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Key water issues of sri lanka


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Presented by Mohamed Aheeyar (IWMI) on World Water Day 2015 at Alliance Française de Kotte in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

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Key water issues of sri lanka

  1. 1. Photo:DavidMolden/IWMI A water-secure world Key Water issues of Sri Lanka M.M.M. AHEEYAR
  2. 2. A water-secure world Outline • Background • Key Issues – Variability in water availability – Climate change – Water pollution and degradation of watersheds – Groundwater use – Water governance
  3. 3. A water-secure world Background • Annual average rainfall of about 1,860 mm • Annual renewable water resources – 45 km3 • Per capita water availability at present- 2,150 m3 per year • Estimated to reduce - 1,950 m3/year in 2030 • Agriculture withdrawals - 85% of the total
  4. 4. A water-secure world Variability in Water Availability (1)
  5. 5. A water-secure world Variability in Water Availability (2) • Rainfall supplies nearly all surface and groundwater resources • Water scarcity is major development constraint in the dry zone- 2/3rd of the Island • Supply augmentation to meet the demand • But there is a limit-Need demand management
  6. 6. A water-secure world Climate change (1) • Ample evidences to suggest that the climate of South Asian region has already changed • Number of rainy days has decreased, the total annual rainfall has not decreased- flooding, landslides and droughts • Annual rainfall variability has increased in almost all over the country, but variability is higher in the dry zone • Adversely affected the timeliness and predictability of water supply
  7. 7. A water-secure world Climate change (2) • No specific policies, legislations, regulations etc. to address climate change impacts to promote adaptation, low priority for climate change issues • Absence of policy mechanism to deal with climate change, lack of adaptation strategies, and low level of preparedness among many sectors • Pre-occupied with other developmental priorities • link the existing policies on climate risk with development policies and to mainstream climate change adaptation into development planning • Variations could exceed the adaptive capacity of communities – need well designed policy supports by the government
  8. 8. A water-secure world Degradation of the watersheds and Pollution of Water Resources • Watershed degradation is a threat to the sustainability of water resources-siltation • Need to set up standards, rules and regulations to ensure safe disposal of industrial waste • Sewerage coverage is only 2.3% • Water quality issues- Fecal pollution, turbid water, eutrophication, organic pollution, agro-chemical, nitrate, • Agricultural waste pollutes both groundwater and surface water-excessive use of agro-chemicals and excessive use of water • Overuse, misuse and abuse of pesticides and over application of fertilizers
  9. 9. A water-secure world Application of pesticides More than Recommended Dosage (Nuwara eliya and Badulla) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Potato Bean Leeks Cabbage 48% 38% 40% 33% Percentageoffarmers Type of crop
  10. 10. A water-secure world Disposal of Remaining Pesticides in the Sprayer 71% 12% 3% 11% 3% Repeatedly used in the same field Apply to another crop Deposited in the field/waterways Stored for future use Use all quantity for the same crop
  11. 11. A water-secure world Use of Groundwater (1) • Cheap and easy access-controlled by users- Availability 7800MCM/year • Use by agriculture, industrial and services • Dug wells and tube wells for drinking-53% Photos: IWMI
  12. 12. A water-secure world Use of Groundwater (2) • 90% of the aquifer is shallow hard rock • Knowledge of the potential availability and sustainable extraction • Over extraction causes many problems • Bad management- pollution of the resource- Nitrate, Nitrite, and chloride beyond WHO limits • Over extraction Vs underutilization
  13. 13. A water-secure world Water governance (1) • Equitable, participatory and accountable water governance is a key in sustainable water management • considerable progress in the PIM and water supply fields through FOs and CBOs • However, there is a need to consider the importance of IWRM to ensure fair and equitable water allocation and management
  14. 14. A water-secure world Water governance (2) • Multitude of water-related legislation, and inadequate coverage over key issues • Coordination mechanism to avoid overlapping and duplication and ensure fair allocation • No laws governing excessive groundwater extraction • Participatory consultative process is required to assess the current status of the policy, legal and institutional framework, and provide local solutions to improve the current situation
  15. 15. A water-secure world Thank you very much