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Pdp: Its Role And Implementation In The Law Curriculum

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Pdp: Its Role And Implementation In The Law Curriculum

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Details of the implementation of Personal Development Planning (PDP) as a module within BPP Law School's LLB programme.

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  1. 1. Personal development planning: its role and implementation in the law curriculum<br />Philip Roberts and Ian Gardner<br />BPP Law School<br />
  2. 2. Running order<br />PDP: background<br />SKIP overview<br />Design and theory<br />Module content and e-portfolios<br />Q&A<br />
  3. 3. PDP – Background<br /><ul><li>Dearing Report
  4. 4. QAA definition</li></ul>“Personal Development Planning is a structured and supported process undertaken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning, performance and/or achievement and to plan for their personal, educational and career development. <br /> It is intended to help students:<br /><ul><li>become more effective, independent and confident self-directed learners;
  5. 5. understand how they are learning and relate their learning to a wider context; 
  6. 6. improve their general skills for study and career management;
  7. 7. articulate personal goals and evaluate progress towards their achievement;
  8. 8. and encourage a positive attitude to learning throughout life.”</li></li></ul><li>PDP – Background<br /><ul><li>Typical PDP activities/outputs can be grouped:
  9. 9. Recording experiences and achievements
  10. 10. Thinking about skills
  11. 11. Thinking about values/attitudes/motivations/reasons
  12. 12. Goal-setting and planning
  13. 13. Summarising (for presentation to a third party)
  14. 14. Understanding oneself as a learner</li></ul>(Strivens and Ward (2009))<br />
  15. 15. PDP – Background<br />2008 review of undergraduate law degree programmes:<br />9% of QLD providers referred to PDP as part of law curriculum<br />The undergraduate LLB at BPP Law School<br />Structure<br />Student market & Student community<br /> (H. Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans (2008))<br />
  16. 16. SKIP overview<br />BPP level 4 (15 credit) module<br />Skills in Practice - ‘SKIP’<br />Initially linked to<br />Admissions<br />Career development<br />Supported by Blackboard and Pebblepad<br />Admissions model<br />Diagnostic process – SKIP as recommended pathway<br />
  17. 17. SKIP overview<br />“Embedded”?<br />Discrete-Linked-Embedded-Integrated-Extended<br />Long/thin vs short/fat<br />(Atlay et al (2009))<br />Subject-specific?<br />Availability to all BPP students<br />Accredited/assessed?<br />Significant “output”<br />Portfolio plus Commentary<br />(S. Bloxham et al (2007, 2009))<br />
  18. 18. SKIP overview: learning objectives<br />Students should be able to:<br />Understand and articulate their learning needs and preferences<br />Act independently in planning their learning <br />Reflect on their learning<br />Recognise, evaluate and articulate their transferable skills<br />Early introduction to learning theories<br />“Educated consumers” of theory?<br />
  19. 19. SKIP overview: expectations<br /> “Because the content and direction of the portfolio is largely determined by you, we expect the following of you:<br />the ability to be organised and self-disciplined<br />some creativity<br />a willingness to be self-critical”<br />
  20. 20. SKIP overview: expectations<br /> “How difficult have you found studying undergraduate law so far (where 1=easy and 5=difficult)?”<br /> (13 students)<br />
  21. 21. SKIP overview: expectations<br />
  22. 22. SKIP - Timeline<br />1 = Starting off<br />2 = Development<br />3 = Goals and planning<br />4 = Report<br />1<br />2<br />4<br />3<br />This timeline represents the duration of the SKIP module. You will begin (on the left)<br />with some preparatory work (Starting Off), and then move on to the Development stage, <br />during which you will assemble evidence and commentary for your portfolio. However, <br />During this second stage – perhaps on a number of occasions - you may want to address <br />your Goals and Plans. Finally, you will Report by completing your portfolio and writing <br />your report on it.<br />
  23. 23. SKIP overview: “milestones”<br />Module milestones:<br /><ul><li>Skills audit – pre-module
  24. 24. Module redesign exercise
  25. 25. Learning log
  26. 26. Current affairs log
  27. 27. CV draft
