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Photo:NicoSepe/IWMI
Sustainable Intensification of
Agriculture with Sustainable
Irrigated Agroecosystem Services
Ian W. Ma...
This paper…presents a short
discussion of:
• The challenges awaiting …
• Role & issues of irrigated agriculture, - LSIS
• ...
World has challenges …
Feeding over 9 billion people in
2050 !
• increase food production by about
70% over the levels of ...
• 2/3 of the
world’s
population will
live in cities
• Competition
for water
• different
expectations
on how rural
land and...
Large Scale Irrigation Systems (LSIS)
• LSIS production USD 280-290 billion - Global
annual value (60-70% of that in Asia)...
Modernization of irrigation services,
and its supporting infrastructure,
institutions and management systems
will be essen...
• Past attempts to rehabilitate irrigation have not
delivered the expected:
»water productivity,
»equity of water distribu...
• generally been designed and operated for
a single purpose (agricultural
production)
• in isolation from the landscape of...
• Resulting in large societal & environmental
costs:
reduction or loss of freshwater and/or other
aquatic resources,
red...
• However, irrigation systems
– create a diverse range of agroecosystems
– provide a range of valuable provisioning,
regul...
• Appropriate recognition of all services provided is
essential
• There is a need for active management of irrigation
syst...
INWEPF
INWEPF recognizes that agricultural water not only
provides substantial provisioning services, but also
a wide rang...
WLE* & Ecosystems
• The central objective is to promote the
sustainable intensification of agriculture
through evidence-ba...
WLE ecosystem services and resilience (ESR)
framework
Ecosystem Services
Potential trade-offs of ecosystem services in
irrigated agroecosystems (source: Pittock, 2015)
INWEPF & WLE
• The aims of WLE to improve irrigation services is
central to the INWEPF program
[Multi-functionality Concep...
HOW DO ECOSYSTEM SERVICES RELATE TO
IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE?
Historically, the drive for increased productivity and
yields h...
Ecosystem-inclusive
approaches …
• Unlock the currently unrecognized, and therefore
untapped, opportunities and values ass...
ECOSYSTEM SERVICE-INCLUSIVE
MANAGEMENT OF LSIS
• This means new approaches to management
/development, modernization, oper...
Irrigated agriculture
Levels of
decision
making that
impact the
ecosystem
of the
irrigated
area
Multi-lateral/
internation...
Irrigation agencies should
graduate …
• Move ahead from original
mandate to meet new
economic and environmental
constraint...
The long-term objective
A better-performing and sustainable
systems that efficiently and equitably
provide a range of wate...
CONCLUSIONS
• INWEPF (formed in 2004) addresses multiple
services and values provided to communities by the
paddy ecosyste...
Photo:NicoSepe/IWMI
Thank you
h.manthrithilake@cgiar.org
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Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture with Sustainable Irrigated Agroecosystem Services

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Presented by IWMI's Ian W. Makin and Herath Manthrithilake at the INWEPF (The International Network for Water and Environment in the Paddy Field) Symposium 2015 Symposium held on November 3, 2015, in Negombo, Sri Lanka.

Published in: Environment
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Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture with Sustainable Irrigated Agroecosystem Services

