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Introducing the “Protocol/Workshop for facilitating
community dialogue for creation of watershed action
plan for building ...
Application of the Protocol to Ethiopian Case Studies
Components, categories and indicators of a resilience
measurement fr...
The guiding principles of the protocol
- Participatory through transformative participation that ensures work
responds to ...
Pre-workshop elements of the protocol
should include (if possible):
• Socio-economic baseline study of the watershed inclu...
Protocol/Workshop outline
• Day 1:
• Module 1: Identifying ecosystem
services within the watershed
• Module 2: Mapping lan...
Module 1
Identifying ecosystem
services within the
watershed
Description: Participants identify
actions necessary to susta...
Comparison with MoARD Community Based
Participatory Watershed Development Guideline
(2005)
• As part of the village mappin...
Module 2
Mapping landscape
components affecting
ecosystem services
Description: Participants personalize a
map of their la...
Comparison with MoARD Community Based
Participatory Watershed Development Guideline
(2005)
• The guidelines offer the opti...
Module 3
Describing relationships
of ecosystem services to
livelihoods
Description: Participants identify main sources
of ...
Comparison with MoARD Community Based
Participatory Watershed Development Guideline
(2005)
• The socio-economic study has ...
Module 4
Creating timeline of major
events and their effects on
ecosystem services
Description: Farmers discuss observatio...
Comparison with MoARD Community Based
Participatory Watershed Development Guideline
(2005)
• In the document, a similar ex...
Module 5
Describing coping /adaptive
strategies for sustaining
ecosystem services
Description: The participants will creat...
Comparison with MoARD Community Based
Participatory Watershed Development Guideline
(2005)
• This module is comparable wit...
Module 6
Developing a watershed
action plan for sustaining
ecosystem services
Description: The participants develop action...
Comparison with MoARD Community Based
Participatory Watershed Development Guideline
(2005)
• This activity is comparable w...
Overall comparison of IWMI and MoARD approach
IWMI’s Guideline MoARD’s Guideline
Participants are from all levels (communi...
How do we measure progress of the action
plan? (M&E)
Suggested methodology:
Short term (0-9 months after the workshop):
- ...
Conclusions
• The draft protocol was designed after careful examination of existing
resilience tools/protocols and a detai...
Thank you for your attention.
For more information, please contact:
Dr Liza Debevec, IWMI Ethiopia
l.debevec@cgiar.org
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Introducing the "Protocol/Workshop for facilitating community dialogue for creation of watershed action plan for building resilience by sustaining ecosystems service"

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Presented by IWMI's Liza Debevec at a Roundtable on Building Resilience to Climate Change through Community Dialogues held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, September 20, 2016

Published in: Environment
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Introducing the "Protocol/Workshop for facilitating community dialogue for creation of watershed action plan for building resilience by sustaining ecosystems service"

  1. 1. Introducing the “Protocol/Workshop for facilitating community dialogue for creation of watershed action plan for building resilience by sustaining ecosystems service” Roundtable on Building Resilience to Climate Change through Community Dialogues September 20, 2016, Addis Ababa
  2. 2. Application of the Protocol to Ethiopian Case Studies Components, categories and indicators of a resilience measurement framework Components Categories Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Ex-ante Initial state and capacities Assets Use of Assets Capacities Land use and change maps, rainfall analysis, yield data Census data Module 1: Watershed ESS Module 2: Landscape mapping Module 3: ESS and Livelihoods Module 5: Coping strategies Disturbance Shocks and Stresses Stability/Shocks Climate analysis of droughts, dry- spells, floods Module 4: Shocks/Disturbance Timeline and Effects Local Contextual Factors Social Ecological Systemic See above See above Ex-post Subsequent states and trajectories Assets Use of Assets Capacities Climate change data and analysis Module 6: Trajectory/Action Plan
