Key messages from revitalizing asias irrigation

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Key messages from Revitalizing Asia’s Irrigation , Aditi Mukherji, International Water Management Instittute (IWMI), Presented at 60th IEC Meeting and 5th Asian Regional Conference of the ICID 9th December, 2009 New Delhi

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Key messages from revitalizing asias irrigation

  1. 1. Aditi Mukherji (IWMI) Key messages from Revitalizing Asia’s Irrigation Presented at 60 th IEC Meeting and 5 th Asian Regional Conference of the ICID 9 th December, 2009 New Delhi
  2. 2. Revitalizing Asia’s Irrigation <ul><li>A collaborative exercise with </li></ul><ul><li>IWMI and FAO as lead partners </li></ul><ul><li>12 consultative partners </li></ul><ul><li>including ICID* </li></ul><ul><li>Funded by ADB </li></ul><ul><li>Book released during </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholm Water Week </li></ul>Source:<http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Publications/Other/PDF/Revitalizing%20Asia%27s%20Irrigation.pdf> *ICID- International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage
  3. 3. Main message 1 <ul><li>Irrigation is important in Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asia contains 70% of world’s irrigated area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation was key to the success of Green Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This helped alleviate poverty and boost rural growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asia has the world’s largest irrigated lands, but Central Asia is most intensely irrigated </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Water use, poverty and irrigation in Asia Source: Mukherji, A et al. Revitalizing Asia’s irrigation: to sustainably meet tomorrow’s food needs. 2009
  5. 5. Main message 2 <ul><li>Asia still needs to invest in irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To make irrigation perform better through raising land and water productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To feed a growing population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure livelihoods and alleviate poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But within the limits posed by natural resource base </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rising irrigation, falling food prices & poverty But is irrigation expansion like1960s & 1970s possible, or even desirable? Population will increase, Climate change is imminent Do we have enough water?
  7. 7. Main message 3 <ul><li>Irrigation schemes built in the past will have to be adapted for the future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing demography and dietary needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But the old systems do not cater to these demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State built irrigation are under performing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forcing farmers to invest on their own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater now provides the bulk of irrigation in Asia </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Source: Mukherji, A et al. Revitalizing Asia’s irrigation: to sustainably meet tomorrow’s food needs. 2009
  9. 9. How will Asia meet its future food demand? <ul><li>Invest in rainfed agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve productivity of existing systems (How?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand irrigation (Where and of what type?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promote trade from water rich highly productive areas </li></ul><ul><li>Reform irrigation and unlock value </li></ul>
  10. 10. Scenarios <ul><li>Focus on Rainfed Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Irrigated Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>CA* Scenario (Optimistic) </li></ul>*CA: Comprehensive Assessment
  11. 11. Scenarios in South Asia Source: de Fraiture, C. Scenarios on Water and Food in Asia. 2009. Forthcoming Crop evapotranspiration and irrigation withdrawals Cubic kilometers Harvested area Millions of hectares
  12. 12. Scenarios in East Asia Harvested area Millions of hectares Source: de Fraiture, C. Scenarios on Water and Food in Asia. 2009. Forthcoming Crop evapotranspiration and irrigation withdrawals Cubic kilometers
  13. 13. Reflections on scenarios <ul><li>All scenarios point to more irrigation – but this could be many types </li></ul><ul><li>Where should these investments be made? </li></ul><ul><li>Water storage becomes an important investment with climate change, but there are many types of storage – large, small, GW, etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Water and land productivity gains are a key – but will require actions outside of water management </li></ul><ul><li>Highly productive, flexible, diverse systems will require better water management, but the water investments may have to follow other changes. </li></ul>Reflections on scenarios
  15. 15. Rise of the atomistic irrigation in South Asia.. This calls for entirely different paradigm of water management Contours of irrigation is fast changing Source: Shah, Tushaar. Taming the anarchy: groundwater governance in South Asia. 2009 Net irrigated area under surface irrigation (000’ha) Net irrigated area served by groundwater (000’ ha) 1993-4 2000-1 % change 1993-4 2000-1 % change Andhra Pradesh 2523 2269 -10.1 1678 1829 +9 Bihar & Jharkhand 1762 986.8 -44.0 2029 2111.5 +40.7 MP & Chattisgarh 2140 1279.1 -40.2 1535 2300.9 +49.9 Punjab 1283.4 1168.7 -8.9 2622 2438 -7.1 Rajasthan 1815 1439 -20.7 2702 3450 +27.7 UP & Uttaranchal 3837 2106.6 -45.1 5630 8493 + 50.8 Pakistan Punjab 4240 3740 -11.8 8760 10340 +18 Sind 2300 1960 -14.8 140 200 +42.9 Bangladesh 537 480 -10.7 2124 3462 +63 All areas 22709 17215 -24.2 28437 35762 +25.8
  16. 16. PIM/IMT will be difficult to sustain because surface irrigation as a technology of water mobilization and application is being crowded out by atomistic irrigation. Strategy? Reinvent surface systems to support atomistic irrigation Source: Shah, Tushaar. Taming the anarchy: groundwater governance in South Asia . 2009 Socio-technical Preconditions that support Surface Irrigation 1. Nature of the state 1.1 Local authority structures : 1.2 State interest in irrigation: 1.3 Ease of Forced Labor: 2. Nature of Agrarian society 2.1 Irrigated cropping pattern 2.2 Ease of exit from farming 2.3 Agrarian institutions 3. Demographics 3.1 Population pressure on farm land 4.State of irrigation technology 4.1 Availability and Affordability of water lifting and transport Future of surface irrigation? FAVORABLE CONTINGENCIES STRONG REVENUE/LEVY HIGH HOMOGENEOUS LOW FEUDAL/STATIST LOW LOW BRIGHT South Asia Weak Welfare Impossible Diverse; High Egalitarian Very high; intensification and diversification. High BLEAK
  17. 17. Some of the arguments in this section are developed in this book.. Source: Shah, Tushaar. 2009. Taming the anarchy: groundwater governance in South Asia. Washington, DC, USA: Resources for the Future; Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) 310p.
  18. 18. Main message 4 <ul><li>5 strategies to unlock value from Asia’s irrigation infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernize for tomorrow’s needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go with the flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look beyond conventional PIM* recipes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand capacity and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invest outside the water sector </li></ul></ul>* PIM- Participatory Irrigation Management
  19. 19. Thank you Publication available at: http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Publications/Other/PDF/Revitalizing%20Asia%27s%20Irrigation.pdf Related Publication : Mukherji, Aditi; Facon, T.; Burke, J.; de Fraiture, Charlotte; Faures, J. M.; Fuleki, Blanka; Giordano, Mark; Molden, David; Shah, Tushaar . 2009. Revitalizing Asia's irrigation : to sustainably meet tomorrow's food needs. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI); Rome, Italy: FAO. 39p.

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