  28. 28. Plans and goals analysis
  29. 29. Skills audit – post-module </li></li></ul><li>SKIP overview: milestones<br />Current affairs log<br />Rationale<br />Redesign exercise<br />Link to learning theories/preferences<br />A complete module<br />A topic area within a module<br />A series of sessions dealing with the same topic<br />A particular session – e.g. a seminar or lecture<br />A case study<br />A new session linking existing elements of different modules or topics<br />An online guide or session<br />Feedback benefits<br />
  30. 30. SKIP overview: linkages<br />Admissions<br />Curriculum design<br />Embedded vs linked<br />Learning theory<br />Peer assisted learning<br />Mentors, community building<br />Career development<br />Link to level 5 module<br />Feedback/course design<br />Learning technology....<br />
  31. 31. PDP: history and implementation<br />SKIP overview<br />Design and theory<br />Module content and e-portfolios<br />Q&A<br />
  32. 32. Redesign<br />
  33. 33. Analysis<br />‘Fresh eyes’<br />Attempt to experience module as a student<br />Consider what worked better than other areas<br />
  34. 34. Design<br />Consideration of a number of theories:<br />Cognitive Load <br />7 +/-2<br />‘Chunking’<br />Serialist and Holisits<br />Web design and usability<br />
  35. 35. Development<br />
  36. 36. Implementation<br />
  37. 37. ePortfolios<br />"An e-portfolio is a purposeful aggregation of digital items - ideas, evidence, reflections, feedback etc, which 'presents' a selected audience with evidence of a person's learning and/or ability."<br />Sutherland and Powell (2007) <br />
  38. 38. ePortfolios<br />PebblePad<br />More than just an ePortfolio<br />Alternatives<br />
  39. 39. Clarify expectations<br />
  40. 40. Q&A<br /><ul><li>PhilipRoberts@bpp.com
  41. 41. IanGardner@bpp.com</li>

Editor's Notes

  • Dearing Report (Sir Ronald Dearing, National Review of Higher Education (1997))QAA Policy statement on a progress file for Higher Education - http://www.qaa.ac.uk/academicinfrastructure/progressfiles/archive/policystatement/default.asp#pdp (cited 11 March 2010)
  • J. Strivens and R. Ward, “An overview of the development of Personal Development Planning”, in J. Strivens (ed) Personal Development Planning (Foundation Degree Forward , 2009), 5See also:S.Clegg and S. Bradley, “Models of personal development planning: practice and processes” (2006) 32 (1) The British Educational Research Journal 57 – This presents a taxonomy of PDP, according to Professional, Employment and Academic “ideal type” models.
  • For BPP’s 2008 review of undergraduate law degrees, see: P. Roberts, “Career development in the LLB” (2009) 43(3) Law Teacher 297For discussion of the effects of diversity and new technologies on the student experience, see:H.Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans, “Peer assisted learning in fleximode: developing an online learning community” (2008) 1 Australasian Journal of Peer Learning 51
  • See P. Roberts (2009), supra
  • For a welldocumented example of embedded PDP within the law curriculum, see:S. Bloxham and A. Cerevkova, “Reflective Learning, Skills Development and Careers Management Online – An Evaluation of a First Year Law Module” 2007(1) Journal of Information, Law &amp; Technology (JILT), &lt;http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/2007_1/bloxham_cerekova/ &gt;S. Bloxham, F. Boyle and A. Thanaraj, ”Using E-portfolios to Support PDP and Reflective Learning within the Law Curriculum: A Case Study”, 2009(3) Journal of Information, Law &amp; Technology (JILT), &lt;http://go.warwick.ac.uk/jilt/2009_3/bloxham&gt;  Also see, for example:M. Atlay , P. Petrovaamd D. Ujma (2009) “To embed or not to embed? The embedding of PDP in the curriculum” in Personal Development Planning and Employability. Learning and Employability Series 2 (ed M. Yorke) (CRA/Higher Education Academy)&lt;http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/tla/employability_enterprise/web0368_learning_and_employability_series2_pdp_and_employability.pdf&gt;It is suggested that there are five main approaches to PDP in the curriculum that have been adopted by various universities. These include a discrete model, where PDP is additional to the curriculum; linked, with PDP in parallel to the curriculum - but not integrated; embedded modular, embedding PDP in certain modules; integrated, with PDP embedded across the whole curriculum (in some cases as ‘curriculum carrier’) and finally, an extended model.For further commentary on eportfolios, see second part of paper.
