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PMKSY: Implementation Pathways and Options (II)

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Presented by IWMI's Tushaar Shar and Shilp Verma at a meeting on rethinking the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) irrigation programme held in Raipur, Chhattisgarh in India, on September 8, 2016

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PMKSY: Implementation Pathways and Options (II)

  1. 1. PMKSY: Implementation Pathways and Options Tushaar Shah and Shilp Verma || 08-Sep-2016 || Raipur ||
  2. 2. About IWMI-Tata Program • ITP has operated as an ‘irrigation-agriculture- poverty’ think-tank for past 15 years • ITP has closely studied important irrigation interventions in various states. • It has written about what has worked, where and why in the irrigation playing field (and what has not). • PMKSY is a subject of intense ITP study
  3. 3. HAR KHET KO PANI? LESSONS FROM IRRIGATION SUCCESS IN GUJARAT AND MADHYA PRADESH AFTER 2000 Tushaar Shah
  4. 4. Irrigation Miracle in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh post 2001 • The battle cry of BJP 2014 electoral manifesto: Har Hath Ko Kam, Har Khet Ko Pani • BJP’s spectacular irrigation performance in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh since 2001 (10%+ agricultural growth) • PMKSY should emulate BJP irrigation strategies that worked in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. Har Khet Ko Pani: BJP’s Commitment
  5. 5. PMKSY: A Break from the Past? • Since Colonial times, irrigation policy has aimed at creating irrigation potential by building major, medium and minor irrigation projects. • Even after Rs 700,000 crores in these, 6.8 crore out of India’s 13.85 crore farms today are totally rainfed. • Har Khet Ko Pani means supplemental irrigation to these 6.8 crore farm holdings in 3-5 years time- frame?
  6. 6. Farmers are demanding year-round, on-farm water control. TYPE I TYPE II IRRIGATION SERVICE 5-6 IRRIGATIONS/YEAR IRRIGATION-ON-DEMAND, ALL YEAR-ROUND IRRIGATION SYSTEM RESERVOIR/TANK/ CANAL/CHANNELS/ GRAVITY FLOW WELLS/TUBEWELLS/ PUMPS/PIPES/MICRO- IRRIGATION COMMAND AREA UP TO TO 15 LAKH HECTARES 1-20 HECTARES WHO MANAGES GOVERNMENT/ WATER USER ASSOCIATION INDIVIDUAL FARMER/WATER SELLER/SMALL GROUP GOVERNMENT POLICIES/ INTERVENTIONS AIBP/MMM IRRIGATION PROJECTS/PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT MILLION WELLS SCHEME/ELECTRIFICATION OF WELLS/MICRO-IRRIGATION PROMOTION/ SOLAR PUMP/GW RECHARGE
  7. 7. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Area(Millionha) Net irrigated area of India Canals Tanks Groundwater Other sources Canals Type I Tanks type I Wells &tubewells type II Since 1985, Irrigation type I is stagnating; Irrigation Type II is booming all over India
  8. 8. % of cultivated area irrigated But Jharkhand, Chhatigarh, Bihar, Orissa, Assam have ample rainfall Western Rajasthan and Kutch have little rainfall
  9. 9. Rapid increase in the index of net area irrigated in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh under BJP governments post-2001; unprecedented in India and the whole world. 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 Figure 5.2 Indexof Net Area Irrigated from all Sources(2000- 01=100) Andhra Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Gujarat Maharashtra India MadhyaPradesh Gujarat India Maharashtra AndhraPradesh 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Figure5.1 Indexof Canal Irrigated area (2000-01=100) Andhra Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Gujarat Maharashtra India Gujarat MadhyaPradesh AndhraPradesh Maharashtra India BJP governments in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh recognized the criticality of Type II irrigation.