  3. 3. The guiding principles of the protocol - Participatory through transformative participation that ensures work responds to needs of farmers while taking into account the plans and strategies of the government - Culturally sensitive by paying attention to local customs, respecting the role of religious actors in community NRM - Equitable in that all, including marginalized groups (women, youth, religious and ethnic minorities) in the community are given equal opportunities to participate - Empowering through capacity building at a local level; simple tools that can be used by the community for the community - Promoting well-being for the communities and the ecosystem
  4. 4. Pre-workshop elements of the protocol should include (if possible): • Socio-economic baseline study of the watershed including: - Socio-economic survey of sample population living in the watershed - Focus group discussions (men, women, youth, elders) on issues of perceived environmental change, understanding of ecosystem services etc. • Bio-physical baseline study of the watershed including: - Land use change data - Rainfall trend data
  5. 5. Protocol/Workshop outline • Day 1: • Module 1: Identifying ecosystem services within the watershed • Module 2: Mapping landscape components affecting ecosystem services • Module 3: Describing relationship of ecosystems services to livelihoods • Day 2: • Module 4: Creating timeline of major events and their effects on ecosystem services • Module 5: Describing coping/adaptive strategies for sustaining ecosystem services • Module 6: Developing a watershed action plan for sustaining ecosystem services
  6. 6. Module 1 Identifying ecosystem services within the watershed Description: Participants identify actions necessary to sustaining ecosystem services within the watershed and community Objective: Creation of baseline/Awareness raising Output: Matrix listing examples of the four types of ecosystem services within the watershed (on different sheets for each of the administrative units)
  7. 7. Comparison with MoARD Community Based Participatory Watershed Development Guideline (2005) • As part of the village mapping exercise the natural resources, mentioned under the different ecosystem services, are mapped. • However, the added value of our approach is that the resources are classified into four categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, supporting, regulating, cultural) and the discussion addresses essential part that the ecosystem services play in communities well- being.
  8. 8. Module 2 Mapping landscape components affecting ecosystem services Description: Participants personalize a map of their landscape, locating resources within the landscape including both on- and off-farm, and on ecosystem services. Objective: The participants are reminded of the space in which they live and work and that has impact on their livelihoods to create a baseline understanding necessary for the sessions that follow. Output: Map of watershed listing key components Photo: Liza Debevec / IWMI
  9. 9. Comparison with MoARD Community Based Participatory Watershed Development Guideline (2005) • The guidelines offer the option of 2 maps (social (infrastructure etc.) and natural resources) • Due to our focus on the ecosystem services, our map focuses on the natural resources. • A possible alternative would be to use a predesigned baseline map containing some key infrastructure points
  10. 10. Module 3 Describing relationships of ecosystem services to livelihoods Description: Participants identify main sources of their livelihoods and break them down to specific activities. For each type of livelihood activity they list 2-3 ecosystem services they depend upon, and 2-3 harmful and positive effects on ecosystem services that may result from the activities. Objective: Raising the awareness of the important connection between people's day to day socio-economic activities and the environment they inhabit and the negative impact that their activities may have on the ecosystem that provides resources for their survival. Output: Matrix/table with links between ecosystems services and livelihoods that depend on them Photo: Liza Debevec / IWMI
  11. 11. Comparison with MoARD Community Based Participatory Watershed Development Guideline (2005) • The socio-economic study has a livelihood component. • The added value of our approach is that we make the important link between ecosystems services and livelihood, which we discuss by asking the participants to list positive, negative and neutral impact of individual livelihood on specific ecosystems services. This helps in raising awareness on how our everyday practices impact the environment.
