FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR EXCRETA AND WASTEWATER USE<br />Ashley Murray – IWMI-Ghana<br />2nd Ghana Water Forum, Accra <br ...
Reuse…why bother?<br />Environmental benefits<br />resource conservation<br />protect surface water<br />Social benefits<b...
    attract private sector – decrease public management burden
    decrease WW/FS treatment costs</li></ul>*WW – wastewater<br />**FS – fecal sludge<br />Photo credits: A. Murray<br />
3<br />Treatment plants in Ghana:<br /><ul><li>  70 urban treatment plants & ~10 operate effectively
  Absence of money for operation and management is a common cause of failure
Inadequate billing systems
Low household ability and willingness to pay</li></ul>			             (Murray and Drechsel 2010)<br />“[w]e need totransfo...
DESIGN FOR REUSE: harvesting the value of effluent and nutrients for sustaining the operation of sanitation facilities – I...
5<br />HYPOTHETICAL CASE:  LEGON WASTE STABILIZATION SYSTEM MATURATION PONDS<br />Assumptions:<br />total flow = 6400 m3/d...
WW-fed aquaculture financial-flow model<br />6<br />operating expenses:<br />e.g. fingerlings, labor<br />$<br />fish<br /...
Hypothetical Legon WSP-aquaculture: cost-revenue forecast<br />7<br />Legon *WSP 6-mo <br />operating cost: GH¢ 86,000<br ...
Wastewater irrigation financial-flow model<br />8<br />farmers/labor, inputs<br />cultivated farmland<br />$<br />Wastewat...
WW irrigation: case study<br />WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM<br />~95 m3/d<br />in disrepair – little/no treatment<br />9<br...
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Financial incentives for excreta and wastewater use

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Financial incentives for excreta and wastewater use

Ashley Murray – IWMI-Ghana
2nd Ghana Water Forum, Accra
19-21 October 2010

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Financial incentives for excreta and wastewater use

