Dearing Report (Sir Ronald Dearing, National Review of Higher Education (1997))QAA Policy statement on a progress file for Higher Education - http://www.qaa.ac.uk/academicinfrastructure/progressfiles/archive/policystatement/default.asp#pdp (cited 11 March 2010)
J. Strivens and R. Ward, “An overview of the development of Personal Development Planning”, in J. Strivens (ed) Personal Development Planning (Foundation Degree Forward , 2009), 5See also:S.Clegg and S. Bradley, “Models of personal development planning: practice and processes” (2006) 32 (1) The British Educational Research Journal 57 – This presents a taxonomy of PDP, according to Professional, Employment and Academic “ideal type” models.
For BPP’s 2008 review of undergraduate law degrees, see: P. Roberts, “Career development in the LLB” (2009) 43(3) Law Teacher 297For discussion of the effects of diversity and new technologies on the student experience, see:H.Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans, “Peer assisted learning in fleximode: developing an online learning community” (2008) 1 Australasian Journal of Peer Learning 51
See P. Roberts (2009), supra
For a welldocumented example of embedded PDP within the law curriculum, see:S. Bloxham and A. Cerevkova, “Reflective Learning, Skills Development and Careers Management Online – An Evaluation of a First Year Law Module” 2007(1) Journal of Information, Law & Technology (JILT), <http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/2007_1/bloxham_cerekova/ >S. Bloxham, F. Boyle and A. Thanaraj, ”Using E-portfolios to Support PDP and Reflective Learning within the Law Curriculum: A Case Study”, 2009(3) Journal of Information, Law & Technology (JILT), <http://go.warwick.ac.uk/jilt/2009_3/bloxham> Also see, for example:M. Atlay , P. Petrovaamd D. Ujma (2009) “To embed or not to embed? The embedding of PDP in the curriculum” in Personal Development Planning and Employability. Learning and Employability Series 2 (ed M. Yorke) (CRA/Higher Education Academy)<http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/tla/employability_enterprise/web0368_learning_and_employability_series2_pdp_and_employability.pdf>It is suggested that there are five main approaches to PDP in the curriculum that have been adopted by various universities. These include a discrete model, where PDP is additional to the curriculum; linked, with PDP in parallel to the curriculum - but not integrated; embedded modular, embedding PDP in certain modules; integrated, with PDP embedded across the whole curriculum (in some cases as ‘curriculum carrier’) and finally, an extended model.For further commentary on eportfolios, see second part of paper.
The learning theoretic material derives from “standard” sources, for example:B. Bloom (ed.), Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals – Handbook I: Cognitive Domain (New York, McKay, 1956)D. Kolb, Experiential Learning experience as a source of learning and development (New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1984)P. Honey & A. Mumford, Manual of Learning Styles (London, P Honey, 1982)Relevant to this, as well as the discussion of the purpose of the portfolio “milestones” described later, is the distinction between “deep” and “surface” learning. There is a boddy of commentary, including:F. Marton and R. Säljö ‘On qualitative differences in learning. I – Outcome and Process’ (1976) 46 British Journal of Educational Psychology 4N.J. EntwistleThe Impact of Teaching on Learning Outcomes in Higher Education – A Literature Review (Sheffield: CVCP, 1992) 12; citing N.J. Entwistle `Student learning and studystrategies' in B.R. Clark and G. Neave (eds) The Encyclopedia of Higher Education (Oxford:Pergamon Press, 1992)
This is a growing body of commentary on peer assisted learning in an online environment. See for example:Ian Davies, “E-xperience in e-learning: The impact of a peer assisted online mentoring scheme on an e-learning programme: A case study of E-College Wales” in Networked Learning Conference Proceedings (2004) <http://www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/past/nlc2004/proceedings/individual_papers/davies.htm>H. Huijser and L. Kimmins, “PALS online and community building: a contradiction in terms?” in 22nd Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) (2005) <http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/brisbane05/blogs/proceedings/32_Huijser.pdf>H. Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans, “Peer assisted learning in fleximode: developing an online learning community”, (2008) 1 Australasian Journal of Peer Learning 51
Learning Technology Dept. look at SKIP as first example of possibly making use of design principles in new/old modules.Roughly follow Addie model.Ozdilek, Zehra & Robeck, Edward “Operational priorities of instructional designers analyzed within the steps of the Addie instructional design model”, (2009) Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 1 (1) Pages 2046-2050Evaluation outstanding but during other steps has been conversation between module team and Learning Tech dept.Image source: http://www.regent.edu/admin/ctl/addie/images/pic_addiemodel.gif
Theories/best practice considered.John Sweller, New South Wales, focus on limits of working memory.www.cmu.edu/teaching/trynew/sweller-visualinstructionaldesign.pdfGeorge Miller, 7 is the ‘magic number’ of what we can hold in our working memory. Multimedia allows for different ways to deliver content and minimise load.Miller, George A. (1956): The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information. In Psychological Review, 63 pp. 81-97 Herbert Alexander Simon, Berkley, “a term referring to the process of taking individual units of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units”.http://www.albany.edu/~dkw42/s6_chunked.htmlAbility to come in and out of module structure as desired by own learning preferences.Atherton, J. (2009). Systems and Conversations: Pask and Laurillard. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from learningandteaching.info: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/pask.htmIncluding the need for consistent interfaces and consistency, inc.:Consider expertise including:Zaharias, P., & Poulymenakou, A. (2008). Design Guidelines for Asynchronous E-Learning Applications. In T. T. Kidd, & H. Song, Handbook of Research on Instructional Systems and Technology (pp. 741-751). New York: Information Science Reference.Badre, A. N. (2002). Shaping Web Usability: Interaction Design in Context. Indianapolis: Pearson.
Sutherland, S. and Powell, A. (2007). CETIS SIG mailing list discussions 9 July 2007 in e-Portfolios: Anoverview of JISC activities http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/eportfoliooverviewv2.aspx[viewed 06 September 2007]
Policy of SKIP to allow students to develop own portfolio – partly on basis of findings of other Universities, including: IT challenges relating to the development of the e-portfolio templates student access to the software and student ownership[Two issues raised by Getting started with e-portfolios: University of Cumbria (UKCLE)*]Students may arrive with own systems, etc. “Tech savy” may be happy to build and keep own systems* http://www.ukcle.ac.uk/research/projects/cumbria.html