  • The learning theoretic material derives from “standard” sources, for example:B. Bloom (ed.), Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals – Handbook I: Cognitive Domain (New York, McKay, 1956)D. Kolb, Experiential Learning experience as a source of learning and development (New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1984)P. Honey &amp; A. Mumford, Manual of Learning Styles (London, P Honey, 1982)Relevant to this, as well as the discussion of the purpose of the portfolio “milestones” described later, is the distinction between “deep” and “surface” learning. There is a boddy of commentary, including:F. Marton and R. Säljö ‘On qualitative differences in learning. I – Outcome and Process’ (1976) 46 British Journal of Educational Psychology 4N.J. EntwistleThe Impact of Teaching on Learning Outcomes in Higher Education – A Literature Review (Sheffield: CVCP, 1992) 12; citing N.J. Entwistle `Student learning and studystrategies&apos; in B.R. Clark and G. Neave (eds) The Encyclopedia of Higher Education (Oxford:Pergamon Press, 1992)
  • This is a growing body of commentary on peer assisted learning in an online environment. See for example:Ian Davies, “E-xperience in e-learning: The impact of a peer assisted online mentoring scheme on an e-learning programme: A case study of E-College Wales” in Networked Learning Conference Proceedings (2004) &lt;http://www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/past/nlc2004/proceedings/individual_papers/davies.htm&gt;H. Huijser and L. Kimmins, “PALS online and community building: a contradiction in terms?” in 22nd Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) (2005) &lt;http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/brisbane05/blogs/proceedings/32_Huijser.pdf&gt;H. Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans, “Peer assisted learning in fleximode: developing an online learning community”, (2008) 1 Australasian Journal of Peer Learning 51
  • Learning Technology Dept. look at SKIP as first example of possibly making use of design principles in new/old modules.Roughly follow Addie model.Ozdilek, Zehra &amp; Robeck, Edward “Operational priorities of instructional designers analyzed within the steps of the Addie instructional design model”, (2009) Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 1 (1) Pages 2046-2050Evaluation outstanding but during other steps has been conversation between module team and Learning Tech dept.Image source: http://www.regent.edu/admin/ctl/addie/images/pic_addiemodel.gif
  • Theories/best practice considered.John Sweller, New South Wales, focus on limits of working memory.www.cmu.edu/teaching/trynew/sweller-visualinstructionaldesign.pdfGeorge Miller, 7 is the ‘magic number’ of what we can hold in our working memory. Multimedia allows for different ways to deliver content and minimise load.Miller, George A. (1956): The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information. In Psychological Review, 63 pp. 81-97 Herbert Alexander Simon, Berkley, “a term referring to the process of taking individual units of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units”.http://www.albany.edu/~dkw42/s6_chunked.htmlAbility to come in and out of module structure as desired by own learning preferences.Atherton, J. (2009). Systems and Conversations: Pask and Laurillard. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from learningandteaching.info: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/pask.htmIncluding the need for consistent interfaces and consistency, inc.:Consider expertise including:Zaharias, P., &amp; Poulymenakou, A. (2008). Design Guidelines for Asynchronous E-Learning Applications. In T. T. Kidd, &amp; H. Song, Handbook of Research on Instructional Systems and Technology (pp. 741-751). New York: Information Science Reference.Badre, A. N. (2002). Shaping Web Usability: Interaction Design in Context. Indianapolis: Pearson.
  • Sutherland, S. and Powell, A. (2007). CETIS SIG mailing list discussions 9 July 2007 in e-Portfolios: Anoverview of JISC activities http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/eportfoliooverviewv2.aspx[viewed 06 September 2007]
  • Policy of SKIP to allow students to develop own portfolio – partly on basis of findings of other Universities, including: IT challenges relating to the development of the e-portfolio templates student access to the software and student ownership[Two issues raised by Getting started with e-portfolios: University of Cumbria (UKCLE)*]Students may arrive with own systems, etc. “Tech savy” may be happy to build and keep own systems* http://www.ukcle.ac.uk/research/projects/cumbria.html
  • Show examples linked to from site.
