www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldMANAGING VARIABILITY OF WATER RESOURCES INRIVER BASINS FOR ENHANCED FOOD ANDLIVEL...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldTOO MUCH…TOO LITTLE…
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldVariability increases with climate changeSource: Dartmouth FloodObservatoryVariab...
RRRIrrigationRainfedBasinsRRRIrrigationRainfedInformationNileVolta, NigerAndesZambezi, LimpopoMekongGangesIndusAmu DaryaSy...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldRESEARCH DIRECTIONS• Technical and economic design and appraisal of diverse water...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldWATER STORAGE CONTINUUM
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldEVALUATING STORAGE OPTIONSStorage – Drought Deficit Index (how much of the long-t...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldEVALUATING REGULATING ROLE OF NATURAL STORAGE(example - wetlands in Zambezi basin)
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldAGRICULTURE;PAGE (2005)POPULATIONCIESIN - 2010FLOOD EXPOSEDGDPWB, 2010• Globally ...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldANALYSING FLOODING HOT SPOTS AND FLOOD MAPPINGGanges Basin
ANALYSING FLOODING HOT SPOTS AND FLOOD MAPPINGFlooded area (2000 – 2011)201020108-days maps of inundation extentAnnual map...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTCurrent Situation – Dry Season
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTCurrent Situation – Wet Season
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTUnderground Taming of Floods for Irrigati...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTUnderground Taming of Floods for Irrigati...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTUTF-I in plan view
CONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTUTF-I desktop case study: Chao Phraya basin, ThailandSource: DFOLand Use Regular F...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTUTF-I desktop case study: Chao Phraya bas...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONCLUSIONS• Water resources Variability is a primary issue in basin waterresourc...
www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure world 20THANK YOU !
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Managing variability of water resources in river basins for enhanced food and livelihoods security

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Presented by Vladimir Smakhtin at the Global Water Systems Project Conference: Water in the Anthropocene, May 21-24 in Bonn Germany.

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  • Could be either too much or too little. This can be in the same place/ basin. Temporal and spatial variability. In water management – spatial variability was dealt with by interbasin transfers, and temporal – by surface storage reservoirs
  • More arid areas also often have more variable rainfall And increases with CC ! Need to mention it or combine slides or both . Also- to “complicate things” – variability has positive aspects too.- mention This is why it was identified for intensive research under WLE program….
  • Mentioned only 3 basins, but in principle the problem of uncoordinated modelling is more or less the same in all WLE basins
  • Every time we build an artificial structure, it affects natural ecosystem services (e.g. regulating service). This needs to be factored into development
  • Mention – Global economic damage from natural disasters 165 bill / a. The damage globally is more than current aid flow ,M ay rise to over $450 bill by 2030, floods take lion share of thisFlood hotspots are areas that are highly flood prone having frequent flood events; causing several damages both in livelihood and infrastructure / crop lossPAGE? - Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems (PAGE)Giriraj, Amarnath; Ameer, Mohamed; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir. 2012. Detecting spatio-temporal changes in the extent of seasonal and annual flooding in South Asia using multi-resolution satellite data. In Civco, D. L.; Ehlers, M.; Habib, S.; Maltese, A.; Messinger, D.; Michel, U.; Nikolakopoulos, K. G.; Schulz, K. (Eds.). Earth resources and environmental remote sensing/GIS applications III: proceedings of the International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), Vol.8538, Amsterdam, Netherland, 1-6 July 2012. Bellingham, WA, USA: International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE). 11p.
  • Example mapping products …The left map is for 2010 year example shows different classes of “water” “Mixed crops” class refer to areas that are inundated in cropland, meaning reflectance value has mixed values from vegetation and water content
  • Need to mention Ganges Machine and other Machines somewhere
  • Managing variability of water resources in river basins for enhanced food and livelihoods security

