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Water for All - Challenges of Change


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Presented by IWMI's Director General Jeremy Bird at the Annual General Meeting of the Institute of Environmental Professionals of Sri Lanka (IEPSL), October 31, 2014.

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Water for All - Challenges of Change

  1. 1. Water for All - Challenges of Change Jeremy Bird International Water Management Institute 31st October, 2014 Photo: Hamish John Appleby, IWMI
  2. 2. Land and water degradation a major global challenge U N I T I N G A G R I C U L T U R E A N D N AT U R E F O R P O V E R T Y R E D U C T I O N
  3. 3. Dietary change - meat requires 100 times more water than grain protein 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 100 1000 10000 100000 GDP per capita (2000 constant dollars per year) meat consumption (kg/cap/yr) Meat China India 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 India USA 10 100 1000 10000 100000 GDP per capita (2000 constant dollars per year) milk consumption (kg/cap/yr) Milk China USA Consumption and income 1961-2000 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003.
  4. 4. Climate change - uncertainty and ambiguity in future projections – a complex planning challenge Projection 1 Projection 2 De Silva, 2006 + + + + + - - - - - - - - + + Projection 3 De Silva, 2006 - -- - - - + + + + + + Spatial Pattern of Rainfall Projections for 2050s + + Dry Zone + + Wet Zone Intermediate Zone Dry Zone Wet Zone Intermediate Zone + + Basnayake et al. 2004 De Silva 2006 - + + + + + + + + Dry Zone Wet Zone Intermediate Zone - - - Punyawardane et al. 2010
  5. 5. Observed climatic changes Dry Zone Wet Zone Intermediate Zone Temperature Highest temperature increase in agricultural areas Source: Zubair et al. 2005 Anuradhapura Badulla Rainfall Change in distribution of annual rainfall Southwest monsoon: Stable (Yala) Northeast monsoon: reduced and variability increased (Maha)
  6. 6. Increasing variability of rainfall Months (Season) 1931-1960 1961-1990 Dec- Feb (NEM) 31 % 42 % March – Apr (FIM) 23 % 27 % May – Sep (SWM) 21 % 16 % Oct – Nov (SIM) 22 % 23 % Annual 11 % 14 % Punyawardena (2011) Rainfall variability observed
  7. 7. Identifying climate change Vulnerability Hotspots – to design locally relevant adaptation measures Anuradhapura Nuwara-Eliya Ratnapura Climate Change Vulnerability Index Exposure Index Sensitivity Index Adaptive Capacity Index
  8. 8. Climate change will affect our rivers The Sri Lanka Environmental Flow Calculator (SLEFC) is a software package to estimate how much water should be left in rivers to ensure they remain healthy This methodology is being used by the Dam Safety and Water Resources Planning Project (DSWRPP) in the National Water Resources Master Plan and the Mahaweli and Mundeni Aru Basin development plans
  9. 9. E-Flows
  10. 10. Example Application to Ullapane on River Mahaweli Establishing the natural flow Regime at Ullapane 10000 1000 100 10 1 Mallanda 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Victoria Reservoir Talawakelle Polgolla Peradeniya Ullapane Mallanda Flow Duration Curves before constructing Kotmale Kotmale Reservoir Peradeniya Ullapane Discharge (MCM) % of Time Flow Exceeded
  11. 11. Flood events in the last 10 years…extremes likely to increase • 23 flood occurrences • 500 lives lost • 9 million people affected • economic loss of USD 1 billion
  12. 12. What can be done to reduce impact? If we can predict more accurately where and when floods will occur, and how big they will be, opportunities for mitigation will be enhanced. Digital geospatial flood inundation mapping is a powerful new approach for flood response and control that shows floodwater extent and depth on the land surface.
  13. 13. Space technology can help manage flooding Satellite data has been used to estimate flood frequency and extent covering entire Sri Lanka. Flood impact on agriculture studied at different scales. There is future potential to develop flood-risk mapping and agricultural insurance products Flood Risk Products
  14. 14. Extent of flooding during the years 2006–2011 derived from ALOS PALSAR data (left) and cropland extent (right) in Sri Lanka • Fine-scale flood-risk products mapped using satellite datasets from 2000 to 2011. • Province-wise flood statistics and agricultural impacts are being analyzed. • Knowledge generated here can be used by the Disaster Management Centre and the Irrigation Department for mitigation, preparedness and index-based crop insurance Eastern Province (Trincomalee) Agricultural flooding in Polonnaruwa
  15. 15. … another is to improve resilience through storage options – Malwathu Oya and Kalu Ganga Basins Water Storage Continuum Source: McCartney & Smakhtin 2010
