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Trade-offs or synergies? Assessment of Ecosystem Services
in Multi-purpose Small Reservoirs in Burkina Faso
EU-IFAD (W4F) ...
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
BF & Small Reservoirs
Bu...
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
BF&SRs (contd.)
Small Re...
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
Distribution of SR in BF...
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
No. of SR in BF
10
12
65...
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
Ecosystem Services: ‘ben...
Multiple ES/benefits (dis-benefits from SR (Lit. review)
Benefits (or Ecosystem services)
 Crop production (yield increas...
Seasonal distributions of use of SR in Goinre (Augustine et al.)
Trade-offs: What is it?
 Giving up one thing to get more of something else
 The ‘cost’ of something forgone in exchange ...
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
ToA approaches (SR)
nn1....
Indicator 1. Crop Yield (economic)
Cash crop (vegetables)
• Double cropping (cropping intensities of ca.200%)
Staple crops...
Indicator 2. Water (environmental)
A reservoir in Burkina Faso with excessive phytoplankton and algal blooms
growth from e...
Indicator 3. Human Health (social)
 SRs provides breeding condition for disease vectors like mosquitoes
 1/2 million peo...
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
Human Health (contd.): S...
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
Social conflict (Korsimo...
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
Empirical work to be
und...
MCA framework for assessment of alternative SR mgt scenarios
Objective:
Max. Multiple
benefits from SR
Mgt.1
Provisioning
...
Assess the Performance of SRs (community-based)
Use a 5-point Likert scale:
1 = Very poor
2 = Poor
3 = Average
4 = Good
5 ...
More DATA
 Secondary sources/experiment judgements
 Survey Data (econ. data):
 Crop yield data – major crops in the are...
Trade-offs curves (Quant.)
Crop
(Yield)
Water quality
TC3
A
TC1 TC2
B
D
C
F
E
ΔY
ΔTC1
ΔTC2
ΔTC3
Trade-offs: community-based assessment
Elicit information on local people’s understanding/perception of
trade-offs among v...
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Trade-offs or synergies? Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Multi-purpose Small Reservoirs in Burkina Faso

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Presented by IWMI's Bedru B. Balana at the TropiLakes2015 Conference, September 23-29, 2015, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

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Trade-offs or synergies? Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Multi-purpose Small Reservoirs in Burkina Faso