  • Description

    Details of the implementation of Personal Development Planning (PDP) as a module within BPP Law School's LLB programme.

    Transcript

    1. 1. Personal development planning: its role and implementation in the law curriculum<br />Philip Roberts and Ian Gardner<br />BPP Law School<br />
    2. 2. Running order<br />PDP: background<br />SKIP overview<br />Design and theory<br />Module content and e-portfolios<br />Q&A<br />
    3. 3. PDP – Background<br /><ul><li>Dearing Report
    4. 4. QAA definition</li></ul>“Personal Development Planning is a structured and supported process undertaken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning, performance and/or achievement and to plan for their personal, educational and career development. <br /> It is intended to help students:<br /><ul><li>become more effective, independent and confident self-directed learners;
    5. 5. understand how they are learning and relate their learning to a wider context; 
    6. 6. improve their general skills for study and career management;
    7. 7. articulate personal goals and evaluate progress towards their achievement;
    8. 8. and encourage a positive attitude to learning throughout life.”</li></li></ul><li>PDP – Background<br /><ul><li>Typical PDP activities/outputs can be grouped:
    9. 9. Recording experiences and achievements
    10. 10. Thinking about skills
    11. 11. Thinking about values/attitudes/motivations/reasons
    12. 12. Goal-setting and planning
    13. 13. Summarising (for presentation to a third party)
    14. 14. Understanding oneself as a learner</li></ul>(Strivens and Ward (2009))<br />
    15. 15. PDP – Background<br />2008 review of undergraduate law degree programmes:<br />9% of QLD providers referred to PDP as part of law curriculum<br />The undergraduate LLB at BPP Law School<br />Structure<br />Student market & Student community<br /> (H. Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans (2008))<br />
    16. 16. SKIP overview<br />BPP level 4 (15 credit) module<br />Skills in Practice - ‘SKIP’<br />Initially linked to<br />Admissions<br />Career development<br />Supported by Blackboard and Pebblepad<br />Admissions model<br />Diagnostic process – SKIP as recommended pathway<br />
    17. 17. SKIP overview<br />“Embedded”?<br />Discrete-Linked-Embedded-Integrated-Extended<br />Long/thin vs short/fat<br />(Atlay et al (2009))<br />Subject-specific?<br />Availability to all BPP students<br />Accredited/assessed?<br />Significant “output”<br />Portfolio plus Commentary<br />(S. Bloxham et al (2007, 2009))<br />
    18. 18. SKIP overview: learning objectives<br />Students should be able to:<br />Understand and articulate their learning needs and preferences<br />Act independently in planning their learning <br />Reflect on their learning<br />Recognise, evaluate and articulate their transferable skills<br />Early introduction to learning theories<br />“Educated consumers” of theory?<br />
    19. 19. SKIP overview: expectations<br /> “Because the content and direction of the portfolio is largely determined by you, we expect the following of you:<br />the ability to be organised and self-disciplined<br />some creativity<br />a willingness to be self-critical”<br />
    20. 20. SKIP overview: expectations<br /> “How difficult have you found studying undergraduate law so far (where 1=easy and 5=difficult)?”<br /> (13 students)<br />
    21. 21. SKIP overview: expectations<br />
    22. 22. SKIP - Timeline<br />1 = Starting off<br />2 = Development<br />3 = Goals and planning<br />4 = Report<br />1<br />2<br />4<br />3<br />This timeline represents the duration of the SKIP module. You will begin (on the left)<br />with some preparatory work (Starting Off), and then move on to the Development stage, <br />during which you will assemble evidence and commentary for your portfolio. However, <br />During this second stage – perhaps on a number of occasions - you may want to address <br />your Goals and Plans. Finally, you will Report by completing your portfolio and writing <br />your report on it.<br />
    23. 23. SKIP overview: “milestones”<br />Module milestones:<br /><ul><li>Skills audit – pre-module
    24. 24. Module redesign exercise
    25. 25. Learning log
    26. 26. Current affairs log
    27. 27. CV draft
    28. 28. Plans and goals analysis
