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Polonium

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Polonium

  1. 1. Name Symbol Etymology Atomic Number Standard Atomic Weight Metallic Category Group Period Block Electron Configuration Polonium Po After “Poland” native country of Curie 84 (209) Post Transition Metal 16 6 p [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4
  2. 2.  Polonium is a rare, silvery-gray, radioactive lowmelting metalloid.  Polonium readily reacts with dilute acids, but only slightly with alkalis.  All of its isotopes are radioactive.  210Po emits a blue glow, as the air around it is excited by the decay products. No. of Protons (p+) No. of Electrons (e-) No. of Neutrons (n0) 84 84 125
  3. 3.  Polonium was the first element Marie and Pierre Curie discovered in 1898.  First isolation of Polonium was performed by Willy Marckwald in 1902.
  4. 4. Color Density Melting Point Boiling Point Heat of Fusion Silvery Gray 9.4 g/cm3 527 K, 489 °F 254 °C 1764 °F 962 °C, 1235 K ca. 13 kJ·mol−1 Heat of Vaporization 102.91 kJ·mol−1 Molar Heat Capacity 26.4 J·mol−1·K−1 Vapor Pressure P (Pa) at T (K) 1k (846) 10 k 1003 100 k 1236
  5. 5. Electronegativity 2.0 (Pauling scale) Ionization Energies 1st: 812.1 kJ·mol−1 Atomic Radius 168 pm Covalent Radius 140±4 pm Van der Waals radius 197 pm
  6. 6. Half-Life 102.1 y Lifetime 147.1 y Decay Mode Alpha Emission Quantum Numbers 3P 2 Neutron Cross Section 0.5 Known Isotopes 188Po, 189Po, 190Po, 218Po, 219Po, 220Po …,
  7. 7.  Abundance earth’s crust: Of the order of 1 part per quadrillion.  Abundance solar system: negligible  Source: It is found in uranium ores in minute quantities.  Isotopes: Polonium has 29 isotopes whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers 190 to 218. None are stable. The most stable isotope is 209Po, with a half-life of 102 years.
  8. 8.  Neutron Capture  It can be obtained by bombarding natural bismuth, 209Bi , with neutrons to give 210Bi, which then decays to 210Po via β decay.  The final purification is done pyrochemically followed by liquid-liquid extraction techniques.  Proton Capture  It has been found that the longer-lived isotopes of polonium can be formed by proton bombardment of bismuth using a cyclotron.
  9. 9.  Nuclear batteries  Electrical devices  It is used to eliminate static electricity produced during processes such as rolling paper, wire and sheet metal.  210Po can be used as an atomic heat source.  Polonium is also used in anti-static brushes to eliminate dust on photographic film.
  10. 10.  Polonium is harmful both through its chemical toxicity and its radioactivity.  Polonium-210 is an alpha emitter. As such it is very hazardous if swallowed or inhaled.  Exposure to polonium increases the risk of getting various cancers.  A person poisoned by Polonium.

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