  12. 12. Module 4 Creating timeline of major events and their effects on ecosystem services Description: Farmers discuss observations related to the landscape and ecosystem services, and create a timeline of major life- changing events (positive & negative). The observations should include range of life- changing events, e.g., food availability/market prices, crop diseases/pests, weather events, births, deaths, natural disasters, other major events. Objective: The objective is two-fold; 1) to jog people's memory and remind them of key events. 2) the results can help understand/support reading of the historical rainfall and other climate data. Output: Matrix/table with list of key events and their consequences on the environment
  13. 13. Comparison with MoARD Community Based Participatory Watershed Development Guideline (2005) • In the document, a similar exercise is trend analysis (of the biophysical and socioeconomic survey analysis) where primary and secondary data are collected and analysed to gain understanding about the community, watershed, landscape, livelihood and others. • In addition there is historical transect, simple time lines that cut across time (see forth coming sections). Transect walk involves careful observation and semi-structured interviewing with villagers met during walks. • Our approach allows to combine the bio-physical data with perceived/observed major shocks
  14. 14. Module 5 Describing coping /adaptive strategies for sustaining ecosystem services Description: The participants will create a table of existing challenges/issues, then list all the coping strategies that are in place for dealing with these challenges. The participants will then be asked to name the actors who participate in these activities and describe their role. Objective: This helps the community evaluate existing strengths and weaknesses. The researchers/practitioners get a baseline on strengths and weaknesses in the community. Output: Matrix/table with list of challenges and strategies Photo: Liza Debevec / IWMI
  15. 15. Comparison with MoARD Community Based Participatory Watershed Development Guideline (2005) • This module is comparable with the ‘Problem identification exercise’ (page 33) - to get to know people's needs, strengths and aspirations, discussion on vision for change - identifying problems related to biological, physical, environmental, economic, institutional, social or cultural factors, and others. Once problems are identified, they will be ranked... preference ranking (ranking by voting), direct matrix ranking, pair-wise ranking and wealth ranking. (Page 34). • The MoARD document groups people by special interests (gender, age, etc.) whereas our approach groups people by kebele or village.
  16. 16. Module 6 Developing a watershed action plan for sustaining ecosystem services Description: The participants develop action plans for sustaining ecosystem services and community well-being within the watershed for sustaining ecosystem services. Objective: The aim is for the community to take on a number of tangible tasks related to the discussions that they had about their watershed and challenges it faces. This activity is aimed to reinforce the buy in from the community for current and future implementations. Output: Detailed action plan that includes activities, time frame and responsible actors.
  17. 17. Comparison with MoARD Community Based Participatory Watershed Development Guideline (2005) • This activity is comparable with the action plan that is developed as part of the MoARD guidelines. • In our approach representatives from all the levels are involved in preparation of the action plan, while the MoARD approach has different section of the community involved in different aspects of the development and approval of the plan.
  18. 18. Overall comparison of IWMI and MoARD approach IWMI’s Guideline MoARD’s Guideline Participants are from all levels (community, kebele and wereda), men, women, elderly, experts, various association leaders, DAs etc.. Different groups participate at different stages: 1. Wereda watershed team (mainly experts), 2. Kebele watershed team (DAs and other kebele representatives) 3. Community watershed team (men, women, religious leaders, youth and respected community members). 4. The community (general assembly) participates in validation of the socioeconomic and biophysical study results and in the discussion and approval of the watershed plans developed by DAs and community watershed team. Challengesidentified relate to ecosystem, livelihood and watershed mainly but participants can also raise other challenges that may be related to cultural practices. Challenges in relation to watershed are identified and prioritized. Problems are recognized as: biological physical environmental economic institutional, social or cultural factors… Action plan contains, what, who, when and how activities can be implemented. It is mostly a one year plan. Resource for implementation is from locally available resources and clearly identified existing external sources. Action plan contains, what, who, when and how activities can be implemented. It is mostly developed for more than a year, but for the first year it detailed. Resources mainly for implementation are from what is available in the area.
  19. 19. How do we measure progress of the action plan? (M&E) Suggested methodology: Short term (0-9 months after the workshop): - Immediate post workshop discussions? - Survey questionnaires ? Long term (1 , 3 and 10 years after the implementation) - Surveys on livelihoods/vulnerability; socio-economic surveys? - Comparative analyses of the bio-physical data? Ensuring alignment with other social and bio-physical M&E processes
  20. 20. Conclusions • The draft protocol was designed after careful examination of existing resilience tools/protocols and a detailed review of scientific literature on resilience of social-ecological systems to climate change • It was tested in two sites in Ethiopia and additionally revised following the testing. • The protocol was also compared with existing approaches to watershed management and resilience building by the Ethiopian government and further revised. • Added value of our approach compared to the existing MoARD guidelines is in the addition of the ecosystem services component and the link between community livelihood practices and the overall well-being of the communities and the ecosystem • Preliminary results of the testing show that the protocol is a practical, low cost and effective tool for facilitating community dialogue for creation of watershed action plant for building resilience by sustaining ecosystems service
  21. 21. Thank you for your attention. For more information, please contact: Dr Liza Debevec, IWMI Ethiopia l.debevec@cgiar.org

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