    29. 29. Skills audit – post-module </li></li></ul><li>SKIP overview: milestones<br />Current affairs log<br />Rationale<br />Redesign exercise<br />Link to learning theories/preferences<br />A complete module<br />A topic area within a module<br />A series of sessions dealing with the same topic<br />A particular session – e.g. a seminar or lecture<br />A case study<br />A new session linking existing elements of different modules or topics<br />An online guide or session<br />Feedback benefits<br />
    30. 30. SKIP overview: linkages<br />Admissions<br />Curriculum design<br />Embedded vs linked<br />Learning theory<br />Peer assisted learning<br />Mentors, community building<br />Career development<br />Link to level 5 module<br />Feedback/course design<br />Learning technology....<br />
    31. 31. PDP: history and implementation<br />SKIP overview<br />Design and theory<br />Module content and e-portfolios<br />Q&A<br />
    32. 32. Redesign<br />
    33. 33. Analysis<br />‘Fresh eyes’<br />Attempt to experience module as a student<br />Consider what worked better than other areas<br />
    34. 34. Design<br />Consideration of a number of theories:<br />Cognitive Load <br />7 +/-2<br />‘Chunking’<br />Serialist and Holisits<br />Web design and usability<br />
    35. 35. Development<br />
    36. 36. Implementation<br />
    37. 37. ePortfolios<br />"An e-portfolio is a purposeful aggregation of digital items - ideas, evidence, reflections, feedback etc, which 'presents' a selected audience with evidence of a person's learning and/or ability."<br />Sutherland and Powell (2007) <br />
    38. 38. ePortfolios<br />PebblePad<br />More than just an ePortfolio<br />Alternatives<br />
    39. 39. Clarify expectations<br />
    40. 40. Q&A<br /><ul><li>PhilipRoberts@bpp.com
    41. 41. IanGardner@bpp.com</li>

    Editor's Notes

  • Dearing Report (Sir Ronald Dearing, National Review of Higher Education (1997))QAA Policy statement on a progress file for Higher Education - http://www.qaa.ac.uk/academicinfrastructure/progressfiles/archive/policystatement/default.asp#pdp (cited 11 March 2010)
  • J. Strivens and R. Ward, “An overview of the development of Personal Development Planning”, in J. Strivens (ed) Personal Development Planning (Foundation Degree Forward , 2009), 5See also:S.Clegg and S. Bradley, “Models of personal development planning: practice and processes” (2006) 32 (1) The British Educational Research Journal 57 – This presents a taxonomy of PDP, according to Professional, Employment and Academic “ideal type” models.
  • For BPP’s 2008 review of undergraduate law degrees, see: P. Roberts, “Career development in the LLB” (2009) 43(3) Law Teacher 297For discussion of the effects of diversity and new technologies on the student experience, see:H.Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans, “Peer assisted learning in fleximode: developing an online learning community” (2008) 1 Australasian Journal of Peer Learning 51
  • See P. Roberts (2009), supra
  • For a welldocumented example of embedded PDP within the law curriculum, see:S. Bloxham and A. Cerevkova, “Reflective Learning, Skills Development and Careers Management Online – An Evaluation of a First Year Law Module” 2007(1) Journal of Information, Law &amp; Technology (JILT), &lt;http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/2007_1/bloxham_cerekova/ &gt;S. Bloxham, F. Boyle and A. Thanaraj, ”Using E-portfolios to Support PDP and Reflective Learning within the Law Curriculum: A Case Study”, 2009(3) Journal of Information, Law &amp; Technology (JILT), &lt;http://go.warwick.ac.uk/jilt/2009_3/bloxham&gt;  Also see, for example:M. Atlay , P. Petrovaamd D. Ujma (2009) “To embed or not to embed? The embedding of PDP in the curriculum” in Personal Development Planning and Employability. Learning and Employability Series 2 (ed M. Yorke) (CRA/Higher Education Academy)&lt;http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/tla/employability_enterprise/web0368_learning_and_employability_series2_pdp_and_employability.pdf&gt;It is suggested that there are five main approaches to PDP in the curriculum that have been adopted by various universities. These include a discrete model, where PDP is additional to the curriculum; linked, with PDP in parallel to the curriculum - but not integrated; embedded modular, embedding PDP in certain modules; integrated, with PDP embedded across the whole curriculum (in some cases as ‘curriculum carrier’) and finally, an extended model.For further commentary on eportfolios, see second part of paper.
