Byr Earth – 4.5Byr Cro-Magnon Man (Us!) – 35,000 yr ago  ‘Developed’ from Homo-Sapien (Wise Human) 100,000 yr ago  Mi i S i N t (1 000 generations) Mission: Survive Nature (1,000 ti ) The Philosophers – 2,500-1,000 yr ago  Pythagoras Socrates Plato Aristotle, Archimedes, ... Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Archimedes  Mission: Understanding Nature The Scientists – 1,000-500 yrs ago  Galileo, Descartes, (1000 ad)  Electricity - William Gilbert (1600ad)  Mission: Manipulation of Nature The Engineers – 260 yrs ago  Industrial Revolution (1750: 8 gen’n) gen n)  Year 0: Science Meets Exploitation  Mission: Exploitation of Nature... Economic (and Population) Explosion Thomas Telford’s Iron Bridge (1778), Ironbridge, UK 5
  6. 6. The Industrial Revolution (1750) Exploitation of Nature  Unleashing the Power of Science, by delivering it in ways that satisfied a Volume Need ... We now call this Business.  It began in the United Kingdom, then spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world America world.  Major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology  Mechanisation of the textile industries,  Development of iron-making techniques  Trade expansion through canals improved roads and railways [5] canals, railways.  Steam power, water wheels and powered machinery  Profound effect on socio-economic and cultural conditions... For the first time in history (13.6Byr), the living standards of the masses of ordinary people underwent sustained growth h f di l d i d h 6
  7. 7. Manipulating Atomic Properties of Matter Electronic Technology is .. ...The Most Exciting thing mankind has created in our 35kyr history! Early Electronics The First Transistor (1947) Modern Transistor ~70 yrs 0 ... And it has all happened within the span of one life-time! 7
  8. 8. Moore’s Law: c1965 “Moores Law” was coined by Carver Mead in 1970, from Gordon Moores article in Electronics Magazine 19 April 1965 "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits“. “The complexity for minimum p y component costs has increased at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year ... Certainly over the short term this rate can be expected to continue, if not to increase. Over t dt ti tt i O the longer term, the rate of increase is a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at y f least 10 years. That means by 1975, the number of components per integrated circuit for minimum cost will be 65,000. I believe that such allarge circuit can be b ilt on a single wafer” i it b built i l f ” Gordon Moore, Founder of Intel In 1965 he was designing ICs with ~50 transistors! g gMoore’s Law has held for nearly 50 years ... Taking us to 100B transistor ICs 8
  9. 9. 1975: No Electronics in Most Things GPO Type 706 Telephone Vauxhall Viva HB SL90 Ian Phillips Graduate 1975 9
  10. 10. 1975: Transistor (Solid state) Electronics Domestically we had...  Professionally we had a bit more ...  Portable Radio  Radar  Pocket Calculator ...  Transmitters  Colour TV  TV Cameras  Hi-Fi  Basic radio satellites ... That’s about all!  Undersea cables (phone)  First desk-top computers TI SR 51 Calculator c1978 1978 Ian Phillips Graduate 1975 IBM 220PX c1980 1980BeoVision 3500 c1975 Stuart 5 Transistor Radio 1975 10
  11. 11. Moore’s Law: 50 years of an Exponent X s/Chip (M) r/PM (K) Transistors Transistor ITRS’9911
  12. 12. Integrated Transistors in 2012 ...  Modelled ‘views’ of a 30 x 30 nm transistor Asen Assenov gh notes 2km hig £1B is a stack of £50 n  3,000 transistors will sit side-by-side in the thickness of a bank-note!  A Few Hundred Billion (1011) will fit on a chip! s ... How do we Design the circuit for connecting 100B transistors? Its all about R t i t ? It ll b t Reuse! !12
  13. 13. 2012: Electronic Systems are Everywhere!13
  14. 14. Putting ‘Smart’ into Electronic Systems …14
