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Capabilities: The Bridge Between R-&-D - 21may14


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Research can seem very isolated from Product Development. This work illustrates the role of Research in establishing Capabilities; Capabilities which will subsequently be used in Product Development. Thus showing Research to be important in the ecology of a healthy business.

Published in: Engineering, Technology, Business
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Capabilities: The Bridge Between R-&-D - 21may14

  1. 1. 1 Capabilities:The Bridge Between Research and Development London, 21mar14 Prof. Ian Phillips Principal Staff Engineer ARM Ltd Visiting Prof. at ... Contribution to Industry Award 2008 Opinions expressed are my own ... Links to Pdf andVideo @
  2. 2. 2  Imperceptible, Perpetual, Insidious change ...  NewTechnologies, Methods andTools  Did we understand them then?  Do we understand them now? ... Has ‘old’ simply become irrelevant to today? Research, Development, Product; familiar terms that have Puzzled me! ... Products and Technology have changed hugely, so does RD&P still mean the same? Today Samsung Galaxy S5 2014 (1yr lifetime) 40yr ago BT Yeoman c1964-84 (20yr lifetime)
  3. 3. 3 10nm 100nm 1um 10um 100um ApproximateProcessGeometry ITRS’99 Transistors/Chip(M) Transistor/PM(K) X’s_law Even 20 yr of Moore’s Law has Changed ARM!
  4. 4. 4  Cro-Magnon Man (Us!) – 35,000 yr ago  ‘Developed’ out of Homo-Sapien (Wise Human) >100,000 yr  Mission: Survive Nature (1,000 gen’n)  The Philosophers – 2,500-1,000 yr ago  Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato,Aristotle,Archimedes, ...  Mission: Understanding Nature  The Scientists – 1,000-500 yrs ago  Galileo, Descartes, (1000 ad)  Electricity -William Gilbert (1600ad)  Mission: Manipulation of Nature  The Engineers – 260 yrs ago  Industrial Revolution (1750: 8 gen’n)  Mission: Exploitation of Nature  Year 0: Science-Meets-Exploitation ...Technology Based Business Emerges! Universe – 13.6Byr Earth – 4.5Byr Life – 3.5Byr What do our Forefathers say about this ...
  5. 5. 5 History: 87BC - Hipparchos’s Antikythera Early-Mechanical Computation Hipparchos c.190 BC – c.120 BC. Ancient Greek Astronomer,Philosopher and Mathematician  A Mechanism for Computing Planetary Positions  Technology: Hand-Made Metal, Hand-Cut Gears, Analogue  Found in the Mediterranean in 1900 (Believe there might have been 10’s)
  6. 6. 6  A Mechanism for Computing PolynomialTables  Technology: Metal, Precision Gears, Digital (base 10)  Too expensive for the technology of the day History: 1837 - Babbage's Difference Engine Constructed 2000 Late-Mechanical Computation
  7. 7. 7 History: 1856 - Amsler’s Planimeter Mechanical Computation Planimeter 2014 !  A Mechanism for Computing the Area of an arbitrary 2D shape  Technology: Precision Mechanics, Analogue  Available today ... Electronically enhanced
  8. 8. 8  General Purpose (Programmable) Computing Mechanism  Technology: Electronics (valves), Digital (base 2)  Available today ... Micro-Electronically enhanced (Mainframe <=> Laptop) History: 1947 - Uo.Manchester’s “Baby” (Reconstruction) Electronic Computation
  9. 9. 9 Available Technology Limits Product Options ...  TheTechnology andTools available when you start your Product Development ... ... limit the Technology you can utilise in your Product ! (duh!)  But failure to recognise this causes time and budget overrun (missing market opportunity)  Customers don’t actually buy Technology; they buy Solutions to their Needs  A Need has intrinsic value; the Product addressing it must be affordable in this context  Not all Solutions are equal: Innovative solutions use Available Technology in ‘novel’ ways to deliver Product Differentiation  This is the major contribution of the Engineer; and why team and personal, knowledge and experience is (and will remain) a genuine asset. ... New-Technology only provides Product Options ... Not all will make aValuable difference to your End-Product
  10. 10. 10 Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs)1  Correctly illustrates a 1:1 relationship between Science andTechnology ...  But is frequently misinterpreted as a 1:1 relationship between Science and Product ...  Because Production is synonymous with Product (Not)  Thus a Product is a Developed-form of a Single Science (Not)  We know that Products are more complex ...  Technology Products depend on many Sciences  End-Customers don’t actually buyTechnology ... ... although they frequently call it that ... ... they are buying a (Black-Box) Solution to their needs  Politicians and the Media (thusThe Public) is content to take the simpler, but wrong, interpretation ...With Consequences on how we areTaught; and thus how weWork! 1:Attributed to US DoD / NASA
  11. 11. 11  Digital Electronics  Software  Memory  Optics  Analogue Electronic  Sensors/Transducers  Mechanics  Micro-Motors  Displays  DischargeTube  Robotic Assembly  Plastic, Metal, Glass ...Technologies working seamlessly together to deliver System Functionality (Camera) ... But having access to theTechnology is not enough, it has to be usable! 2014 - Canon EOS 5D A 21c Electronic System1 Product 1: aka; Cyber-Physical System (Geek-Talk!) 2: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Incorporating DIGIC5+ (ARM) System-Level Computation ‘Classic’ Computer Q: Why couldn’t ARM make a camera to compete with Canon? A: Because Canon has too many Capabilities that we don’t have!
