Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Ian P. McCarthy
IS IT ALL A GAME?
UNDERSTANDING THE PRINCIPLES
AND VALUE OF GAMIFICATION
IanP.McCarthy
PRESS PLAY TO START
• This presentation is based on research in the
following papers, which you can download:
– Robson, K....
LET THE GAME BEGIN
• What is gamification?
• What does gamification do?
• Gamification principles - the MDE
framework
• Ga...
GAMIFICATION DEFINED
• A game
– a physical or mental activity or
contest that has rules and that
people do for pleasure
• ...
GAMIFICATION: WE LIKE TO COLLECT THINGS
GAMIFICATION EXAMPLES
• Interactive advertising campaign
• 50 million views on YouTube
• Created 30% more business for the...
GAMIFIED BOOK LAUNCH
• Every day for a month each of the 320
pages in the book are posted in 200
locations across the worl...
This Cadillac is
wrapped in a page,
that paid homage
to the birth place
of hip-hop in New
York.
Part of page as a plaque in
the Marcy Projects where
Jay-Z spent his child hood.
A page at the bottom of the Delano
Hotel in Miami where Jay-Z stayed
A page on the plates of his
favorite burger joint
A page in the lining
of a Gucci jacket
PAID FOR AND POWERED BY BING
• High levels of player
engagement
• Jay-Zs Facebook fans grew by 1
million that month
• Deco...
WHY GAMIFICATION?
• The growth of the
computer game
industry
• The pervasiveness of
social media, mobile,
and web-based
te...
WHY GAMIFICATION? • Modern Warfare 3 =
$775 million in first
5 days
• 1,900 years of
playing time every
day
• 25 billion h...
Kevin Werbach
15
SELF DETERMINATION THEORY
Autonomy
• Player-centered
• Experimentation (less fear
of failure)
• Customiza...
GAMIFICATION PRINCIPLES: PARTICIPANTS
• Designers - develop and design, as well as often manage and
maintain, the gamified...
GAMIFICATION PRINCIPLES
Designer Player
Observer
Spectator
TYPES OF PLAYERS
Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. Game on:
Engaging customers and employe...
GAMIFICATION MECHANICS FOR PLAYER TYPES
Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. Game on: Engagin...
Mechanics
Set up, rules and
progression
Dynamics
Player behavior
Emotions
Players’ state of mind
Gamified
Experience
GAMIF...
MECHANICS
• Mechanics: the goals, the rules,
the setting, the context, the
types of interactions, and the
boundaries
• Set...
DYNAMICS
• Dynamics: types of player behavior that emerge as players partake
in the experience
• A product of the strategi...
EMOTIONS
• Emotions: the mental affective
states and reactions evoked
among individual player.
GAMIFICATION AT WORK
• From 2003 – 2011 the top ranked US
show in terms of ratings.
• Produced 345 Billboard chart-
topper...
AMERICAN IDOL PARTICIPANTS
• Designer = Simon Fuller and 19
Entertainment
• Players = contestants
• Spectators = live stud...
AMERICAN IDOL MECHANICS
• Setup mechanics:
– auditions online and in various cities in
the U.S.
– live studio audience of ...
AMERICAN IDOL DYNAMICS
• Survival and winning
• Collaboration (e.g. duets or group
performances)
• 19 Entertainment issues...
AMERICAN IDOL EMOTIONS
• “juicy feedback” –
imagine the show
with no judges
providing feedback
• “on the rails” the
illusi...
SOME TAKEAWAYS
1. All the world’s a game. Gamification
practices existed long before the term did
2. Why gamify? Because y...
SOME TAKEAWAYS
5. Gaming the game. How might
participants change and cheat the game?
6. Rewards are not enough. It is the ...
Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification

12,427 views

Published on

There is growing interest in how gamification – application of game design principles in non-gaming contexts – can be used in business. However, academic research and management practice have paid little attention to the challenges of how to best design, implement, manage, and optimize gamification strategies. To advance understanding of gamification, this article defines what it is and explains how it is prompting managers to think about business practice in new and innovative ways. To this we draw upon the game design literature, and present a framework of three gamification principles – mechanics, dynamics, and emotions (MDE) – to explain how gamified experiences can be created. We then provide an extended illustration of gamification, and conclude with ideas for future research and application opportunities.