  15. 15. The ARM RISC‐Processor Core ADDR[31:0] Address Incrementer Scan Debug Address Register Incrementer Control P CFGBIGEND C CLK CLKEN PC Update WRITE Register Bank Instruction SIZE[1:0] Decoder Decode Stage St nIRQ nFIQ A A B Instruction nRESET Multiplier B Decompression and ABORT L B U u u TRANS B s s PROT u Barrel Control LOCK s Shifter Logic CPnOPC CPnCPI Write Data Read Data CPA 32 Bit ALU CPB Register Register WDATA[31:0] RDATA[31:0]15
  16. 16. The ‘Lego‐Brick’ Chip‐Design Concept nVidea Tegra3 ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM16
  17. 17. More and More Systems on a ChipUsers require a pocket ‘Super-Computer’ ...  Silicon Technology Provides a few-Billion raw transistors ...  ARM’s IP makes it Practical to utilise them ... • 10 Programmable Processors • 4 x A9 Processors (2x2): • 4 x MALI 400 Fragment Proc: • 1 x MALI 400 Vertex Proc Proc. • 1 x MALI Video CoDec • Software Stacks, OS’s and Design Tools/ • ARM Technology gives chip/system designers a good start. Design Reuse ... start • Improves Productivity • Improves TTM • I Improves Quality/Certainty Q lit /C t i t17
  18. 18. ARM Technology  Electronic System products incorporate more and more ARM technology – Processor, M lti di P Multimedia and Software IPProcessor IP – Design of the brain of the chipPhysical IP – Design of the building blocks of the chip fSoftware & Development tools ... 800 Partners; 600 Licences in 200 Companies ... Millions of developers; Billions of users 18
  19. 19. The World’s Favourite IP Provider 1990 - "A barn in Cambridge"  12 engineers, in Cambridge  No Revenue, No Patents  Cash from Apple & VLSI  Spin out of Acorn UK ... Spin-out  BBC Computers in Schools (1981)  Roots in Uo.Cambridge (c1975) ... A Dream to become the Global Standard for Embedded CPUs 2012 - "The worlds leading IP Product"  Powering >90% of the Smart Electronic Systems in the world  7B CPU shipped iin 2011 ... G th ~25%pa; 40B t t l ( 50 all PC !) CPUs hi d Growth 25% total (>50x ll PCs!)  FTSE 100 company: Revenue ~£491M, PBT ~37%, R&D ~30%  Cambridge HQ: 25 offices/labs 2000 people ww (850 in the UK) g p p ( )  95% revenue is foreign earnings19
  20. 20. An Irresistible Societal Trend ... Electronic Systems ... + Get Smarter + Get Smaller/Cheaper The Internet of Things g + Get Pervasive + Talk to One Another 100 Billion + Need no Attention + Work Better ... Cease To Be Noticed ! Mobile Internet 10 Billion Desktop D ktUnits Internet PC 1 Billion 100M Mini 2nd Era Mainframe 10M 1M 1st Era Cost 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 20
  21. 21. So Why are we Failing to Impress? Our Technology Enables Such Wonderful Things  Surely ‘they’ appreciate our technologies!  Surely they appreciate our roles in creating them !  No they don’t ... ... The Media and Politicians consider the UK has lost the technology battle to China and the USA (And Europe isn’t far behind) Without a good Public Appreciation ...  Education and research budgets will be progressively cut.  Without With t access to good quality Graduates and Research O t t d lit G d t dR h Outcomes, UK Technology Opportunities and Businesses will ‘dry-up’.  The Failure Prophesy becomes Self-Fulfilling p y g ... We’ve not had to Market Ourselves or Technology before! ... The question is are we already too late? is, 21
  22. 22. 2012: Electronic Systems are Everywhere!It’s very clever to rearranging the atoms in a ‘Stone’ into a ‘Phone’ ... ... But it’s not magic! ... We are a very‐long way from creating the simplest life‐forms! 22
  23. 23. The Threshold of Magic 1: Clarke: Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. Everybody has a threshold, beyond which Functionality is Indistinguishable From Magic1!  Chemical Systems Ch i l S t  Biological Systems  Economic Systems y  Electronic Systems The Incandescent Light: is the for most non-scientific, but b t well educated people! ll d t d l !... Its not a crime, to Not Understand Technology!... The c e is not realising t at peop e do t, when e crime s ot ea s g that people don’t, e you are the one to suffer as a consequence! 23
