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The Performance and Potential of the Municipal Solid Waste Compost Plants in Batticaloa (Technical Assessment)

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Presented by IWMIs Sudarshana Fernando and Nilanthi Jayathilake at a stakeholder workshop on 'Opportunities for sustainable municipal solid waste management services in Batticaloa District, in Sri Lanka, on September 23, 2016.

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The Performance and Potential of the Municipal Solid Waste Compost Plants in Batticaloa (Technical Assessment)

  1. 1. The Performance and Potential of the Municipal Solid Waste Compost Plants in Batticaloa (Technical Assessment) N. Jayathilake S. Fernando
  2. 2. Structure of the presentation • Municipal solid waste management in Sri Lanka & Batticaloa • Compost plants assessment • Options for Nutrient enrichment and value addition of compost
  3. 3. Solid Waste Management - Sri Lanka tonnes/day Total waste Generation 6,400 t Waste collection 2,700 t (42%) Organic waste to compost 400 t Waste disposal 2,300 t Moisture content 70 – 80% HIGH Calorific Value 600 – 1000 kcal/kg LOW (Bandara, 2008)
  4. 4. Solid Waste Management - Batticaloa Collection and Segregation LA/ Compost plant SW collected (T/day) segregated waste collected (T/day) Batticaloa MC (BMC) 52.5 12 Kattankudy UC (KUC) 18.5 12 Kaluthavalai PS (MSEP-PS) 7.7 6 Arayampathy PS (MP-PS) 5.5 4.5 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 Batticaloa MC Kattankudy UC Manmunai South (Kaluthavalai) PS Arayampathy PS Wastecollected(T/day) LA Present level of source segregation SW collected (T/day) segregated waste collected (T/day)
  5. 5. Local Authority Waste Collection (T/day) Amount To compost plant (T/day) % of SW composted Amount to landfill (T/day) % disposed at landfill BMC 52.5 2.6 5% 49.7 95% KUC 18.5 4 22% 14.5 78% MSEP-PS 7.7 1 13% 6.7 86% MP-PS 5.5 1.2 22% 4.3 77% Solid Waste Management - Batticaloa Treatment and Disposal 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Batticaloa MC Kattankudy UC Kaluthavalai PS Arayampathy PS Waste Treatment and Disposal SW composted (T/day) Total waste disposed at dump site (T/day)
  6. 6. Operating level of compost plants Compost plant Design capacity (T/day) Theoretically compostable potential amount (T/day) Actual amount of SW composted Operating level BMC 12 7.2 2.6 36% KUC 12 7.2 4.0 55% MSEP-PS 7 4.2 1.0 24% MP-PS 7 4.2 1.2 28% In general most of the compost plants in Sri Lanka operate at an average efficiency of 37%.
  7. 7. Compost Plants Assessment
  8. 8. Composting Process Waste preparation Windrow construction Turning and watering Curing Value addition
  9. 9. Waste preparation
  10. 10. Waste Preparation Waste Sources Source of waste No. of units BMC KUC MSEP-PS MP-PS i. Domestic ( no. of households) 23,721 17,238 14,500 4,280 ii. Market 5 3 6 2 iii. Slaughter house 1 1 - 1 iv. Hotels/ restaurants 55 119 34 3 v. Hospital 3 1 2 1 vi. Commercial /Institutional 44 33 15 35 vii. Food processing industries - - - - Waste input Qty of segregated waste (T/day) BMC KUC MSEP-PS MP-PS Food & Market Waste 1 2 1 1 Bulky Green waste 9 6 3 3 Agricultural Waste - 1.5 0.5 Fecal Sludge - - - - Any other (Banana waste) 2 2.5 Total (T/day) 12 12 4 4.5 Type of input waste (segregated)
  11. 11. Alternative Options Input Type Animal excreta (that includes dead livestock and manure) Food waste (household/hotels/markets) Fresh Bio-solids Municipal Green Dry waste (hay, grass, sawdust) Hard dry waste (timber, tree branches) Potential for composting High Low Low pollution potential Source Availability Segregated Hotel and Restaurant waste A large volume of waste already been collected, but segregation is poor Lagoon Algae The lagoon covers a total area of approximately 135.5 km2. Therefore a large quantity of algae may be available Livestock waste There are large quantities of cows, buffaloes, goats and chicken farmed in Batticaloa Fish Waste BMC, KUC, MP-PS- and MSEP-PS area produce 6300MT, 1348 MT, 3460 MT and 1320MT of fish harvest respectively Faecal sludge Large numbers of households. Commercial entities. Glidiceria/Giniseria There are large spaces in plant premises that can be cultivated Husk ash Paddy farming is the major agriculture activity in the region with a large area Source: Department of Environment Affairs (2013) The national Organic Waste Composting Strategy, South Africa
  12. 12. Pollution potential of waste sources
  13. 13. Windrow Construction
  14. 14. Particle size • The best sized particles for composting are less than 2 inches (or 50 mm) in the largest dimension • Shredding creates a greater surface area, which makes it more susceptible to bacterial activities or biodegradation. Large pieces of wood or leaves do not decompose quickly in a compost pile • Insufficient oxygen in the center of a wood chunk or a wad of leaves does not permit rapid aerobic decomposition
  15. 15. Windrow size LA/ Compost plant Qauntity of one pile (t) Size of one pile (L*W*H) BMC 2.6 3m* 1.5m*2m KUC 2.0 4m*2m* 2.5m MSEP-PS 0.5 4m*2m* 2.5m MP-PS 2.4 3m* 1.5m* 1.8m The size of the windrow should be increased to provide higher temperatures in cold weather or decreased to keep the temperatures from becoming too high in warm weather.