  12. 12. 12  Businesses need to Know they can make a Product before they Start  Capabilities help to Manage the Risk (There’s frequently no second chance!)  Making a Product is Work; but based on Capabilities it is Known-Work!  Unknown’ leads to ProtractedTimescales, Blown Budgets, Lost Opportunities and Panic!  Business need and Appropriate set of Capabilities, before it commences a Product Development ... And Different Products (even Similar) may need different Capability-Sets So it is Capabilities that Limit a Business's Product Options ... ... they are also an Entry Barrier to your Competitors CAPABILITIES Product Development PRODUCT
  13. 13. 13  Product – Delivered Functionality Cost-Effective, Functional, Quality  Capability – InstalledTechnology In-place in business, ready for mission-critical use in a New Product Dev’t.  Technology – Scaled-up Science Reliable and productive enough for use in a real Product or its Process. May be New-to-All, or New-to-You (others may have this as a Capability)  Science – Demonstrated Fundamentals Predictable, Encapsulated, New The Path from Science to Exploitation Science =in=> Technology =in=> Capability =in=> Product Capability Capability Capability Capability Capability Capability Capability Technology Technology Technology Science Science Science Science Science Science Science UNKNOWN Unknown Concept WORK(known) Enquire, understand & establish (Research) Exploitknowledge(Development) TRL 9 TRL 1-4 TRL 5-9 TRL 9 Using Science or Technology here just increases RISK
  14. 14. 14  A Capability is an Installed ‘Unit’ of Technology, such that it may be relied upon for Mission-Critical Business purposes.  They are Installed: Reliable,Trusted, Predictable, Usable.  They CrossTechnology Boundaries (HW, SW, Optics, Multi-Chip, etc)  They are NOT Product Specific ...  Eg: Need Fortran capability by 2016. Need to handle Logic Reliability by10nm node. Need 3D capability to replace Moore’s Law by 2025. Need 10x power efficiency improvement by 2020. Need MP JIT Java Compiler by 2018.  They can beTechnology Answers ...  Eg: How will our Industry handle the end of Moors Law? How can we increase our Customers and their Customers Productivity?When will Transistor Reliability become a serious issue? ... Capabilities are the Foundations for Product Development ... they are established by Research (literally:“Finding out”) The Capability Model1 Capabilities are the Links between Research and Development 1: As a technical concept, not directly described by literature.
  15. 15. 15  ShortTerm: From the Known-Set ...  Refine what we know (Including Individual knowledge,Team knowledge, andTools).  Acquire what others know (Recruit, Develop, Contract, Licence,Acquire, Espionage, etc) ... Specific, internal, secrecy, low-number, high-cost, confidence  LongerTerm: From the Unknown-Set ...  Targeted Research - Specific, point-focus, commercial advantage (Crown-Jewels)  Partnered Research - Specific, focused, indirect commercial advantage (Business Partners)  University/Institute Research - Generic, wide spectrum, non-differentiating knowledge  Private Funded Research Projects  National Support Programs (TSB, H2020, Research Councils, DARPA, etc) ... Generic, broad-spectrum, openness, high-number, low-cost, partnering, sharing, uncertainty ... Guided by a Roadmap derived from Corporate Objectives Research Establishes Capabilities ... ... for Development Engineers to use for Product Development
  16. 16. 16  Engineers Deliver an effective Technical-Product solution ...  Meeting Functional and Non-Functional criteria ...  Eg: Quality,TTM, Budget, Reproducibility,Testability, Cost, Power.  Maximising Product Differentiation; Minimising Product Risk, Cost and Uncertainty  Using current Capability (Technology, Methodology,Tools and Know-How)  Engineers Innovate by pushing the bounds of Capabilities ...  Using the opportunities presented by the Particular Product Brief  Trading between current Capabilities (Eg: HW, SW,Analogue)  Utilising his/her wider sphere of knowledge, know-how and experience ... Innovation is (and will remain) a fundamental aspect of the Engineers role ... Directed by Specific Business and Product Plans Development Delivers a Technical Product ... ... (Tangible or Intangible) to fulfil a Customer Need and a Business Objective
  17. 17. 17  A Customer buys a Product it for itsValued Utility ... ...A Supplier sells a Product for its Anticipated Utility  They are different so its Important to Match Expectations!  Product must exceed Consumers needs (by how much?)  Functionality is Assumed (It has no ExtraValue!)  Customers are not always the best source of New Product guidance  End-Product is very special ... It funds its entire value-chain  The End-Customer isYOU!  Research Outcomes are also Products!  Their Product is a Capability (Capability-Product) ...Without a suitable Business Model the Relationship is Unsustainable! The Product ... ...The basis of a Mutually Beneficial, Business Relationship
  18. 18. 18 Conclusions  Capabilities Limit a Companies Product Possibilities  Innovative Engineers produce Differentiated Products within this scope  Technology and Science are opportunities for ‘tomorrow and the day after’!  Business needs to Know it can make a Product before they start to  Development-Engineers use current Capabilities to make Mission-Critical Products  Research-Engineers establish Capabilities before they are needed for use!  Capability Development should be coordinated by a Roadmap  Science =RISK=> Technology =Risk=> Capability =risk=> Product  Businesses minimise Risk by using Capabilities as far as possible  Technologies may not offer benefit in excess of their cost (not just $)  Science is significantly less likely to do so!  Desperate Businesses are known to clutch at straws!  End-Products fund their whole life-cycle ... IF End-Customers buy them!  End-Customers don’t buyYOURTechnology, they buy solutions toTHEIR Needs ... Functionality!