  24. 24. Confusing Technology with Product ... Real- Real-People buy Functionality ! F ti alit24
  25. 25. The Computer ... Or Is It?25
  26. 26. Computer: A Machine for Computing ...  Computing ... ... A general term for algebraic ( g g (mathematical) manipulation ) p of data ... Numerated Processed Data/ Phenomena y=F(x,t,s) Information OUT (y) IN (x) ... State and Time are factors in this.  It can include p e o e a ranging from human t t ca c ude phenomena a g g o u a thinking to g calculations with a narrower meaning. Wikipedia  Usually used it to exercise analogies (models) of real-world situations; Frequently real-time. Freq entl in real time ... No mention of Implementation Technology in this! 26
  27. 27. Planet Motion Computer – Orrery c1700 Mechanical Technology• Inventor: George Graham (1674-1751)• Single-Task, Continuous Time, Analogue Mechanical Computing (With backlash!) 27
  28. 28. Babbages Difference Engine 1837 Mechanical(Re)construction Technology c 000 c2000  The difference engine consists of a number of columns, numbered from 1 to N. Each column is able to store one decimal number. The only operation the engine can do is add the value of a column n + 1 to column n to produce the new value of n. Column N can only store a constant, column 1 displays (and possibly prints) the value of the calculation on the current iteration. Computer for Calculating Tables: A Basic ALU Engine 28
  29. 29. Enigma ~1940 Mechanical Technology Data Encryption/Decryption Computer29
  30. 30. Colossus Computer 1944 Valve/Mechanical Technology Code-Breaking Code Breaking Computer: A Data Processor30
  31. 31. Digital Computer – Baby 1947 (Reconstruction) Valve/Software Technology General Purpose, Quantised Time and Data, (Digital) Electronic Computing31
  32. 32. Analogue Computer – AKAT c1960 Transistor TechnologyGeneral Purpose, Continuous Time, Approximate (Analogue) Electronic Computing32
  33. 33. Products Make Money 21c Businesses have to be  Selling things that People (End-Customers) want to buy.  Operations and C O ti d Competition i Gl b l and so are I titi is Global d Investors t  Nationality has little meaning Business needs  End-Customers buy Functionality not Technology  Technologies enable Product Options  Business-Models make Money New Products are  Design is a Cost/Risk to be Minimised  Technology (HW, SW, Mechanics, Optics, etc) is (just) a means to an end!  New Technology increases Cost/Risk ... But not always Value... Gl b li ti makes B i Globalisation k Business F Focus on C Core-Competence! C t !33
  34. 34. Globalisation and the Global Product Electronic Systems are never the sole achievement of Individual Businesses, Businesses Countries or Institutions34
  35. 35. The Technology in an iConic Product ...35
  36. 36. ... Cool Design36
  37. 37. ... Actual Design happens at Many Levels ...37
  38. 38. Inside the Case ...Down 1-Level: Modules iPhone 4s vibrator motor. rear-facing 5 MP camera with 720p video at 30 FPS, tap to focus feature, and LED flash. , 38 Source ...
  39. 39. Inside the Case ...Down 1-Level: Modules The Control Board.39 Source ...
  40. 40. Inside The Control Board   (b‐side) Down 2-Levels: Sub-Assemblies Visible Design-Team Members ...  Samsung (flash memory) - (ARM Partner)  Cirrus Logic (audio codec) - (ARM Partner) g ( ) ( )  AKM (Magnetic Sensor)  Texas Instruments (Touch Screen Controller and mobile DDR) - (ARM Partner) Invisible Design-Team Members ... g  Software Tools, OS & Drivers, GSM Security; Graphics, Video and Sound ...  Manufacturing, Assembly, Test, Certification ... 40 Source ...