  1. 1. Photo:NicoSepe/IWMI Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture with Sustainable Irrigated Agroecosystem Services Ian W. Makin* and Herath Manthrithilake** Submitted to: International Network for Water and Ecosystems in Paddy Fields (INWEPF) Symposium 2015 Achieving the Goals of Food security in Sustainable Paddy Water Ecosystems November 3-5, 2015, Colombo, Sri Lanka *Theme Leader - Revitalized Irrigation Systems, International Water Management Institute (IWMI) **Head, Sri Lanka Development Initiative, International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
  2. 2. This paper…presents a short discussion of: • The challenges awaiting … • Role & issues of irrigated agriculture, - LSIS • Synergy of INWEPF & WLE • What is ecosystem-inclusive management in LSIS • The way forward
  3. 3. World has challenges … Feeding over 9 billion people in 2050 ! • increase food production by about 70% over the levels of 2005-2007 period (Boelee et al 2013; FAO, 2009) • mostly in low-income countries • ensure more equitable access to food
  4. 4. • 2/3 of the world’s population will live in cities • Competition for water • different expectations on how rural land and water sources By 2050 • half of the people live in rural areas, and • > 40% of the active population depend directly on agriculture for their livelihoods (FAO, 2007) Today • 2/3 of the world’s population lived in rural areas • 60% of the economically active population worked in agriculture 1960’s
  5. 5. Large Scale Irrigation Systems (LSIS) • LSIS production USD 280-290 billion - Global annual value (60-70% of that in Asia) (Langford, 2015) • In South Asia, - about 24.5 (mill ha) – (1/3 of the total area) These systems provide benefits in terms of food and energy security, employment, economic growth and ecosystem services
  6. 6. Modernization of irrigation services, and its supporting infrastructure, institutions and management systems will be essential parts of efforts to achieve food and water security
  7. 7. • Past attempts to rehabilitate irrigation have not delivered the expected: »water productivity, »equity of water distribution, »sustainable operations and »economic return on investment • Therefore, official development assistance for agriculture, irrigation and rural development is diminishing
  8. 8. • generally been designed and operated for a single purpose (agricultural production) • in isolation from the landscape of the entire catchment • with Little or No consideration of broader ecosystem service values LSIS have:
  9. 9. • Resulting in large societal & environmental costs: reduction or loss of freshwater and/or other aquatic resources, reduced water quality with impacts on drinking water and recreational uses downstream, and reduced river flows with impacts on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands • over 45 mil. ha (19.5%) of irrigated area have salinized soils (FAO, undated)
  10. 10. • However, irrigation systems – create a diverse range of agroecosystems – provide a range of valuable provisioning, regulating and diverse habitat services (often unrecognized and undervalued) – provide a range of subsidiary services of substantial value to the communities that depend on them and society at large
  11. 11. • Appropriate recognition of all services provided is essential • There is a need for active management of irrigation systems to maximize the value of such services
  12. 12. INWEPF INWEPF recognizes that agricultural water not only provides substantial provisioning services, but also a wide range of services that add value to the community, culture and environment.
  13. 13. WLE* & Ecosystems • The central objective is to promote the sustainable intensification of agriculture through evidence-based research and policy development. • Fundamental to the achievement of this goal is the application and uptake of an ecosystem services and resilience-based approach.
  14. 14. WLE ecosystem services and resilience (ESR) framework
  15. 15. Ecosystem Services
  16. 16. Potential trade-offs of ecosystem services in irrigated agroecosystems (source: Pittock, 2015)
  17. 17. INWEPF & WLE • The aims of WLE to improve irrigation services is central to the INWEPF program [Multi-functionality Concepts] • Such multiple functional ag. water use must be adequately recognized and evaluated in order to ensure the sustainability of such services. LSIS needs aligned with concepts of ecosystem-inclusive management
  18. 18. HOW DO ECOSYSTEM SERVICES RELATE TO IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE? Historically, the drive for increased productivity and yields has often resulted in degraded environments, reduced biodiversity and reductions in ecosystem services, affected the poor
  19. 19. Ecosystem-inclusive approaches … • Unlock the currently unrecognized, and therefore untapped, opportunities and values associated with irrigated agroecosystems to the society • Unlocking these values will contribute to:  increasing the resilience of agricultural production systems, and enable sustainable intensification of agriculture
  20. 20. ECOSYSTEM SERVICE-INCLUSIVE MANAGEMENT OF LSIS • This means new approaches to management /development, modernization, operation & maintenance of irrigation services will be required • • To achieve higher levels of performance and to sustainably reduce the negative impacts on ecosystems
  21. 21. Irrigated agriculture Levels of decision making that impact the ecosystem of the irrigated area Multi-lateral/ international National policymakers Canal system managers and operators Individual farmers
  22. 22. Irrigation agencies should graduate … • Move ahead from original mandate to meet new economic and environmental constraints/ demands. • This may require reforms: Reorganizing structure Develop new capacities/ skills
  23. 23. The long-term objective A better-performing and sustainable systems that efficiently and equitably provide a range of water-food-energy- urban-ecosystem ‘goods’ and services.
  24. 24. CONCLUSIONS • INWEPF (formed in 2004) addresses multiple services and values provided to communities by the paddy ecosystem • WLE research addresses the same objectives which guide future research on ecosystem inclusive management of irrigated agriculture, and • INWEPF & WLE – can jointly play key roles to guide and lead the widespread recognition of the values of paddy ecosystems created by LSIS
  25. 25. Photo:NicoSepe/IWMI Thank you h.manthrithilake@cgiar.org

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