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

Is it all a game? Understanding the principles of gamification

  1. 1. Ian P. McCarthy IS IT ALL A GAME? UNDERSTANDING THE PRINCIPLES AND VALUE OF GAMIFICATION IanP.McCarthy
  2. 2. PRESS PLAY TO START • This presentation is based on research in the following papers, which you can download: – Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. (2015) Is it all a Game? Understanding the Principles of Gamification. Business Horizons, 58. 411-420 – Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. (2014). Understanding Gamification of Consumer Experiences. Advances in Consumer Research, 42, 352-356 – Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. Game on: Engaging customers and employees through gamification. Business Horizons (forthcoming, late 2015)
  3. 3. LET THE GAME BEGIN • What is gamification? • What does gamification do? • Gamification principles - the MDE framework • Gamification at work – Jay-Z Decoded – American Idol • Some takeaways • Quiz
  4. 4. GAMIFICATION DEFINED • A game – a physical or mental activity or contest that has rules and that people do for pleasure • I’m game – eager and willing to do something • Gamification = “the application of lessons from the gaming domain in order to change stakeholder behaviors and outcomes in non-game situations” Robson et al. (2014: pg 352)
  5. 5. GAMIFICATION: WE LIKE TO COLLECT THINGS
  6. 6. GAMIFICATION EXAMPLES • Interactive advertising campaign • 50 million views on YouTube • Created 30% more business for the brand • Won more than 20 international awards
  7. 7. GAMIFIED BOOK LAUNCH • Every day for a month each of the 320 pages in the book are posted in 200 locations across the world • The book is assembled online by fans who find the pages • The pages are hidden in places that relate to the page content and life of Jay-Z
  8. 8. This Cadillac is wrapped in a page, that paid homage to the birth place of hip-hop in New York.
  9. 9. Part of page as a plaque in the Marcy Projects where Jay-Z spent his child hood.
  10. 10. A page at the bottom of the Delano Hotel in Miami where Jay-Z stayed A page on the plates of his favorite burger joint
  11. 11. A page in the lining of a Gucci jacket
  12. 12. PAID FOR AND POWERED BY BING • High levels of player engagement • Jay-Zs Facebook fans grew by 1 million that month • Decoded entered the best seller’s list for 19 consecutive weeks • Campaign earned 1.1 Billion global media impressions in one month • Jay- Z paid nothing for the $2 million campaign. It was paid for by Bing
  13. 13. WHY GAMIFICATION? • The growth of the computer game industry • The pervasiveness of social media, mobile, and web-based technologies • The quest to better influence the behaviors of employees and customers Look at their expressions. That is ENGAGEMENT!
  14. 14. WHY GAMIFICATION? • Modern Warfare 3 = $775 million in first 5 days • 1,900 years of playing time every day • 25 billion hours, or over 2.85 million years of total playtime. • Outliers and the 10,000 hour rule
  15. 15. Kevin Werbach 15 SELF DETERMINATION THEORY Autonomy • Player-centered • Experimentation (less fear of failure) • Customization Relatedness • Sense of purpose or goals • Creation of meaning • Social interactions INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Competence • Problem solving • Progress toward mastery • Frequent and direct feedback
  16. 16. GAMIFICATION PRINCIPLES: PARTICIPANTS • Designers - develop and design, as well as often manage and maintain, the gamified experience • Players - compete in the gamified experience • Spectators – often present, but are defined in that they can influence how the gamified experience works • Observers – watch, often from outside, but defined as those that can’t influence the game See Robson et al. (2015)
  17. 17. GAMIFICATION PRINCIPLES Designer Player Observer Spectator
  18. 18. TYPES OF PLAYERS Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. Game on: Engaging customers and employees through gamification. Business Horizons (forthcoming, late 2015)
  19. 19. GAMIFICATION MECHANICS FOR PLAYER TYPES Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. Game on: Engaging customers and employees through gamification. Business Horizons (forthcoming, late 2015)
  20. 20. Mechanics Set up, rules and progression Dynamics Player behavior Emotions Players’ state of mind Gamified Experience GAMIFICATION PRINCIPLES Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. (2015) Is it all a Game? Understanding the Principles of Gamification. Business Horizons, 58. 411-420
  21. 21. MECHANICS • Mechanics: the goals, the rules, the setting, the context, the types of interactions, and the boundaries • Setup mechanics: where it is to be played, what objects are needed for it, and how these are to be distributed • Rule mechanics: shape the concept or goal of the gamified experience • Progression mechanics: badges, trophies, winnings, and other instruments that show standing
  22. 22. DYNAMICS • Dynamics: types of player behavior that emerge as players partake in the experience • A product of the strategies and interactions that emerge. • Dynamics are impacted by observers and spectators http://www.tournamentterminator.com
  23. 23. EMOTIONS • Emotions: the mental affective states and reactions evoked among individual player.
  24. 24. GAMIFICATION AT WORK • From 2003 – 2011 the top ranked US show in terms of ratings. • Produced 345 Billboard chart- toppers • Uses gamification principles to: – Engage customers (i.e., viewers) – Engage potential employees (i.e., the artists) • It gamifies a TV show and a talent search process
  25. 25. AMERICAN IDOL PARTICIPANTS • Designer = Simon Fuller and 19 Entertainment • Players = contestants • Spectators = live studio audience, judges, and voting TV viewers • Observers = non influencing (i.e., non voting) viewers
  26. 26. AMERICAN IDOL MECHANICS • Setup mechanics: – auditions online and in various cities in the U.S. – live studio audience of more than 7,000 members – broadcasted to millions via TV and Internet • Rule and progression mechanics: – once a week, for an average of ten weeks – contestants take turns performing songs based on a weekly theme (e.g. Motown, Elvis, Number 1 hits) – Voted to stay on
  27. 27. AMERICAN IDOL DYNAMICS • Survival and winning • Collaboration (e.g. duets or group performances) • 19 Entertainment issues contracts that have extreme control over players • Ringers planted by producers • Strong spectator dynamics: – Ethnic and gender bias voting – Power voting call and texts – “Vote for the worst” campaign
  28. 28. AMERICAN IDOL EMOTIONS • “juicy feedback” – imagine the show with no judges providing feedback • “on the rails” the illusion of freedom
  29. 29. SOME TAKEAWAYS 1. All the world’s a game. Gamification practices existed long before the term did 2. Why gamify? Because you want behaviors and outcomes linked to intrinsic motivation 3. Recognise the different participants. Designers, Players, Spectators and Observers 4. Recognise the different players. Scholars, Slayers, Strivers and Socialites have different motivations and the skills that produce different outcomes Overcoming disengagement Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. (2015) Is it all a Game? Understanding the Principles of Gamification. Business Horizons, 58. 411-420
  30. 30. SOME TAKEAWAYS 5. Gaming the game. How might participants change and cheat the game? 6. Rewards are not enough. It is the playing and progress that makes the experience fun 7. Life cycle of the game. What is the ending? Is the game replayable? 8. It is not a game. It is all about designing business processes, not games Robson, K., Plangger, K., Kietzmann, J., McCarthy, I., & Pitt, L. (2015) Is it all a Game? Understanding the Principles of Gamification. Business Horizons, 58. 411-420

×