    1. 1. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldMANAGING VARIABILITY OF WATER RESOURCES INRIVER BASINS FOR ENHANCED FOOD ANDLIVELIHOODS SECURITYSmakhtin, V., Pavelic, P., McCartney, M., Amarnath, G., Eriyagama, N.,Bharati, L., Cai, X.International Water Management InstituteSri Lanka – Laos – Nepal –South AfricaGWSP Conference: Water in the Anthropocene. May 2013. Bonn, Germany
    2. 2. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldTOO MUCH…TOO LITTLE…
    3. 3. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldVariability increases with climate changeSource: Dartmouth FloodObservatoryVariability increases water scarcityVariability has important positive implicationsVariability determines flood risk and damagesFACETS OF WATER RESOURCES VARIABILITY
    4. 4. RRRIrrigationRainfedBasinsRRRIrrigationRainfedInformationNileVolta, NigerAndesZambezi, LimpopoMekongGangesIndusAmu DaryaSyr DaryaTigris, EuphratesVARIABILITY MANAGEMENT AS A FOCAL RESEARCHAREA OF THE WLE PROGRAMResearch Areas:• Variability Management• Resource Allocation and Benefit Sharing• Water-Energy-Food nexus in Basins• Water Accounting
    5. 5. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldRESEARCH DIRECTIONS• Technical and economic design and appraisal of diverse water storage“portfolios”• Quantifying and considering ecosystem services of natural storage“infrastructure” in basin development• Detailed characterization and mapping of flood and drought risks andhot spots• Exploring underground solutions for conjunctive management offloods and droughts in a same basin
    6. 6. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldWATER STORAGE CONTINUUM
    7. 7. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldEVALUATING STORAGE OPTIONSStorage – Drought Deficit Index (how much of the long-term annual hydrological drought deficit is satisfied bythe existing large storage capacity in a county)Livestock storage need (based onlivestock density per cell, povertylevels, water availability, etc)
    8. 8. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldEVALUATING REGULATING ROLE OF NATURAL STORAGE(example - wetlands in Zambezi basin)
    9. 9. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldAGRICULTURE;PAGE (2005)POPULATIONCIESIN - 2010FLOOD EXPOSEDGDPWB, 2010• Globally - 90 grid cells of 100 km with catastrophic flood occurrence > 5,during 1900-2010• Damage analysisANALYSING FLOOD HOT SPOTS AND FLOOD MAPPING
    10. 10. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldANALYSING FLOODING HOT SPOTS AND FLOOD MAPPINGGanges Basin
    11. 11. ANALYSING FLOODING HOT SPOTS AND FLOOD MAPPINGFlooded area (2000 – 2011)201020108-days maps of inundation extentAnnual maps of maximum inundation
    12. 12. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTCurrent Situation – Dry Season
    13. 13. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTCurrent Situation – Wet Season
    14. 14. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTUnderground Taming of Floods for Irrigation (UTF-I);Wet season
    15. 15. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTUnderground Taming of Floods for Irrigation (UTF-I);Dry season
    16. 16. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTUTF-I in plan view
    17. 17. CONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTUTF-I desktop case study: Chao Phraya basin, ThailandSource: DFOLand Use Regular Flooding Alluvium aquifers
    18. 18. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONJUNCTIVE FLOOD AND DROUGHT MANAGEMENTUTF-I desktop case study: Chao Phraya basin, Thailand• Harvest water only exceptionally wet years. 25% of the MAR is harvestable• 100 km2 dedicated land to flood harvesting needed (< 1% of the Basin area)• Additional 270,000 ha of irrigation possible• $150 mill / year - income to smallholder farmers• Cost < $ 1 Bill. Payback time – under 7 years• No analogs so far exist• Scaling up this solution to SA and SEA; needs:– Detailed design (should be as clear as the current design of surface reservoirs)– Identification of areas in a larger region that are suitable for piloting (flood hotspots, hydrogeology, etc)– Several pilot experiments
    19. 19. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure worldCONCLUSIONS• Water resources Variability is a primary issue in basin waterresources planning and management globally• Management of temporal Variability should consider a varietyof storage options and their combinations, large and small,man-made and natural ones• Understanding and characterization of Variability hot spotsmay help target related research and investments• Subsurface solutions for water resources Variabilitymanagement may have significant potential for flood anddrought mitigation, increasing irrigation water availability andimproving livelihoods. This potential is still to be realized
    20. 20. www.iwmi.orgWater for a food-secure world 20THANK YOU !

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