  1. 1. FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR EXCRETA AND WASTEWATER USE<br />Ashley Murray – IWMI-Ghana<br />2nd Ghana Water Forum, Accra <br />19-21 October 2010<br />
  2. 2. Reuse…why bother?<br />Environmental benefits<br />resource conservation<br />protect surface water<br />Social benefits<br />decrease public health threat of indiscriminate discharge <br />2<br />Financial benefits<br /><ul><li>help pay for adequate treatment of *WW/**FS
  3. 3. attract private sector – decrease public management burden
  4. 4. decrease WW/FS treatment costs</li></ul>*WW – wastewater<br />**FS – fecal sludge<br />Photo credits: A. Murray<br />
  5. 5. 3<br />Treatment plants in Ghana:<br /><ul><li> 70 urban treatment plants & ~10 operate effectively
  6. 6. Absence of money for operation and management is a common cause of failure
  7. 7. Inadequate billing systems
  8. 8. Low household ability and willingness to pay</li></ul> (Murray and Drechsel 2010)<br />“[w]e need totransformthe way we look at wastewater, recognizing it as aresourcerather than a problem, and manage it accordingly,” (pp 133-134, World Water Development Report 3 March2009)<br />Photo credits: A. Murray and IWMI<br />
  9. 9. DESIGN FOR REUSE: harvesting the value of effluent and nutrients for sustaining the operation of sanitation facilities – IWMI-Ghana & WRC<br />Goals: 1. Improve long-term integrity of WW/FSTPs in Ghana; 2. Influence shift in status-quo WW/FSTP design<br />Approach:Demonstrate the benefits of reuse for helping to pay for the costs of WW/FS treatment<br />Research activities: 1. Cost-benefit analyses and/or demonstration of incorporating aquaculture, irrigation, biogas recovery, land application of FS (dried, composted); 2. Value-chain construction; 3. Implementation & operation protocols; 4. Business model development<br />Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi<br />4<br />*WW – wastewater<br />**FSTP– fecal sludge treatment plant<br />
  10. 10. 5<br />HYPOTHETICAL CASE: LEGON WASTE STABILIZATION SYSTEM MATURATION PONDS<br />Assumptions:<br />total flow = 6400 m3/d (~81,500 p.e.)<br />maturation pond = 2.1 ha (5-day retention time)<br />stocking density = 3 fish/m2<br />total fish = 256,000<br />Photo credit: A. Murray<br />
  11. 11. WW-fed aquaculture financial-flow model<br />6<br />operating expenses:<br />e.g. fingerlings, labor<br />$<br />fish<br />privately operated fish farm <br />(in maturation pond(s))<br />Waste Stabilization Ponds (WSP)<br />(e.g. government operated)<br />$ for WSP <br />*O&M<br />FISH<br />$$<br />consumers<br />*O&M – operation & management<br />Source: Created by A. Murray for the purpose of this presentation<br />
  12. 12. Hypothetical Legon WSP-aquaculture: cost-revenue forecast<br />7<br />Legon *WSP 6-mo <br />operating cost: GH¢ 86,000<br />*WSP - Waste Stabilization Ponds<br />Source: Created by A. Murray for the purpose of this presentation<br />
  13. 13. Wastewater irrigation financial-flow model<br />8<br />farmers/labor, inputs<br />cultivated farmland<br />$<br />Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)<br />(e.g. WSP, anaerobic/aerobic reactors )<br />$ for *WSP <br />**O&M<br />veg.<br />$$<br />Potential management models<br />Single entity owns and operates WWTP and farmland<br />or<br />WWTP proprietor leases land to private operator<br />consumers<br />* WSP – waste stabilization pond<br />*O&M – operation & management<br />Source: Created by A. Murray for the purpose of this presentation<br />
  14. 14. WW irrigation: case study<br />WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM<br />~95 m3/d<br />in disrepair – little/no treatment<br />9<br />FARMLAND<br /><ul><li>currently rain-fed – no access to *WW
  15. 15. ~8 ha mixed maize & vegetables</li></ul>Photo credit: A. Murray<br />Photo credit: IWMI<br />Photo credit: A. Murray<br />Case study was performed at the Presbyterian Boys Secondary School, Legon, Ghana<br />*WW – wastewater<br />
  16. 16. WW irrigation: case study<br />10<br />Temporal irrigation demand vs. Wastewater flow<br />wastewater flow (m3/10 day<br />Profit-max irrigation: ~31,000 m3/yr vs. Wastewater generation: ~35,000 m3/yr<br />*WW – wastewater<br />Source: Murray and Buckley (2010)<br />
  17. 17. WW irrigation case study: cost-revenue forecast<br />aBased on input costs reported by farmers in Manya Krobo, Eastern Region (Cofie et al. 2010)<br />bBased on optimization model results using FAO’s CropWat data (adapted from Murray and Ray 2010)<br />cAssumes aerated sequencing batch reactor (current technology) (Von Sperling 2005) <br />*WW – wastewater<br />Source: Created by A. Murray for the purpose of this presentation<br />
  18. 18. Policy and programming relevance<br />National Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action Plan (NESSAP) 2010<br />Decentralized Treatment, Reuse and Recovery (DETRR) Facilities<br />Private sector engagement<br />fully franchised management of all government-built treatment plants by 2015 <br />Large-scale sanitation projects underway<br />Accra Sewage Improvement Project (AfDB – Africa Development Bank)<br />Urban Environmental Sanitation Project (WB – World Bank)<br />12<br />
  19. 19. So, next time… Don’t think of wastewater.<br />13<br />
  20. 20. Relevant publications<br />Murray, A. and P. Drechsel (2011). "Why do some wastewater treatment facilities work when the majority fail?" Waterlines (in press).<br />Murray, A. (2010). Demanding reuse at wastewater treatment plants: A case of the private sector helping to pay for sanitation. World Water Week, Stockholm. Available at: www.worldwaterweek.org/.../Ashley_Murray_WWW_2010_pres.pdf.<br />Murray, A. and C. Buckley (2010). Designing Reuse-Oriented Sanitation Infrastructure: The Design for Service Planning Approach. Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risk in Low-Income Countries. P. Drechsel, M. Redwood, L. Rachsid-Sally and A. Bahri. London, Earthscan, IDRC, IWMI: 303.<br />Murray, A. and I. Ray (2010). "Back-End Users: The Unrecognized Stakeholders in Demand-Driven Sanitation." Journal of Planning Education and Research 30(1): 94-102.<br />Murray, A. and I. Ray (2010). "Wastewater for agriculture: A reuse-oriented planning model and its application in peri-urban China." Water Research 44(5): 1667-1679.<br />14<br />

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