  16. 16. From Pilisaru experience
  17. 17. Windrow Locations Compost plant Buildings area Unloading & sorting Pilling area Preparation & store m2 BMC 330 864 50 KUC 54 547 330 MSEP-PS 135 420 14.4 MP-PS 36 412 7 • From experience from other compost projects in the country (Pilisaru project), open windrows during the initial stage has proven to be successful. • Aged windrows should be moved to covered areas Batticaloa compost plant Kattankudy compost plant Arayampathy compost plant Kaluthavalai compost plant
  18. 18. Turning and watering
  19. 19. Turning & Watering 50-60% of the moisture content in piles should be maintained to allow accelerated microbial activities. When the moisture content reaches 40% microbial activities decrease & cease at 20%. Microbial activities are reduced at moisture contents beyond 60% due to a low availability of oxygen. Quick & easy onsite methods could be practiced for monitoring process parameters such as moisture, temperature and proxy indicators such as odour Compost plant Process Parameter Decomposition time 3 days 1 week 3 weeks 5 weeks 8 weeks Batticaloa MC Moisture % <40% >60% - <40% <40% Temperature oC >500C >500C >600C >600C >500C Kattankudy UC Moisture % - <40% 50% <40% <30% Temperature oC - >500C 400C 40-450C 300C Manmunai South (Kaluthavalai) PS Moisture % - <40% 60% 40% <40% Temperature oC - >500C >500C >500C 300C Arayampathy PS Moisture % <30% <40% 60% 40% 30% Temperature oC - 500C 500C 600C 500C
  20. 20. Temp. Change and Pathogen Die Off
  21. 21. Turning Plant 1st turning after Turning frequency Decomposition period Batticaloa MC 10 days once in 10 days 10 weeks Kattankudy UC 14 days once in 14 days (short term)/ once in 21 days (long term) 10 weeks Manmunai South (Kaluthavalai) PS 14 days once in 14 days 10 weeks Arayampathy PS 10 days Once in 10 days (short term)/ once in 15 days (long term) 10 weeks Windrow turning should be decided by the pile temperature rather than by fixed turning intervals. During the initial stage, high temperatures demand frequent turning and later in the process reduced temperatures demand low frequency in turning.
  22. 22. Curing
  23. 23. Curing LA/ Compost plant Decomposition period Curing period Batticaloa MC 10 weeks 2 weeks Kattankudy UC 10 weeks 3 weeks Manmunai South (Kaluthavalai) PS 10 weeks 3 weeks Arayampathy PS 10 weeks 2 weeks To lower the phytotoxicity, improve the pH, lower the C/N ratio and stable product Parent feedstock quality, the manner and the degree of stability of the decomposing organic matter will influence the time required for curing to stabilize the compost Curing time can range from 21 days to months. Many researchers recommend at least a month Garilio et al (2010) confirms the germination bioassay using lettuce seed was sensitive enough and was able to identify the presence of phytotoxic compounds in compost
  24. 24. Improvements to Compost Consumer Need Frequency % Increase the nutrient value 71 59% Reduce the sand content 35 29% Reduce the inert content 22 18% Reduce odour 5 4% Increase the particle size 3 2% Reduce the price 3 2% Proper labelling 3 2% Top three consumer needs are about improving quality
  25. 25. Add moisture up to 25% while measuring it with a moisture meter Add binding agents as per the concentration as weight Sieve the co-compost with 5 mm mesh (Manually or Mechanically) Check initial moisture of the co-compost Thoroughly mix the mixture to get it a homogeneous mixture Feed into the pelletizer and taken out the pellets Dry pellets under sun for 5- 6 hours Value addition
  26. 26. Co-composting & Pelletizing Co-Composting Safe Organic Fertilizer
  27. 27. Septage treatment ( co-composting) MSW Septage Compost Site Drying beds Transporting Organic Waste Sorting DFS Dewatering Drying PilePilePile Co- compost Sieving Maturing Turning Turning Watering Incorporation
  28. 28. Value addition using mineral fertilizer So far agronomic trials show that 5% of the N content is adequate Urea and Ammonium sulphate can be used as enrichment agents
  29. 29. Quality of compost Kattankudy UC Batticaloa MC Manamnunai south PS (Kalutavalai) Arayampathy PS Acceptable range pH 8.17 8.36 8.43 8.75 6.5-8.5 EC ds/M 2.80 1.68 0.8 0.68 0.5-3 P2O5 % 1.33 0.69 0.62 0.60 0.5-4 K2O% 2.13 3.05 1.52 1.85 0.5-3 Total N % 1.46 1.4 1.11 0.96 0.5-3 Organic C % 13.26 24.58 17.84 20.90 20-35 Sand % 12.19 29.8 45.22 40.85 <10 Moisture % 27.9 23 10.7 12 20-30 C:N - 17.6 16.1 21.8 20-30
  30. 30. Recommendations • Improve source segregation allowing high amount of short term biodegradable waste supply at the plant. Eg: collecting waste from organic waste sources in large quantities, which can be found in segregated manner; i.e. market waste, food processing industry waste, etc • Educating workers to practice quick and easy onsite methods for monitoring and maintaining process parameters such as moisture, temperature and proxy indicators such as odour • Windrow size as per Pilisaru finding • Facilitate undercover composting as necessary to avoid unfavorable conditions caused by extreme weather conditions • Arranging regular knowledge transfer practices and training programmes for the working force • Value addition with nutrient rich waste sources such as manures, fecal sludge, etc.
  31. 31. Thank you

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