  16. 16. Low Cost Mobile Weather Stations for water management decision making Low cost mobile weather stations can record weather related variables (rainfall, wind speed) electronically and send all information to one website. Photos: IWMI A prototype weather station has been set up in the Irrigation Department office in Anuradhapura and is currently undergoing testing with the collaboration of the Irrigation Department
  17. 17. Growth in irrigation through groundwater expansion, India 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Irrigated area in 1000 ha Canal Tanks Canal irrigated area Tank irrigated area Groundwater irrigated area Source: Mukherji, A., S. Rawat and T. Shah. 2013.
  18. 18. But, …risk of over-abstraction Map: Tushaar Shah
  19. 19. Promoting sustainable Groundwater Use in the Dry Zone A survey on water supply and agro wells is underway in the Malwathu Oya and Mahaweli System H areas. Photo: Salman Siddiqui, IWMI The survey will help to determine how much groundwater can be safely extracted for irrigation in these areas, and to what extent groundwater can supply water needs during droughts
  20. 20. Research shows signs of sustainable abstraction thresholds being exceeded in Jaffna… Agro-well density, Jaffna  Agro- wells increased by 37 %  Agricultural land increased by 6% (in Valikamam South, 2003 - 2007)  Excess irrigation: up to 230 %  Excess fertilizer: 108 in N (kg/ha) (in Valikamam, 2011) (IWMI, 2011) Potential over-abstraction
  21. 21. Consequences on saline intrusion… (IWMI, 2011) Suggestions:  Efficient irrigation management  Increase groundwater recharge  Salt tolerant crops  Awareness programs  Strengthen water management committee  …
  22. 22. …adopting local, efficient systems Kalpitiya Photos: Herath Manthrithilake, IWMI
  23. 23. Groundwater-based Agrarian Change in North Central Province, Sri Lanka  Qualitative research into unprecedented growth in commercial agriculture underwritten by groundwater accessed through agro-wells and an intensification of land use  Socio-economic surveys  Feedback and policy dialogue in NCP planned for Oct 2014 Photo: IWMI
  24. 24. Improving Groundwater irrigation in Yala season Photos: IWMI Area – 1.5 ac. of small onion Initial investment for the system – LKR. 399,000 Cost for land preparation, fertilizer and harvesting – Last season- LKR. 197,000 Net profit – LKR. 1,054,000
  25. 25. Improving Irrigation Using ICT • Installing automatic flow gauges • Increasing and improving ICT use in irrigation mgt • Groundwater well survey (Locations; Depths) • Improving Groundwater irrigation in Yala season Mahaweli system H – ( Right bank main canal)
  26. 26. Automatic Canal flow monitoring 2014-10-2
  27. 27. Sri Lanka Water Resources Information System
  28. 28. Increasing Waste : A Challenge for our Water Bodies Solid waste Liquid waste Kinniya Hikkaduwa Eravur Kinniya Kalmunai Gampaha Photos: IWMI
  29. 29. From Challenge to Opportunity Co-Composting Safe Organic Fertilizer Photos: IWMI
  30. 30. Safeguarding our water bodies  National sanitation policy considering improved liquid waste (septage) management.  National guidelines and manuals on septage management for safe disposal and/or reuse.  Close collaboration with: Recovering nutrients for organic fertilizer  Supporting Pilisaru project with technical options for high value organic fertilizers.  High priority on product safety.  Market analysis to ensure max. cost recovery.  Soil and crop trials for farmer field schools.
  31. 31. Technical demonstrations to introduce new concepts for value creation  IWMI expertise transfer.  Demonstrational projects to commercial pilots.  Studies on local resource utilization.  Applicability to local conditions - crops and soils Knowledge transfer from other countries  Co-composting initiatives using urban waste streams.  Low cost technologies for nutrient recovery and enhancement.  Pelletizing technology from China, tested by IWMI in India and Africa.
  32. 32. Report: Lagoons of Sri Lanka: From the Origins to the Present Kappaladi Lagoon, Chilaw Distribution of coastal lagoons in Sri Lanka
  33. 33. Incidence of CKDu patients and fluoride distribution Complex challenge – CKDu Working paper: Chronic Kidney Decease of unknown origin – Literature Review Negative Positive
  34. 34. CGIAR Research Program – Water Land and Ecosystems Photo: Hamish John Appleby, IWMI VISION A world in which agriculture thrives within vibrant ecosystems, where communities have higher incomes, improved food security and the ability to continuously improve their lives MISSION Informing the development of policies, institutions and investments toward sustaining ecosystems and their services as a prerequisite for sustainable and resilient agricultural intensification and improved livelihoods
  35. 35. Photo: Hamish John Appleby, IWMI