  • The learning theoretic material derives from “standard” sources, for example:B. Bloom (ed.), Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals – Handbook I: Cognitive Domain (New York, McKay, 1956)D. Kolb, Experiential Learning experience as a source of learning and development (New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1984)P. Honey &amp; A. Mumford, Manual of Learning Styles (London, P Honey, 1982)Relevant to this, as well as the discussion of the purpose of the portfolio “milestones” described later, is the distinction between “deep” and “surface” learning. There is a boddy of commentary, including:F. Marton and R. Säljö ‘On qualitative differences in learning. I – Outcome and Process’ (1976) 46 British Journal of Educational Psychology 4N.J. EntwistleThe Impact of Teaching on Learning Outcomes in Higher Education – A Literature Review (Sheffield: CVCP, 1992) 12; citing N.J. Entwistle `Student learning and studystrategies&apos; in B.R. Clark and G. Neave (eds) The Encyclopedia of Higher Education (Oxford:Pergamon Press, 1992)
  • This is a growing body of commentary on peer assisted learning in an online environment. See for example:Ian Davies, “E-xperience in e-learning: The impact of a peer assisted online mentoring scheme on an e-learning programme: A case study of E-College Wales” in Networked Learning Conference Proceedings (2004) &lt;http://www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/past/nlc2004/proceedings/individual_papers/davies.htm&gt;H. Huijser and L. Kimmins, “PALS online and community building: a contradiction in terms?” in 22nd Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) (2005) &lt;http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/brisbane05/blogs/proceedings/32_Huijser.pdf&gt;H. Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans, “Peer assisted learning in fleximode: developing an online learning community”, (2008) 1 Australasian Journal of Peer Learning 51
  • Learning Technology Dept. look at SKIP as first example of possibly making use of design principles in new/old modules.Roughly follow Addie model.Ozdilek, Zehra &amp; Robeck, Edward “Operational priorities of instructional designers analyzed within the steps of the Addie instructional design model”, (2009) Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 1 (1) Pages 2046-2050Evaluation outstanding but during other steps has been conversation between module team and Learning Tech dept.Image source: http://www.regent.edu/admin/ctl/addie/images/pic_addiemodel.gif
  • Theories/best practice considered.John Sweller, New South Wales, focus on limits of working memory.www.cmu.edu/teaching/trynew/sweller-visualinstructionaldesign.pdfGeorge Miller, 7 is the ‘magic number’ of what we can hold in our working memory. Multimedia allows for different ways to deliver content and minimise load.Miller, George A. (1956): The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information. In Psychological Review, 63 pp. 81-97 Herbert Alexander Simon, Berkley, “a term referring to the process of taking individual units of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units”.http://www.albany.edu/~dkw42/s6_chunked.htmlAbility to come in and out of module structure as desired by own learning preferences.Atherton, J. (2009). Systems and Conversations: Pask and Laurillard. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from learningandteaching.info: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/pask.htmIncluding the need for consistent interfaces and consistency, inc.:Consider expertise including:Zaharias, P., &amp; Poulymenakou, A. (2008). Design Guidelines for Asynchronous E-Learning Applications. In T. T. Kidd, &amp; H. Song, Handbook of Research on Instructional Systems and Technology (pp. 741-751). New York: Information Science Reference.Badre, A. N. (2002). Shaping Web Usability: Interaction Design in Context. Indianapolis: Pearson.
  • Sutherland, S. and Powell, A. (2007). CETIS SIG mailing list discussions 9 July 2007 in e-Portfolios: Anoverview of JISC activities http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/eportfoliooverviewv2.aspx[viewed 06 September 2007]
  • Policy of SKIP to allow students to develop own portfolio – partly on basis of findings of other Universities, including: IT challenges relating to the development of the e-portfolio templates student access to the software and student ownership[Two issues raised by Getting started with e-portfolios: University of Cumbria (UKCLE)*]Students may arrive with own systems, etc. “Tech savy” may be happy to build and keep own systems* http://www.ukcle.ac.uk/research/projects/cumbria.html
  • Show examples linked to from site.
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