  1. 1. Trade-offs or synergies? Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Multi-purpose Small Reservoirs in Burkina Faso EU-IFAD (W4F) project Bedru B. Balana, Marloes Mul, Olufunke Cofie, & Jennie Barron IWMI TropiLakes2015 Conference 23-29 Sept 2015, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  2. 2. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI BF & Small Reservoirs Burkina Faso • Land area 274, 000 km • Estimated population17.3 million (2014) • Land-locked country (surrounded by Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana and Ivory Coast). • > 90% of territory falls in 2 River Basins – 63.1% in Volta Basin & 30.5% in Niger Basin. • Volta Basin in BF comprises of two large watersheds, 47% White Volta & 53% Black Volta.
  3. 3. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
  4. 4. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI BF&SRs (contd.) Small Reservoirs  Context: Large spatiotemporal rainfall variability, climate-related stress, gradual trend of increased aridity, and decrease in the growing season [Av. annual 750 mm; N-S d/ce: Sahelian-North < 600 mm; Sudano-Sahelian 600 & 900 mm; Sudanian zone (south) 900 and 1200 mm].  Small reservoirs as a viable option for water and food security  Estimates No. SRs 1400 - 1700 reservoirs in the country (Boelee, et al., 2009; Cecchi et al., 2011). (cf.110 in Tigray)  Small reservoirs and dams retain an estimated 36% of the annual surface water flow in BF (Boelee et al., 2009).  Current main consumptive uses: irrigation (64%), domestic (21%), livestock (14%) (MAHRH, 2003)
  5. 5. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI Distribution of SR in BF nn
  6. 6. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI No. of SR in BF 10 12 65 108 523 335 143 198 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 <1910 1912-1939 1940-1956 1957-1973 1974-1987 1988-2001 2002-2007 >2007 (estimate) Number of Reservoirs Period(Years)
  7. 7. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI Ecosystem Services: ‘benefits people obtain from ecosystems’ (MA, 2005).
  8. 8. Multiple ES/benefits (dis-benefits from SR (Lit. review) Benefits (or Ecosystem services)  Crop production (yield increase) (P)  Water for livestock (P)  Limit rural out-migration (C)  Enhance rural income (P)  Support multiple livelihood (livelihood diversification) (P)  Buffer extreme weather and changing climatic patterns (R)  Improved access to domestic water (drinking, Cooking) (P)  Enhance women’s position within the household (P, C)  Recreation (Bathing, Scenery etc.) (C)  Employment creation (P, C)  Limiting floods (R)  Improved greenness and increased biodiversity (C, R, S) Dis-benefits (or ecosystem dis- services)  Environmental deterioration (e.g., erosion of the shoreline due to upstream pumping) (– R)  Decrease water quality (– R)  Adverse health impacts e.g., malaria (– indirectly P, C)  Water quantity (– P)  Decrease in soil fertility (– R)  Pests and crop disease (– P, R)
  9. 9. Seasonal distributions of use of SR in Goinre (Augustine et al.)
  10. 10. Trade-offs: What is it?  Giving up one thing to get more of something else  The ‘cost’ of something forgone in exchange to enjoy something else – ‘opportunity cost’ of a choice  It can occur temporally (e.g., present vs. future consumption) or spatially (e.g., land use/allocation – e.g., food production vs. biofuel)  Reduction in one ES as a consequence of increased use of another ES  In the context of ES, trade-offs between ES arise from management and/or utilization choices made by humans, which can change the type, magnitude, quality & relative mix of ES provided by the ecosystems.
  11. 11. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI ToA approaches (SR) nn1. Characterize SR: Main uses, Management, water extracting technologies, etc.) 2. Participatory identification of key multiple uses/benefits of the SRs 4. Assess level of provision/changes (+ve or -ve) 5. Analysis of the trade-offs/synergies - current SR management/use regimes 6. Analysis of alternative management scenarios 3. Develop indicators of ES linked to SRs
  12. 12. Indicator 1. Crop Yield (economic) Cash crop (vegetables) • Double cropping (cropping intensities of ca.200%) Staple crops (Rice) • Enhance food security Fish • Fishery yield of about 80 kg/hectare for the Bagré reservoir (Villanueva et al. (2006) • Annual productivity of 5,280 tons, involving 2,000 to 5,000 fishermen -this corresponds to an annual 2 m Euros – (2002). • Source of Protein/ nutrition Livestock Watering
  13. 13. Indicator 2. Water (environmental) A reservoir in Burkina Faso with excessive phytoplankton and algal blooms growth from eutrophication (March 2011)
  14. 14. Indicator 3. Human Health (social)  SRs provides breeding condition for disease vectors like mosquitoes  1/2 million people (mainly rural) at risk from water-related diseases (McCartney et al. 2007). Malaria (example)  3 SRs around Ouagadougou increased malaria risk during the rainy season.  A resident living near the reservoirs receives ave. 3-4 Anopheles bites/night against a single bite for those living further away.  The infection rate in children decreases with increasing distance from the reservoir from 51 to 23%.  The parasite load of Plasmodium falciparum in the blood diminishes from 46 parasites/ml at 100 m to only 4/ml at 800-1,000 m from the reservoir.
  15. 15. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI Human Health (contd.): Schistosomiasis
  16. 16. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI Social conflict (Korsimoro reservoir 70km NE Ouagadougou) • Upstream veg. growers Vs. downstream rice farmers • Fishers vs. agrichemicals & and other pollutants from veg. growers. • Pastoralists claim blocking passage of their cattle to the water • Signs of over-use and conflicts are emerging among users as a result of the increase in the upstream area under irrigation and growing environmental problems.
  17. 17. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI Empirical work to be undertaken
  18. 18. MCA framework for assessment of alternative SR mgt scenarios Objective: Max. Multiple benefits from SR Mgt.1 Provisioning services Indicator 1 Indicator 2 Indicator 3 Regulating services I-1 I-2 I-3 Cultural Services Mgt.2 Mgt.3 Mgt. (k) Other Objective Alternatives (SR mgt. Scenarios) Criteria Indicators (Data)
  19. 19. Assess the Performance of SRs (community-based) Use a 5-point Likert scale: 1 = Very poor 2 = Poor 3 = Average 4 = Good 5 = Very good ES Item Performance of SR Yield increase 1 2 3 4 5 Water for livestock
  20. 20. More DATA  Secondary sources/experiment judgements  Survey Data (econ. data):  Crop yield data – major crops in the area o time series (if available)– record of yield over time (SRs irrigated vs. non-irrigated) o cross-sectional – survey of yield from sample of SR irrigated & non-irrigated fields  Inputs data – type of inputs, quantities  Price data – prices of inputs and outputs
  21. 21. Trade-offs curves (Quant.) Crop (Yield) Water quality TC3 A TC1 TC2 B D C F E ΔY ΔTC1 ΔTC2 ΔTC3
  22. 22. Trade-offs: community-based assessment Elicit information on local people’s understanding/perception of trade-offs among various ecosystem services, e.g. irrigation use (more crop) vs. livestock water; irrigation use (more crop) vs. domestic use etc. Synthesize data and cluster results (e.g.): Indicators of Regulating ES Indicators of Provisioning ES High-provisioning (HP) Low-provisioning (LP)  High-Regulating (HR) win-win (synergies) win-lose (trade-offs)  Low-regulating (LR) lose-win (trade-offs) lose-lose (worst outcome)
  23. 23. Thank You!

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