  10. 10. Madhya Pradesh: NSS survey results of % of cultivated area under irrigation by different sources 2003 and 2013 1.13 28.13 5.09 34.35 6.48 16.56 0.96 24 3.78 34.73 8.2 46.71 21.12 63.36 3.52 88 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Govt. canals wells and tubewells Other sources All sources Figure 4 INCREASE IN % OF CULTIVATEDAREA UNDERIRRIGATION BY DIFFERENT SOURCES IN MADHYA PRADESH: COMPARINGNSSO ROUND 59 (2002-3) WITH NSSO ROUND 70 (2012-13) Kharif 2003 Kharif 2013 Rabi 2003 Rabi 2013
  11. 11. Madhya Pradesh: Remote-sensing images of increase in land-cover ‘greenness’ between winter 2009 and winter 2014
  12. 12. Remote sensing assessment of changes in single, double and triple cropping areas in Gujarat between 2003-4 and 2010-11 11.09 5.53 1.38 12.51 8.96 2.17 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 Monsoon Rabi Summer Gujarat: RS estimates of increase in cropped area: 2003-4 to 2010-11 Area cropped 2003-04 ( million hectares) Area cropped in 2010-11 (Million Hectares)
  13. 13. It is commonly believed that irrigation increase in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh was due to new projects in Narmada basin; but not true..
  14. 14. Madhya Pradesh: Canal Irrigation increase was in all basins, not only Narmada 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 450000 Figure 3 Area reported to be irrigated by public canals in different river basins of Madhya Pradesh: 2011-12 to 2013-14 Total 2011-12 Total 2012-13 Total 2013-14
  15. 15. Single crop Double crop Tripple crop Perenni al crop In Gujarat, area outside Sardar Sarovar Command experienced more irrigation growth than command
  16. 16. Other Governments BJP in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh Irrigation potential creation Benefit to farm households Large projects, distant benefit Small investments, quick benefits Major, Medium, Minor Irrigation schemes Groundwater wells backed by aggressive recharge programs Free power, but no power Reliable energy for irrigation Construction of new mega projects Management of existing projects Build-neglect-rebuild maintenance of existing infrastructure No attention to groundwater recharge Groundwater recharge in campaign mode Lip service paid to new technologies but small budget allocation Smart promotion of new-age technologies like micro-irrigation and solar irrigation pumps
  17. 17. Key Take-away’s 1. Quick results 2. Energy for irrigation 3. Decentralized groundwater recharge 4. Maintenance of infrastructure 5. Management of public projects 6. Convergence of water, agriculture, RD, WS&S 7. CM’s & CS’s role in vigorous monitoring and coordination
  18. 18. Re-thinking PMKSY Practical ways forward for India’s “unirrigated half”
  19. 19. District Clusters… Different geographies have different hydro-ecological and socio-economic conditions…and would require different interventions…
  20. 20. India’s Unirrigated Half: Primary Target for PMKSY Cluster # 1: Less than 30% irrigated holdings Cluster # 2: Irrigation constrained by absence of electricity and high cost of diesel Cluster # 3: Irrigation constrained by inadequate and unreliable power supply
  21. 21. Contours of Deprivation in Jharkhand Irrigation, Agriculture, Livelihoods
  22. 22. Mean Annual Rainfall and Irrigation High rainfall, low storage, very little irrigation…
  23. 23. Groundwater Development and Energy Use Surplus Groundwater, low density of structures, very little energy use in agriculture
  24. 24. Cropping Intensity and Agricultural Productivity As a result, low cropping intensity and agricultural productivity, both per hectare and per worker
  25. 25. Irrigation Status in Chhattisgarh • Over 2006 – 2011, IPC increased by nearly 200,000 Ha. but IPU remained almost constant‡ – 2006 IPC: 16.81 lakh ha; IPU: 11.49 lakh ha – 2011 IPC: 18.44 lakh ha; IPU: 11.51 lakh ha • 11 out of 16 [2006-07] Chhattisgarh districts are a part of India’s most irrigation-deprived geography ‡ http://www.cgwrd.in/organisation/activities/irrigation-potential.html
  26. 26. Chhattisgarh INDIA Top 20 Percentage Irrigated Area 26% 41% 86% Percentage Canal Irrigated Area 18% 11% 14% Percentage GW Irrigated Area 7% 28% 67% Percentage Rainfed Holdings 64% 48% 12% Cropping Intensity 1.21 1.37 1.84 Level of Groundwater Development 35% 61% 92% GW Wells per 1000 Operational Holdings 89 146 203 GW Structures per 1000 Ha NSA 70 140 210 Energy Consumption in Agriculture (kWh- equivalent) 97 504 1152 Agricultural Productivity (Rs/Ha) 15,570 27,584 74,201 Irrigation Deprivation in Chhattisgarh…
  27. 27. All Classes SC ST Average Land Holding Size (Ha) 1.36 0.88 1.83 Percentage GCA under Irrigation (%) 27.43% 40.38% 10.81% Irrigation Deprivation within Chhattisgarh… Even within Chhattisgarh, Adivasi’s are the most irrigation deprived social group…
  28. 28. PMKSY implementation in Chhattisgarh Can it ensure ‘Har Khet Ko Pani’? How?