  41. 41. Inside The Control Board   (a‐side)Down 2-Levels: Sub-Assemblies Visible Design-Team Members...  A4 Processor, specified by Apple, designed and manufactured by Samsung ...  The central unit that provides the iPhone 4 with its GP computing power.  Reported to contain ARM A8 600 MHz CPU (other ARM CPUs and IP)  ST-Micro (3 axis gyroscope) - (ARM Partner)  Broadcom (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and GPS) - (ARM Partner)  Skyworks (GSM)  Triquint (GSM PA)  Infineon (GSM Transceiver) - (ARM Partner) GPS Bluetooth, EDR &FM 41 Source ...
  42. 42. The A4 SIP Package   (Cross‐section) Memory ‘Package’ 2 Memory DiesGlue Processor SOC Di P Die 4-Layer Platform Package Package’Down 3-Levels: IC Packaging  The processor is the centre rectangle. The silver circles beneath it are solder balls.  Two rectangles above are RAM die, offset to make room for the wirebonds.  Putting the RAM close to the processor reduces latency, making RAM faster and cuts power latency power.  Unknown Mfr (Memory)  Samsung/ARM (Processor)  Unknown (SIP Technology) ( gy) 42 Source ...
  43. 43. nVidea Tegra 3 Processor      (Around 1B transistors) 43
  44. 44. Lots and Lots of Designers ...  159 Tier-1 Suppliers ...  Thousands of Design Engineers  10’s of thousands of Engineers  Globally ... Hundreds more Tier-2 suppliers (Including ARM)44
  45. 45. Jo(sephine) Public Buys Your Work ... The Importance of Public Understanding ... Their purchasing power pays f Th h for what we all do!45
  46. 46. 2012: Education Position ... Science, Physics, Engineering, (Maths)  Numbers Declining. Courses Closing. Quality Questioned.  Perception: Difficult. Boring. Poor ROI. No Career Pros. (In UK)  Alternative: Fame. Celebrity. (Easy Option!). Technology = IT/ICT = Technology  Use, Sales and Support of PCs and Mobile Phones  Boring: Did it in (Primary) school.  Geeky (Pathetic)  Lost Opportunity ... ... F the UK For th... Lack of Public understanding of opportunities and challenges ... Because We are not telling anybody about them! 46
  47. 47. A Simple Public Message Electronic Systems Permeate our lives today ...  Visibly and Invisibly they underpin most of the improved services and exciting new products i our li d in lives! (IT and ICT are included in this) ! ... With huge direct and indirect contribution to the UK Economy. Further electronic miniaturisation (Moore’s Law) will fuel the Ubiquity of (Moore s Smart Electronic Systems tomorrow ...  They will underpin all advances in Business and Society  They will underpin all Environmental and Sustainable actions  They will be the outcome of distributed international activities  They will underpin every aspect of our lives ... ... They will be largely invisible; yet we will be totally dependent on them!... Th UK must maintain a share of pre-eminent, valued, roles th The t i t i h f i t l d l throughout h t the life-cycles of Electronic Systems; to avoid over reliance on the continued beneficence of other Nations! 1 47 1: NMI letter to Vince Cable. Jun10
  48. 48. ... Bring Our Work to The Public !48
  49. 49. The 21C will be what YOU Make It ... Th k Thankyou for Listening g“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic! Arthur C. Clarke.49
  50. 50. Reading & References Electronics 2015: Making a Visible Difference (Referred)  DTI EIGT Report, HMG URN 04/1812, 2004. Engineering UK 2009 (and 2011): The state of engineering (Referred)  EngineeringUK ( E i E i i UK (ex Engineering C i Council), 2009 and 2011 il) d 2011. The Innovators Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail (Disruptive Tech.)  by Clayton M. Christensen: HBS Press, 1997 Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology ( p p g g gy (Research in 21C) )  by Henry William Chesbrough : HBS Press, 2003 The World Is Flat (Globalisation)  by Thomas L. Friedman: Penguin, 2005 Staying P St i Power (B i (Business) )  by Michael Cusumano: Oxford, 2010 A Short History of Nearly Everything (A different view on what we know)  by b Bill Bryson: Black Swan, 2003 B Bl k S The Voyages of the Beagle (Scientific Observation) – Free on-line  By Charles Darwin,1860 An Essay on the Principles of Population (Natural Competition) – Free on line on-line  By Thomas Malthus,1789 50