  29. 29. Potential for Sustainable GW Development
  30. 30. District-wise GW Development Opportunity DISTRICT Annual GW Available (MCM) Current GW Use in Agri. (MCM) Current TOTAL GW Use (MCM) Level of GW Devt. Dom. + Ind. GW Demand 2025 (MCM) Mean GW Draft per Well (m3) Potential New Wells (70% GWD) BASTAR 1,218.98 88.90 127.08 10.4 47.61 13,236 51,270 DANTEWADA 1,279.20 27.52 44.78 3.5 22.19 24,834 33,361 JASHPUR 474.18 146.07 164.97 34.8 22.63 5,034 28,671 KANKER 854.81 163.99 180.40 21.1 21.04 18,370 21,607 KAWARDHA 342.81 208.72 227.20 66.3 21.84 36,312 - KORBA 462.85 96.64 146.26 31.6 56.76 11,949 10,124 KORIYA 509.54 99.94 115.24 22.6 19.60 5,141 43,151 MAHASAMAND 598.13 242.28 282.37 47.2 50.66 23,858 3,590 RAIGARH 402.78 175.74 212.72 52.8 46.16 4,310 5,350 RAJNANDGAON 430.92 215.29 249.13 57.8 34.78 19,877 892 SARGUJA 1,637.02 381.44 433.79 26.5 75.09 5,976 106,607 CHHATTISGARH 8,211.22 1,846.54 2,183.94 26.6 418.38 304,622
  31. 31. Key Points  ~300,000 wells can be created across 10 districts without threatening GW sustainability  Creation of even 20% of these wells will add 0.3 – 0.5 mha to the region’s gross irrigated area than at a cost of only Rs. 300 crores  assuming one [well + pump] costs ~Rs. 100,000  Cost per Ha = Rs. 15,000 – 20,000  Tank-groundwater conjunctive use can be made possible by restoring available tank capacity
  32. 32. Horticulture Vegetable and Upland crops Well + Pump Cereal crop stabilization Up-lands Low-lands Mid-lands Type II Irrigation Expansion
  33. 33. Solar Irrigation Pumps Opportunities for Sustainable GW Development • Rapidly declining PV prices mean that solar pumps are going to re-define India’s groundwater economy in the coming years, irrespective of government programs • Solar pumps present an opportunity as well as a potential challenge • Alternate Solar Promotion Models – BAU: High K-subsidy; Small pumps – Bigger pumps; Solar ISPs – Solar “crop” and “coops.”
  34. 34. Recommendations for PMKSY in Chhattisgarh • Focus on “unirrigated holdings” in most-deprived districts and give priority to “Adivasi” holdings – ITP and Tata Trusts can help in finer level clustering • Prioritize Type II over Type I irrigation for cost-effective irrigation expansion • Support farmers to acquire wells, pumps and water delivery systems • Support decentralized water harvesting and groundwater recharge activities at watershed level • First ensure access to Type II irrigation, then invest in drip irrigation and other improved irrigation technologies
  35. 35. RaCE Irrigation Expansion Program • Leverage MGNREGA for constructing private wells • Leverage solar-PV opportunities for meeting rural energy needs and sustainably developing groundwater – Solar ISPs for catalysing equitable irrigation service markets – Solarized Public Tubewells and Lis – Solar Power as Remunerable Crop (SPaRC) • Support irrigation distribution infrastructure for catalysing equitable irrigation service enterprises • Invest in multiple avenues for decentralized water harvesting and groundwater recharge • Maximize conjunctive use in canal and tank commands Irrigation Source, Water Control Pumping/ Energy Needs Distribution Systems Recharge, Watershed, Micro Irrigation
  36. 36. THANK YOU… http://iwmi-tata.blogspot.com

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